RAGBRAI

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Register's Annual Great Bicycle Ride Across Iowa
RAGBRAI logo
Event logo
StatusActive
FrequencyAnnually
VenueVaries
Location(s)State of Iowa
CountryUnited States
Years active46
InauguratedAugust 26, 1973 (1973-08-26)
FounderJohn Karras and Donald Kaul
ActivityBicycling
SponsorThe Des Moines Register
WebsiteRAGBRAI.com

RAGBRAI is an acronym and registered trademark for the Register's Annual Great Bicycle Ride Across Iowa, which is a non-competitive bicycle ride organized by The Des Moines Register. The ride goes across the state of Iowa from west to east and draws recreational riders from across the United States and many foreign countries.[1] First held in 1973, RAGBRAI is the largest bike-touring event in the world.[2]

Description[edit]

Riders begin at a community on Iowa's western border and ride to a community on the eastern border, stopping in towns across the state. The ride is one week (seven days) long, ending on the last Saturday of July each year, after beginning on the previous Sunday. The earliest possible starting date is July 19 and the latest is July 25.

RAGBRAI holds an annual lottery which selects approximately 8,500 week-long riders. The lottery is held beginning November 15 of the previous year and until April 1. Random computer selection determines the participants. A registration form is available on the RAGBRAI web site and can either be entered online or printed and mailed to the Des Moines Register. Entrants are notified of the lottery results by email on May 1. There are also passes on a first-come, first-served basis for 1,500 day riders; these are limited to three per person. Additionally, Iowa bicycle clubs and charters, as well as teams and groups (many from out of state), receive a number of passes for which members apply through those organizations.[1] Despite the official limits, unregistered riders have on many days swelled the actual number of riders to well over the registered number count.

RAGBRAI is open to all kinds of people

The length of the entire week's route over RAGBRAI's first 40 years from 1973 through 2012, not including the Century Loop, averaged 467.925 miles (753.052 km), with the average daily distance between host communities being 67.09 miles (107.97 km).[3] Eight "host communities" are selected each year: one each for the beginning and end points, the other six serving as overnight stops from Sunday through Friday for the bicyclists. At the beginning of the ride, participants traditionally dip the rear wheels of their bikes in either the Missouri River or the Big Sioux River (depending on the starting point of the ride). At the end, the riders dip the front wheels in the Mississippi River.

The 44th ride, RAGBRAI XLIV, was held July 24–30, 2016, beginning in Glenwood and staying at Shenandoah, Creston, Leon, Centerville, Ottumwa, and Washington, before ending in Muscatine. The 45th ride, RAGBRAI XLV, took place from July 23–29, 2017, beginning in Orange City, with overnight stops in Spencer, Algona, Clear Lake, Charles City, Cresco, and Waukon, before finishing in Lansing. In 2017, the "Mile of Silence," which remembers the riders who have been lost throughout the years, happened on the first day after leaving Granville. The optional 3rd Annual Gravel Loop also occurred the first day on the way to Sutherland.[4] The 46th ride, RAGBRAI XLVI, was held from July 22–28, 2018, beginning in Onawa, with overnight stops in Denison, Jefferson, Ames, Newton, Sigourney, and Iowa City, before ending in Davenport. The 2019 (47th, RAGBRAI XLVII, July 21–27) route will begin in Council Bluffs, with overnight stops in Atlantic, Winterset, Indianola, Centerville, Fairfield, and Burlington, ending in Keokuk.

Overnight stops[edit]

The ride has passed through all 99 of Iowa's counties in its history. A total of 14 communities have served as the starting point, while 12 have hosted the finish and 105 other communities have been overnight hosts during the week of the ride.

