R-360 Neptune

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R-360 Neptune
Neptune R-360 missile, Kyiv 2021, 05.jpg
R-360 Neptune at Arms and Security 2021
TypeAnti-ship missile
Cruise missile
Place of origin Ukraine
Service history
In service2021–present
Used by Ukrainian Navy
WarsRusso-Ukrainian War
Production history
DesignerLuch Design Bureau[1]
Mass870 kg (1,920 lb)[1]
Length5.05 m (16.6 ft)
Diameter38 cm (15 in)
Warhead weight150 kg (330 lb)

Up to 280 km (170 mi)[1]
Maximum speed Subsonic[1]

R-360 Neptune (Ukrainian: Р-360 «Нептун», romanizedR-360 "Neptun") is a Ukrainian subsonic anti-ship cruise missile with all-weather capabilities developed by the Luch Design Bureau. With a range of over 200 kilometres, It is capable of neutralizing targets up to 5,000 tonnes.

Neptune's design is based on the Soviet Kh-35 subsonic anti-ship missile, with substantially improved range, targeting and electronics equipment.[2] The system requirement was for a single missile to defeat surface warships and transport vessels with a displacement of up to 5,000 tons, either in convoys or moving individually.

The first training missile divizion (battalion) entered service with the Ukrainian Navy in March 2021.[3]


The missile was first revealed at the 2015 Arms and Security [uk] international exhibition in Kyiv.[4]

According to information from open sources, the first flight samples of the cruise missile were manufactured in the second quarter of 2016. Production of advanced missile systems took place in cooperation with other Ukrainian enterprises, including Artem Luch GAhK, Kharkiv State Aircraft Manufacturing Company [uk], Motor Sich (MS-400 turbofan engine), Pivdenne YuMZ Pivdenmash, Lviv LORTA [uk] and other radar electronics, Vyshneve ZhMZ Vizar Kyiv, Radionix [uk] (seeker), Arsenal SDP SE (navigation system) and others.[citation needed]

The first tests of the system were conducted on 22 March 2016, attended by Secretary of the National Security and Defense Council (NSDC) Oleksandr Turchynov. In mid-2017, Neptune missiles were tested concurrently with Vilkha launchers and missiles. However, unlike the Vilkha, the test results and capabilities of the Neptune were not made public.[5] According to the press service of the NSDC, the first successful flight tests of the system took place on 30 January 2018.[6] On 17 August 2018, the missile successfully hit a target at a range of 100 kilometres (62 mi) during test firings in southern Odesa Oblast.[7] On 6 April 2019, the missile was again successfully tested, hitting targets during tests near Odesa. According to President Petro Poroshenko, Neptune system would be delivered to the Ukrainian military in December 2019.[8]

After the withdrawal of both the United States and the Russian Federation from the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, Ukraine announced that it was considering developing intermediate-range cruise missiles. Analysts considered an extended-range Neptune missile to be a candidate for such an effort.[9]

Ukraine signed a memorandum with Indonesia on concluding a contract for the supply of a number of Neptune missiles, first reported in December 2020.[10] Thus, Indonesia may become the first foreign buyer of Neptune, according to Defense Express [uk] with reference to the Ukrainian special exporter State Enterprise (SE) "Progress".

In March 2021, the Ukrainian Navy obtained the first training missile battalion of the RK-360MC Neptune.[3]

Operational history[edit]

On 3 April 2022, during the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Ukrainian sources claimed that the Russian frigate Admiral Essen had been damaged by Ukrainian forces.[11] Later, Oleksiy Arestovych, a freelance adviser to the Office of the President of Ukraine, clarified that Admiral Essen had been hit by a Neptune missile. The Russians did not comment on the claim and the ship continued its mission as normal.[12][13]

On 13 April 2022, Ukrainian sources claimed the Russian cruiser Moskva was hit by two Neptune missiles, resulting in a fire and subsequent explosion of a shipboard ammunition store.[14] The Russian Ministry of Defence stated, without discussing the cause, that a fire had caused munitions to explode and the crew had been fully evacuated.[15][16][17] Russia reported the vessel as still being afloat later in the day of the fire, but Russian state media subsequently reported that she had sunk in inclement weather while being towed.[18][19]

According to Thomas Shugart, a former U.S. Navy submarine commander, Slava-class cruisers like Moskva have been typically "known for their offensive punch, not for their defensive systems or their damage control".[20] Moskva was one of the largest warships sunk in combat since World War II.[21] The successful use of the Neptune system to sink the warship was cited by Ukrainian Defence Minister Oleksii Reznikov as giving confidence to Ukraine's allies that more weapon supplies to Ukraine would be worth it.[22]

A land attack variant is being designed and is close to completion. Currently, the Neptune missile is designed to hit ships at sea. According to a Ukrainian official: “Ukraine is working to modify Neptune missile to strike land targets…A new guiding/homing system is required, but Ukrainians are working on that…Once we get that, the Neptunes can hit targets 360 km (about 225 miles) away. We are pretty close.” [23]


When deployed, a Neptune coastal defence system comprises a truck-based USPU-360 mobile launcher, four missiles, a TZM-360 transport/reload vehicle, a RCP-360 command and control vehicle, and a special cargo vehicle. Czech Tatra T815-7 trucks replaced prototype KrAZ vehicles. The system is designed to operate inland up to 25 kilometres (16 mi) from the coastline.[3]

