Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York
|Richard of York|
Duke of York|
Prince of Wales
Lieutenant and Governor of France
Lord Protector of England
Richard in the frontispiece of the Talbot Shrewsbury Book, 1445
21 September 1411|
Kings Langley, Hertfordshire (?)
30 December 1460 (aged 49)|
30 July 1476|
Church of St Mary and All Saints, Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire
|House||House of York|
|Father||Richard, Earl of Cambridge|
Richard of York, also called Richard Plantagenet (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460), 3rd Duke of York, KG, was a leading English magnate, a great-grandson of King Edward III through his father, and a great-great-great-grandson of the same king through his mother. He inherited vast estates and served in various offices of state in Ireland, France, and England, a country he ultimately governed as Lord Protector during the madness of King Henry VI.
His conflicts with Henry's wife, Margaret of Anjou, and other members of Henry's court, as well as his competing claim on the throne, were a leading factor in the political upheaval of mid-fifteenth-century England, and a major cause of the Wars of the Roses. Richard eventually attempted to take the throne, but was dissuaded, although it was agreed that he would become king on Henry's death. But within a few weeks of securing this agreement, he died in battle.
Although Richard never became king himself, he was the father of King Edward IV and King Richard III, and grandfather of King Edward V, one of the princes in the Tower. By the marriage of his granddaughter Elizabeth of York to King Henry VII, he became an ancestor to all subsequent English monarchs.
- 1 Descent
- 2 Childhood and upbringing (1411–1432)
- 3 Early majority and role in national affairs
- 4 The question of the war in France
- 5 France (1436–1437)
- 6 France again (1440–1445)
- 7 England and Ireland (1445–1450)
- 8 Leader of the Opposition (1450–1453)
- 9 Protector of the Realm (1453–1455)
- 10 Confrontation and aftermath (1455–1456)
- 11 Uneasy peace (1456–1459)
- 12 Civil war breaks out (1459)
- 13 The wheel of fortune (1459–1460)
- 14 Final campaign and death
- 15 Legacy
- 16 Arms
- 17 Ancestry
- 18 Issue
- 19 Footnotes
- 20 References
- 21 Literature
- 22 Further reading
- 23 External links
Richard of York was born on 21 September 1411, the son of Richard, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, by his wife Anne Mortimer, the daughter of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March. Anne Mortimer was the great-granddaughter of Lionel, Duke of Clarence, the second surviving son of King Edward III (r. 1327–1377). After the death in 1425 of Anne's childless brother Edmund, the 5th Earl of March, this ancestry supplied her son Richard, of the House of York, with a claim to the English throne that was (albeit not in a direct male line) arguably superior to that of the reigning House of Lancaster, descended from John of Gaunt, the third son of King Edward III.
On his father's side, Richard had a claim to the throne in a direct male line of descent from his grandfather Edmund, 1st Duke of York (1341–1402), fourth surviving son of King Edward III and founder of the House of York. This made Richard a prince of blood and member of the ruling dynasty of England, which might have improved his position as contender or possible successor to the throne, even though his mother's descent already arguably gave him a better claim anyway. His adoption of the surname "Plantagenet" in 1448 would serve to emphasize this point, namely his status as an agnate of the English royal family.
Richard's mother, Anne Mortimer, is said to have died giving birth to him, and his father, the Earl of Cambridge, was beheaded in 1415 for his part in the Southampton Plot against the Lancastrian King Henry V (r. 1413–1422). Although the Earl's title was forfeited, he was not attainted, and the four-year-old orphan Richard became his father's heir. Richard had an only sister, Isabel of Cambridge, who became Countess of Essex upon her second marriage in 1426.