An event known as the RAGBRAI Route Announcement Party is held the last part of January to release the names of the overnight towns. The route is fleshed out in the following weeks and is announced in the Register and on the RAGBRAI web site in early March. Even after that, changes to the route have sometimes been made.[1]

History[edit]

The Great Six-Day Bicycle Ride (1973)[edit]

RAGBRAI began in 1973, when Des Moines Register feature writers John Karras and Donald Kaul decided to go on a bicycle ride across Iowa. Both men were avid cyclists. Karras challenged Kaul to do the ride and write articles about what he experienced. Kaul agreed to do it, but only if Karras also did the ride. Karras then agreed to ride as well.

The newspaper's management approved of the plan. Don Benson, a public relations director at the Register, was assigned to coordinate the event. Upon the suggestion of Ed Heins, the managing editor,[5] the writers invited the public to accompany them.[6]

The ride was planned to start on August 26 in Sioux City and end in Davenport on August 31. The overnight stops were Storm Lake, Fort Dodge, Ames, Des Moines and Williamsburg. The Register informed readers of the event as well as the planned route. The ride was informally referred to as "The Great Six-Day Bicycle Ride".

Some 300 cyclists began the ride in Sioux City; 114 of them rode the entire route. A number of other people rode part of the route. Attendance was light the first year. The ride was announced with only six weeks' notice and it conflicted with the first week of school and the final weekend of the Iowa State Fair.

After the ride was over, Kaul and Karras wrote numerous articles that captured the imaginations of many readers. Among those who completed the 1973 ride was 83-year-old Clarence Pickard of Indianola. He rode a used ladies Schwinn and wore a long-sleeved shirt, trousers, woolen long underwear and a silver pith helmet. He said that the underwear blocked out the sun and kept his skin cool.[7] The newspaper received many calls and letters from people who wanted to go on the ride but were unable to for various reasons. Because of this public response and demand, a second ride was scheduled for August 4–10, 1974, before the Iowa State Fair.[6]

Second year: SAGBRAI, August 4–10, 1974[edit]

The 1974 ride, known as the Second Annual Great Bicycle Ride Across Iowa (or SAGBRAI), was more carefully planned. For example, each morning, the official start time was 7:30 am; however, by Wednesday, the start time was dropped so that riders could depart at any time that was appropriate for the rider.[8] The Iowa State Patrol was involved for the first time to control traffic safety, and arrangements were made to have medical services available for riders. For the first time, the route was driven in advance for inspection purposes. The start of the ride was in Council Bluffs, with the overnight communities of Atlantic, Guthrie Center, Camp Dodge (near Des Moines), Marshalltown, Waterloo and Monticello, and the ride finishing in the riverfront city of Dubuque.[9] The ride occurred in the same week as the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon.[10] The highpoint of the trip for many of the riders was the second overnight stop, where a sign greeted the riders outside of the designated overnight town, Guthrie Center. It read, "Please be kind. You outnumber us two to one."[8] Approximately a half hour in length, SAGBRAI – the Second Annual Great Bike Ride Across Iowa is a black and white documentary film about the 1974 ride. OHP Marketing Services of Webster City, Iowa, converted the 16mm film to a digital format in 2012, and the digital format was screened in Webster City on Monday July 13, 2015.[8][11]

As RAGBRAI annual event[edit]

After the second year, the ride continued to grow in popularity. Michael Gartner, then the editor of the Register, directed John Karras to include the name Register in the ride title; thus the RAGBRAI name, with Roman numerals following it, was adopted for RAGBRAI III in 1975 (the 2012 ride was RAGBRAI XL).[12]

RAGBRAI V, from Onawa to Lansing, was the shortest in RAGBRAI history at 400 miles (640 km). Until 2014 it also had the fewest feet in vertical hill climbing.[9][13] Beginning in 1978, RAGBRAI included a 100-mile century ride to offer a greater challenge.[14]

The second day of RAGBRAI IX came to be known as Soggy Monday and is generally regarded as the worst weather day in RAGBRAI history. To commemorate it, the Register marketed a bicycle patch.[15]