A Neptune missile including rocket motor is 5.05 metres (16 ft 7 in) in length, with a cross-shaped hard wing. Neptune missiles are designed to be housed in transport and launch containers (TLC) with dimensions 5.30 by 0.60 by 0.60 metres (209 in × 24 in × 24 in). The system has a maximum range of about 300 kilometres (190 mi).[24][25] A single missile weighs 870 kilograms (1,920 lb), of which 150 kilograms (330 lb) is the warhead.[3] It uses a Motor Sich MS-400 engine which has a high thrust-to-weight ratio.[26]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d "Neptun Anti-Ship Cruise Missile". Military-Today.com. Archived from the original on 14 April 2022. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
  2. ^ Episkopos, Mark (6 February 2019). "Ukraine Is Building Anti-Ship Missiles (In Part Thanks to Russia)". The National Interest. Archived from the original on 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d Ponomarenko, Illia (15 March 2021). "Ukraine's navy acquires first Neptune cruise missiles". Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on 15 March 2021. Retrieved 15 March 2021. The first training missile division joined the navy's only artillery brigade on March 15, as part of the formation's newly-created coastal defense missile battalion.
  4. ^ У Києві презентували нову крилату ракету "Нептун" [New cruise missile "Neptune" was presented in Kyiv] (in Ukrainian). Espreso TV. 24 September 2015. Archived from the original on 14 August 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
  5. ^ Hristoforov, Vladislav (25 January 2018). Протикорабельна ракета "Нептун" пройшла частину випробувань у 2017 році [The anti-ship missile "Neptune" has undergone part of the tests in 2017]. National Industrial Portal (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  6. ^ Перші випробування української крилатої ракети! [The first tests of the Ukrainian cruise missile!]. Ukrainian Military Portal (in Ukrainian). 30 January 2018. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  7. ^ "Ukrainian cruise missile "Neptune" struck a maritime target at a distance of 100 km during the test". Ukrainian Military Pages. 17 August 2018. Archived from the original on 22 April 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  8. ^ Ракеты "Нептун" поступят на вооружение ВМС в декабре ["Neptune" missiles will enter service with the naval forces in December]. Dzerkalo Tyzhnia (in Russian). 6 April 2019. Archived from the original on 6 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  9. ^ Peterson, Nolan (13 March 2019). "With an Eye to Russia, Ukraine Considers New Missiles After Cold War-Era Arms Control Treaty Collapses". The Daily Signal. Archived from the original on 19 October 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  10. ^ "Indonesia to sign contract with Ukraine to purchase RK-360MC Neptune mobile missile coastal defense system". Navy Recognition. 28 December 2020. Archived from the original on 14 April 2022. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  11. ^ "Украинские защитники повредили российский ракетный фрегат". Dumskaya (in Russian). 3 April 2022. Archived from the original on 3 April 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  12. ^ Harding, Luke; Sauer, Pjotr; Borger, Julian; Elgot, Jessica (15 April 2022). "Russia's Moskva cruiser sinks following Ukrainian claim of missile strike". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 April 2022.
  13. ^ Hambling, David (14 April 2022). "Ukraine's Bayraktar Drone Helped Sink Russian Flagship Moskva". Forbes. Retrieved 16 April 2022.
  14. ^ "Ukrainian military hits Russian cruiser by Neptune missiles". Ukrinform. 13 April 2022. Archived from the original on 13 April 2022. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  15. ^ "Fire breaks out onboard Moskva missile cruiser, crew evacuated — defense ministry". TASS. 14 April 2022. Archived from the original on 14 April 2022. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
  16. ^ На ракетном крейсере "Москва" в результате пожара сдетонировал боезапас [Ammunition detonated on the "Moskva" missile cruiser as a result of a fire] (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 14 April 2022. Archived from the original on 13 April 2022. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  17. ^ Ljunggren, David (13 April 2022). "Russia Says Ammunition Blast Damages Flagship of Black Sea Fleet - Interfax". U.S. News & World Report. Reuters. Archived from the original on 14 April 2022. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  18. ^ "Russian warship Moskva: What do we know?". BBC News. 14 April 2022. Archived from the original on 14 April 2022. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
  19. ^ "Moskva cruiser sank while being towed in a storm — Russian Defense Ministry". TASS. 14 April 2022. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  20. ^ Lendon, Brad (15 April 2022). "Moskva sinking: What really happened to the pride of Russia's fleet?". CNN. Retrieved 16 April 2022.
  21. ^ Mizokami, Kyle (15 April 2022). "Ukraine Sunk the Largest Warship Since WWII in a Major Blow to Russia". Popular Mechanics. Archived from the original on 15 April 2022. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  22. ^ Koshiw, Isobel; Beaumont, Peter (15 December 2022). "Putin preparing major offensive in new year, Ukraine defence minister warns". the Guardian. Retrieved 15 December 2022.
  23. ^ ALTMAN, Howard (14 April 2023). "Ukraine Situation Report: Official Hints At New Weapons To Be Unleashed On Crimea". the Drive. Retrieved 14 April 2023.
  24. ^ Нептун успішно вразив морську ціль [Neptune successfully hit a naval target]. Ukrainian Military Portal (in Ukrainian). 17 August 2018. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  25. ^ "LUCH, State Kyiv Design Bureau" (PDF). State Kyiv Design Bureau, LUCH. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 November 2020. Retrieved 2 November 2020.
  26. ^ Pavlenko, Dmytro; Dvirnyk, Yaroslav; Przysowa, Radoslaw (22 December 2022). "Advanced Materials and Technologies for Compressor Blades of Small Turbofan Engines". Aerospace. 8 (1): 1. doi:10.3390/aerospace8010001. ISSN 2226-4310.

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