Within a few months of his father's death, Richard's childless uncle, Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York, was slain at the Battle of Agincourt on 25 October 1415. After some hesitation, King Henry V allowed Richard to inherit his uncle's title and (at his majority of 21) the lands of the Duchy of York. The lesser title but (in due course) greater estates of the Earldom of March also descended to him on the death of his maternal uncle Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, on 18 January 1425. The reason for Henry V's hesitation was that Edmund Mortimer had been proclaimed several times, by factions rebelling against him, to have a stronger claim to the throne than Henry's father, King Henry IV. Edmund had been a disputed heir of Richard II until his deposition by Henry IV in 1399. However, during his lifetime, Mortimer remained a faithful supporter of the House of Lancaster. Richard would inherit Edmund Mortimer's titles and claim to the throne upon his death.
Richard of York already held the Mortimer and Cambridge claims to the English throne; once he inherited the March estates, as well as the Earldom of Ulster, he also became the wealthiest and most powerful noble in England, second only to the king himself. The Valor Ecclesiasticus shows that York's net income from Mortimer lands alone was £3,430 (about £350,000 today) in the year 1443–44.
Childhood and upbringing (1411–1432)
As he was an orphan, Richard's income became the property of, and was managed by, the crown. Even though many of the lands of his uncle of York had been granted for life only, or to him and his male heirs, the remaining lands, concentrated in Lincolnshire and Northamptonshire, Yorkshire, Wiltshire and Gloucestershire were considerable. The wardship of such an orphan was therefore a valuable gift of the crown, and in October 1417 this was granted to Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, with the young Richard under the guardianship of Robert Waterton. Ralph Neville had fathered an enormous family (twenty-three children, twenty of whom survived infancy, through two wives) and had many daughters needing husbands. As was his right, in 1424 he betrothed the 13-year-old Richard to his daughter Cecily Neville, then aged 9.
In October 1425, when Ralph Neville died, he bequeathed the wardship of York to his widow, Joan Beaufort. By now the wardship was even more valuable, as Richard had inherited the Mortimer estates on the death of the Earl of March. These manors were concentrated in Wales, and in the Welsh Borders around Ludlow. They also included the Earldom of Ulster, located in Ireland. The Mortimer inheritance further brought the baronies of Wigmore, Clare, Trim, and Connaught.
Little is recorded of Richard's early life. On 2 February 1425 he was allowed to style himself Duke of York. On 19 May 1426 he was knighted at St Mary de Castro in Leicester by John, Duke of Bedford, the younger brother of King Henry V; on the same day, he was formally restored to the titles Duke of York and Earl of Cambridge, thus finally securing the entirety of his inheritance. In October 1429 (or earlier) his marriage to Cecily Neville took place. On 20 January 1430, he acted as Constable of England (in the absence of Bedford) for a duel. On 6 November he was present at the formal coronation of King Henry VI in Westminster Abbey. He then followed Henry to France, being present at his coronation as king of France in Notre-Dame on 16 December 1431. Finally, on 12 May 1432, he came into his inheritance and was granted full control of his estates.[a]
Early majority and role in national affairs
York found the need to select a place to set up a default home; he had a number of areas to choose given the vastness of his estates. He and his wife would spend some time of their lives among his numerous scattered manors throughout England. Most of their time, however, was spent in castles, York's main of which was Fotheringhay Castle in Northamptonshire. It became the duke's favoured residence; his first child, Anne, was born there in 1439. For stays in London, York would later acquire Baynard's Castle inn.[b]
The main issues in English politics at this point in time were the control of the underaged Henry VI's regency government, and the conduct of the ongoing Hundred Years’ War in France. The regency's leadership, and afterwards the influence on royal policy, were disputed primarily by the king’s uncle Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, on one side, and Cardinal Henry Beaufort on the other. With regards to the war, and the declining English military situation, the opinion of the realm's leading figures oscilated between continuing the war or suing for peace.[c]
In these quarrels, York seems to have taken little, if any part. He was, though, present on a great council at Westminster in spring 1434, which saw attempts to bring a consensus among the realm's regents over the conduct of the French war. Shortly after, the English regent of France, the Duke of Bedford, died in 1435, leaving behind a divided regency council and many unresolved problems. York was chosen to assume Bedford's functions, and he became a commander in the war against France; he stayed there in 1436–37 and 1441–45.