Beginning with RAGBRAI X, the dates were moved to the last full week in July, starting on Sunday and ending on Saturday. This ride was also the last for Donald Kaul as co-host; he had ridden with John Karras on the first 10 rides. Chuck Offenburger, writer of the Register's Iowa Boy column, joined Karras as co-host in 1983.[15]

With XIV, RAGBRAI introduced a Century Loop. While the day's ride might be shorter, a loop was included on the route for cyclists who wanted to ride 100 miles (160 km). This ride went from Council Bluffs to Muscatine, and the optional loop was on the day between Perry and Eldora.[16] The loop was renamed the "Karras Loop" in 2001, in honor of John Karras.[17]

On the XXIII ride, the day from Tama-Toledo to Sigourney featured a strong south headwind, lots of heat and humidity, and many hills. The day would come to be known as Saggy Thursday.[18]

After the XXV ride, which passed through Lucas County, RAGBRAI in its history had gone through all of Iowa's 99 counties.[18]

John Karras retired as co-host after the 2000 ride (XXVIII), which begin at Council Bluffs and ended at Burlington.[17]

RAGBRAI XLIII in 2015 was the first to feature an optional gravel loop. The loop was in honor of Steve Hed, a Minnesotan and wheel innovator who had died the previous November. The first gravel loop was part of the second day ride from Storm Lake to Fort Dodge. Also, the 43rd ride was the first since the initial ride in 1973 to start in Sioux City and end in Davenport.[19]

Notable incidents[edit]

Deaths[edit]

Through the 2014 ride, 30 deaths of ride participants or volunteers officially occurred during the week of the ride, because of accidents or injuries suffered on the ride.[20] Although the event began in 1973, the first death did not occur until RAGBRAI XII in 1984.[21] Many of the deaths were due to heart attacks that riders suffered while resting. However, in Sheldon on the first night of the 2005 ride, there was a weather-related fatality as Michael Thomas Burke (a native of Donnellson, Iowa and an industrial engineering graduate from the University of Iowa who was living in New York City) died when a storm caused a tree limb to fall on him as he was sleeping in a tent.[22]

Only a few deaths resulted from injuries sustained while actually riding on bicycles. The first was in 1987, when 19-year-old John Boyle of Rockwell City fell under the wheels of a flatbed trailer.[23] On Monday, July 30, 2007, at 12:52 PM, a Waterloo man, who was rescued from the Wapsipinicon River in Independence, subsequently died: sixty-two-year-old Rich Droste had been participating in RAGBRAI, which made an overnight stop in Independence on Thursday. Droste was swimming in the Wapsi when he apparently got caught in the current upstream from the dam. On July 25, 2009, Donald D. Myers from Rolla, Missouri, died of injuries sustained in a crash at the bottom of the hill near Geode Lake dam at Geode State Park.[24][25][26][27] On July 30, 2010, Stephen Briggs of Waverly, Iowa died after his bike clipped the tire of another bike and he was thrown from his bike.[28]

After Briggs' death, no more fatalities occurred until 2014, when on Monday, July 21, Tom Teesdale, 62, of West Branch died of a heart attack between Terril and Graettinger, and on Wednesday, July 23, George 'Frank' Brinkerhoff of Sioux City died of natural causes and was found dead in his tent Thursday morning.[20][29][30] On Sunday, July 24, 2016, at the 2-mile marker on US Highway 34 near Glenwood, Wayne Ezell, 72, of Jacksonville, Fla., was westbound when a pickup truck driven by Robb Philippus, 34, of Glenwood hit him from behind about 6:40 a.m. Ezell, who died from his injuries sustained during the accident, was a rider participating in RAGBRAI XLIV.[31] Also, in 2016, on the Tuesday of RAGBRAI XLIV, a 60-year-old RAGBRAI rider, Clifton Kahler, had a heart attack while riding along Highway 2 between Creston and Leon and died.[32][33]

A plane carrying a pilot and a young Canadian woman who was making a documentary about the ride crashed during the course of the 2005 RAGBRAI. In this case, the pair suffered minor injuries. Pilot Jim Hill of Manchester, Iowa, and Amy Throop of Ottawa, Canada, were following the route on a plane near Riceville, Iowa when the plane went down. Both Hill and Throop walked away from the accident. Throughout the ride, ultralights have flown over riders a few feet above the trees to get a good shot of the riders.

Crawford County lawsuit and ban[edit]

During 2004's RAGBRAI XXXII, Kirk Ullrich was thrown from his bicycle after contacting a crack in the center of the road and died. Ullrich's widow Betty Jo Ullrich sued Crawford County and settled for $350,000.[34] The board of supervisors for Crawford County banned RAGBRAI (and other, similar events) to avoid future liability. As of December 2008, however, Crawford County supervisors voted to rescind this ban after the RAGBRAI organizers took steps to indemnify third parties in the case of such events in the future.[35]

2013 sinkhole along XLI route[edit]

On May 31, 2013, a large sinkhole, at least 20 feet (6 m) wide by 5 feet (1.5 m) deep, occurred along Iowa Highway 384 (160th Road in Guthrie County) under the asphalt at the entrance of Springbrook State Park, which is near the boat ramp at the base of Mockingbird Hill. The Iowa Department of Natural Resources (DNR) contacted the Iowa Department of Transportation, who deemed the sinkhole to be unsafe. The Iowa DNR immediately evacuated the campers at Springbrook.[36][37] In the spring (March, April, and May) of 2013, according to Harry Hillaker, the state of Iowa climatologist, Iowa had the wettest spring on record.[38][39] The record precipitation, both rainfall and snowfall, contributed to the formation of the sinkhole. On June 3, 2013, the RAGBRAI XLI route inspection pre-ride assessed the sinkhole in considering changes to the route through Springbrook and up Mockingbird Hill, the steepest hill on any RAGBRAI route; however, no changes to the RAGBRAI XLI route were made.[40][41]

Food vendors[edit]

During RAGBRAI, food and drink are available at nominal cost in campgrounds, churches and restaurants, and along the route. Vendors who are officially sanctioned are identified by a sign reading, OFFICIAL RAGBRAI VENDOR. Many offer a discount to riders who have a participant wristband.[1] Perhaps the most famed vendor in RAGBRAI history was Paul Bernhard, who along the day's route at a rural location sold corn on the cob and pork chops that were basted in melted butter and grilled over charcoal. He began selling chops at RAGBRAI in 1985 and retired after the 2008 ride, leaving the vendorship to his son, Matt. In 1996, he sold 2500 chops in his hometown of Bancroft, Iowa, when the ride passed through there. He was called Mr. Pork Chop and was known for his cry of "Pooooork Chooooooooooop!" He died at age 88.[42][43]

Teams and charters[edit]

An example of a RAGBRAI team bus

Riders come from all over the world, and many ride as clubs or teams. There are dozens of organized teams on the ride. In 2007 and 2008, Lance Armstrong organized a LIVESTRONG team of about 200 riders and participated in RAGBRAI; each rider raised $1000 or more towards fighting cancer.[44]

Teams create a social and support system that adds a non-cycling dimension to RAGBRAI. While some of the teams have a well-earned reputation for hard partying and heavy drinking, most are serious bicyclists. Teams often customize old school buses and vans. The team buses serve as transportation to and from the ride, and a combination clubhouse and sleeping quarters during the ride. These buses typically sport enormous custom stereos, roof mounted, rail-equipped platforms which serve as bicycle racks and a place to relax, and interior bathrooms. Several carry 50-gallon plastic water barrels, which become warm during the day. Attached to a gravity-fed hose, they provide teams with a spartan shower at the end of the day's ride.