Aside from his actions in the continent, he seems to have kept a low profile in politics until his final return from France in 1445. Henry VI seems to have been reluctant to employ York; he was not invited to the first royal council at the end of the regency in November 1437. As the Duke of Gloucester and his hawkish views on the war lost favour with the king, York seems to have remained a neutral figure. He has been described, however, as being closer to Gloucester, and inclined to favour the continuation of the war. Humphrey in turn seems to have considered him an ally, as suggested by his complaint in 1440 at the "estrangement" of York and others from the king's confidence.
In the first decade or so of his majority, York also received some other minor crown appointments, and was involved, for example, in attempts to enforce order in Wales in 1437–8. He was admitted to the Order of the Garter on 22 April 1433. Royal letters dated 18 January 1440 gave York a share of the wardship of the Earl of Warwick. He also spent time touring his estates. His first son, Henry, was born in 1441 at Hatfield but died shortly after. York's main actions until 1445 were otherwise directed towards English affairs in France.
The question of the war in France
Henry V's conquests in France could not be sustained forever, as England either needed to conquer more territory to ensure permanent French subordination, or to concede territory to gain a negotiated settlement. During Henry VI's minority, his Council took advantage of French weakness and the alliance with Burgundy to increase England's possessions, but following the Treaty of Arras of 1435, Burgundy ceased to recognise the English king's claim to the French throne. The death of the English regent Bedford in the same year deprived England of capable leadership in this critical moment. There seems to have been controversy regarding who would fill his role, but York’s neutral position in politics, his status of prince of blood, and his marriage ties to Cardinal Beaufort (Cecily Neville was the cardinal’s niece) made him an acceptable choice to all rival political factions.[d]
On 8 May 1436, a few months after Bedford's death, York was appointed to succeed him as commander of the English forces in France. This was to last for only one year, until 1437, to cover for the final period of Henry VI’s regency. York's appointment and subsequent others were, at least in part, political compromises.[e] He eventually emerged as an acceptable choice for a more permanent candidate for all sides: he was seen as a sufficiently neutral and flexible figure, and was well connected with all parties. He was also by now familiar with the English establishment in France. These factors helped secure his second and final appointment, which lasted from 2 July 1440 until Michaelmas (29 September) 1445.
York’s general policy in France was to delegate the basic management of the war to the generals under his command. Despite being involved in leading armies, conducting sieges, and surveying garrisons, York's role in French affairs was mostly administrative and diplomatic. Though he retained command of military policy, he seldom acted as a soldier. He occupied himself with the affairs of government as a whole, and the field conduct of the war was mostly entrusted to his subordinates, whose military action somewhat overshadowed the duke’s own. York would instead be primarily noted for his well regarded overall governance, and his attempts to deal with the problems of a declining English rule in France.
Though border regions constantly switched hands, York presided over a period in which the bulk of Henry VI’s lands in France remained largely under English control. He acquired a high reputation by maintaining Normandy almost intact against French attacks. However, he lacked appropriate funding from the English state, which had accumulated large debts over the decades, and was finding increasingly difficult to carry on with the war effort. The distribution of scarce resources and opportunities for offices would bring York to odds with other nobles, something which has been regarded as a factor in the breakdown of relations between English magnates in the years following up to the Wars of the Roses.[f]
York's appointment was one of a number of stop-gap measures after the death of Bedford to try to retain French possessions until the young King Henry VI could assume personal rule. With Henry's minority close to its end, the English council was reluctant to send someone with the same powers Bedford had enjoyed, and disagreements pertaining to the terms of York's indentures delayed his departure despite the military urgence. In the end, he would have his power and role limited. Unlike his predecessor, York was not allowed to appoint major financial and military officials, and instead of being classified as "regent" as Bedford was before him, he got the lesser title of "lieutenant-general and governor".