Teams often conform their clothing or partake in certain gimmicks to add levity to the ride and make team members easily identifiable. This can be as simple as wearing identical cycling jerseys with the team logo or various wacky traditions such as purple “troll hair” wigs (Team Spin). Gimmicks include adorning road kill along the route with Mardi Gras beads (Team Road Kill), various drinking games, and a team who carry 5 gallon buckets on their bicycles and challenge riders to “Get on the Bucket” and get tackled off of it by a team member or friend in order to raise awareness for cancer research (Team Tacklebucket). Many teams also produce logoed team paraphernalia to distribute and trade with other teams (stickers, bracelets, or can koozies being common items).

Charters are bicycle clubs and for-profit companies that provide weeklong support for riders. For a fee, charters typically transport riders to and from the ride, secure preferred camping areas, rent and sometimes pitch tents, provide some bicycle repair services, and offer additional evening social activities. Charters are a common option for riders coming from outside Iowa.

A 2014 finisher's comment: "A terrific experience, but too much spandex, not enough porta potties."

Team Gourmet, based in Chicago, is a group that currently works RAGBRAI and has done so for more than 20 years. They travel with three chefs, who prepare elaborate meals that are served at 6 PM. Membership in the team for RAGBRAI and the cuisine included cost around $900.[45] Another charter from Chicago is CUBS, which stands for Chicago Urban Bicycling Society, formed in 1996 especially to ride RAGBRAI.[46] Other charters and clubs involved with RAGBRAI XLII in 2014 include: Team Jorts, Bicycle Illinois, Shuttleguy, Brancel Charters, Bubba's Pampered Pedalers, Out of Staters, Pork Belly Ventures, Riverbend Bike Club, Quad Cities Bicycle Club, Lost & Found Adventures, Bike World, Lake Country Cyclist Ankeny, RAGBRAI In Style, Emmetsburg Bike Club, Bikes To You, Bicyclists of Iowa City, Iowa Valley Bicycle Club, North Iowa Touring Club, Melon City Bike Club, Cedar Valley Cyclists, The Pfalcons, Overland Touring Charter, Padre's Cycle Inn, and Ron Oman Charters.[47] The Sprint Selzer Bicycle Club is among the longest running clubs in existence, having formed at RAGBRAI III, by creating a fictional celebrity named Sprint.

Media exposure[edit]

RAGBRAI has had nationwide media exposure, and other rides based on RAGBRAI have been started in other areas of the country. Bil Gilbert, after riding in SAGBRAI, wrote an enthusiastic report that appeared in Sports Illustrated. Harry Smith of CBS This Morning rode part of RAGBRAI XXV in 1997 and aired a report.[48] In addition, numerous articles about the ride have appeared over the years in The Wall Street Journal.[49][50][51]

Celebrities and athletes[edit]

Ben Davidson, former pro football star player mainly with the Oakland Raiders, rode on RAGBRAI for several years, beginning in 1987.[52] Lance Armstrong rode the Wednesday and Thursday stages in 2006, speaking to a large throng of the riders in Newton. He then completed most of the 2007 ride before leaving a couple days early to support Team Discovery's Alberto Contador and his Tour de France victory.[17] In 2008, Armstrong also made an appearance on the Ames, Iowa, leg of the trip. In 2011, 2013, 2014, 2017 and 2018, he again participated.[53][54][55] Ottumwa-born actor/comedian Tom Arnold has ridden a few RAGBRAIs, including XXIV in 1996.[56][57] Other participants have included three-time Tour de France champ Greg LeMond, columnist Dave Barry, NASCAR drivers Matt Kenseth and Jimmie Johnson, Motocross champion Ryan Dungey, 2004 Democratic presidential candidate Howard Dean and former Secretary of the Interior Bruce Babbitt.[58][59]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "RAGBRAI General Information". ragbrai.com.
  2. ^ Crosbie, Nicole (February 5, 2014). "Rock Valley Selected to Host RAGBRAI this July". Sioux County Index Reporter. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
  3. ^ "RAGBRAI Past Overnight Towns Grid". ragbrai.com.
  4. ^ http://ragbrai.com/routemaps/2017-route-maps/
  5. ^ Karras & Karras (1999), p. 32.
  6. ^ a b "RAGBRAI History". ragbrai.com.
  7. ^ Karras & Karras (1999), p. 21.
  8. ^ a b c John Karras and Don Kaul, narrated by John Karras (August 1974). Williams, Larry V. (ed.). SAGBRAI, the Second Annual Great Bicycle Ride Across Iowa (digital from original in 16mm, black and white) (16mm, 27 minutes 54 seconds in length). photographed by Larry V. Williams, production supervisor by Al Rockwell, original music by Mike Weeks' Group, additional photography by Mary Whitehurst: on RAGBRAI website under 2012 videos. Des Moines, Iowa: The Des Moines Register and Tribune with OHP Marketing Services of Webster City, Iowa, for the digital transfer. Retrieved August 25, 2017. This raw film footage is from SAGBRAI, the Second Annual Great Bicycle Ride Across Iowa, in August 1974. It was transferred from 16mm film.
  9. ^ a b "RAGBRAI History: 1970s". ragbrai.com.
  10. ^ Karras & Karras (1999), p. 45.
  11. ^ "Two RAGBRAI films to be shown free to the public". Daily Freeman Journal. Webster City, Iowa. July 9, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
  12. ^ Karras & Karras (1999), p. 50.
  13. ^ "GeoBike RAGBRAI Least Climb". geobike.com. Archived from the original on December 31, 2013.
  14. ^ Karras & Karras (1999), p. 60.
  15. ^ a b "RAGBRAI History: 1980s". ragbrai.com.
  16. ^ Karras & Karras (1999), p. 108.
  17. ^ a b c "RAGBRAI History: 2000s". ragbrai.com.
  18. ^ a b "RAGBRAI History: 1990s". ragbrai.com.
  19. ^ "RAGBRAI overnight towns, new gravel loop announced". desmoinesregister.com. January 24, 2015.
  20. ^ a b "Rider Found Dead Helped Give Away Bicycles". ragbrai.com. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
  21. ^ Karras & Karras (1999), p. 94.
  22. ^ "Michael Thomas Burke". findagrave.com. Retrieved July 27, 2005.[unreliable source?]
  23. ^ Karras & Karras (1999), p. 96.
  24. ^ Strong, Jared (2009). "Crash near State Park Kills Missouri RAGBRAI Rider". The Des Moines Register. Retrieved July 28, 2009.[dead link]
  25. ^ Juskiewicz, TJ (July 27, 2009). "Condolences to the Myers Family". Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  26. ^ Stolz, Mary Helen (July 27, 2009). "S&T Professor Donald D. Myers Dies from Bicycling Accident Injuries". Missouri University of Science and Technology. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  27. ^ "Donald Dean Meyers, October 15, 1939 – July 26, 2009, Obiturary". Null and Son Funeral Home. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
  28. ^ "Waverly Man Dies Following Bike Accident on RAGBRAI". Cedar Rapids, IA: KCRG-TV. Associated Press. 2010. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
  29. ^ "One of Iowa's Secret Famous People". ragbrai.com. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
  30. ^ "George 'Frank' Brinkerhoff Obituary". Sioux City Journal. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
  31. ^ Ta, Linh (July 24, 2016). "RAGBRAI rider killed in bicycle-vehicle crash near Glenwood". The Des Moines Register. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
  32. ^ Staff Writer (July 30, 2016). "Cyclist Dies From Heart Attack During RAGBRAI". Des Moines, Iowa: WHO TV. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
  33. ^ "Clifton Kahler". Bismarck Tribune. Bismarck, North Dakota. July 30, 2016. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
  34. ^ "Crawford County Ban". The Des Moines Register. Retrieved October 12, 2007.[permanent dead link]
  35. ^ "Metro/Region". Omaha.com. Archived from the original on September 5, 2012. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
  36. ^ "Central Iowa's Springbrook State Park Is Closed". The Des Moines Register. Associated Press. June 1, 2013. Archived from the original on June 16, 2013. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  37. ^ "Campers Evacuated from State Park". Des Moines, IA: KCCI-TV. June 2, 2013. Archived from the original on June 16, 2013. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  38. ^ "Spring '13 Wettest On Record for Iowa". Omaha World-Herald. Associated Press. May 29, 2013. Archived from the original on June 16, 2013. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  39. ^ Hillaker, Harry (June 4, 2013). "Iowa May 2013 Preliminary Monthly Weather Summary". American Association of State Climatologists. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  40. ^ Juskiewicz, TJ (May 28, 2013). "RAGBRAI Route Inspection Pre-Ride Set for June 2-8, 2013". ragbrai.com. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  41. ^ aparrott (June 4, 2013). "RAGBRAI Route Inspection Pre-Ride Day 2: Harlan to Perry". ragbrai.com. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  42. ^ Karras & Karras (1999), pp. 144–145.
  43. ^ "Mr. Pork Chop Honored for Years of RAGBRAI Service". bikeiowa.com. Retrieved August 7, 2008.
  44. ^ Bisbee, Gene (July 21, 2007). "Who's Riding with Lance Armstrong at RAGBRAI". Biking Bis. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
  45. ^ "The Gourmet Way". ragbrai.com. Retrieved July 28, 2012.
  46. ^ "Chicago Urban Bicycling Society Home Page". ragbraicubs.org.
  47. ^ "RAGBRAI Charter Services". ragbrai.com.
  48. ^ "RAGBRAI History: Factoids". ragbrai.com.
  49. ^ Neumann, Jeannette (July 20, 2012). "Moveable Feast". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  50. ^ "Pie, Pork Chops and Corn on the Cob". The Wall Street Journal. July 20, 2012. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  51. ^ Kansas, Dave (July 30, 2006). "A Ride Across Iowa". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 30, 2006.
  52. ^ Karras & Karras (1999), pp. 134–136.
  53. ^ "Lance Armstrong Finds Support". Miami Herald. July 23, 2013. Archived from the original on July 27, 2013.
  54. ^ "Lance Armstrong 2010s". ragbrai.com. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014.
  55. ^ "RAGBRAI History: 2010s". ragbrai.com. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 3, 2014.
  56. ^ Evans, Elizabeth A. (December 3, 1998). "A Story of RAGBRAI XXIV" – via University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
  57. ^ Kava, Brad (July 20, 2012). "RAGBRAI: Biking the Annual Great Bike Ride Across Iowa". Santa Cruz Patch. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  58. ^ "Celebs 'Escape Reality' on RAGBRAI". bikeiowa.com. Retrieved July 22, 2006.
  59. ^ "NASCAR's Jimmie Johnson and Matt Kenseth, Join Lance Armstrong and MotoCross Champ Ryan Dungey on the JustGoBike Podcast". ragbrai.com. August 3, 2017.

Books[edit]

  • Karras, John & Karras, Ann (1999). RAGBRAI: Everyone Pronounces It Wrong. Iowa City: Iowa State University Press. ISBN 978-1-58729-538-6.

Film[edit]

John Karras and Don Kaul, narrated by John Karras (August 1974). Williams, Larry V. (ed.). SAGBRAI, the Second Annual Great Bicycle Ride Across Iowa (digital from original in 16mm, black and white) (16mm, 27 minutes 54 seconds in length). photographed by Larry V. Williams, production supervisor by Al Rockwell, original music by Mike Weeks' Group, additional photography by Mary Whitehurst: on RAGBRAI website under 2012 videos. Des Moines, Iowa: The Des Moines Register and Tribune with OHP Marketing Services of Webster City, Iowa, for the digital transfer. Retrieved August 25, 2017. This raw film footage is from SAGBRAI, the Second Annual Great Bicycle Ride Across Iowa, in August 1974. It was transferred from 16mm film.

External links[edit]