York was accompanied by the earls of Suffolk and Mortain, and his Neville brothers-in-law, the Earl of Salisbury and Baron Fauconberg. Their combined army was just half of the 11,000 men England had promised to send, and York and his contingent were committed to less time than earlier ones.[g] The situation upon their arrival was dire. Paris and parts of Normandy had switched their loyalty or fallen to the enemy following the Franco-Burgundian reconciliation of 1435. The loss of Harfleur and all Norman ports east of it forced York to land at Honfleur (7 June 1436), the nearest port to Rouen still in allied hands. The fall of Paris (his original destination) led to his army being redirected to Normandy.
Aged 24, York had no military experience, and has been described as at times indecisive but also as full of vigor, energy, and ambition. Despite all difficulties, he cooperated well with his new subordinates, a prominent of which was John Talbot, one of the leading English soldiers of the day. Working with Bedford's captains, York had some success, recapturing Fécamp, Saint-Germain, and many other Norman towns, and holding on to the Pays de Caux, while establishing good order and justice in the Duchy of Normandy.
York's capture of the aformentioned towns and of large areas in the Caux was part of a larger autumn 1436 campaign, brilliantly conducted by Talbot, which secured Rouen and most of eastern Normandy. Though not an insignificant role, this was York's main military action during this period, and he spent most of the time at Rouen, conducting daily government affairs. The defense and recovery of English territories was mostly handled by York's subordinates. Thomas Scales (another experienced soldier) and the Earl of Suffolk were based in Lower Normandy to defend the region against threats by the dukes of Brittany and Alençon, and from the French garrison at Mont Saint-Michel. Edmund Beaufort, Count of Mortain, stayed at Maine. Lords Talbot and Fauconberg stayed at the southern Norman marches, from where they had launched the successful autumn 1436 campaign.
English successes continued even through the exceptionally harsh winter of 1436–37. York held a council of war, where it was decided to recapture Pontoise (lost on 20 February 1436), an important strategic post between Rouen and Paris. It was taken in a surprise attack, with a similar attempt at Paris failing somewhat narrowly. The rest of the winter campaign saw the English expand as far as Picardy and perform several raids. The ensuing months saw further successes in Normandy and the rout of a large Burgundian army at Le Crotoy.
The English council seemed satisfied with York's performance and wished for him to stay longer. However, he was dissatisfied with the terms under which he was appointed, as he had to find much of the money to pay his troops and other expenses from his own estates.[h] His term of office was nevertheless extended beyond the original twelve months (until the arrival of his successor, the Earl of Warwick), and he did not return to England until November 1437. It was around this time that Henry VI's long regency ended: he formally assumed full power of kingship on 13 November. In spite of York's position as one of the leading nobles of the realm, he was not included in Henry VI's Council on his return.
France again (1440–1445)
Henry VI turned to York again in 1440 after peace negotiations failed. He was reappointed Lieutenant of France on 2 July, this time with the same powers that the late Bedford had earlier been granted. As in 1437, York was able to count on the loyalty of Bedford's supporters, including Sir John Fastolf and Sir William Oldhall. Duchess Cecily accompanied him to Normandy, and his children Edward, Edmund and Elizabeth were all born in Rouen.
York would only arrive at France in June 1441 (with about 3600 men),[i] almost a year after his appointment. In his absence, the war effort was conducted by other English captains in the continent, but York finally departed when continued French successes and neglect from the English crown had plunged the council at Rouen into despair.[j] The French at this time were besieging Pontoise, an important outpost, and once arriving at Rouen (25 June), York quickly marched to relieve it.[k]
York and his army lifted the siege in July, and chased the French around the region in a failed attempt to force a battle, avoiding the costly siege warfare condemned by Fastolf. It was a well-conducted campaign involving difficult river crossings. A scheme to capture Charles VII of France himself may have come close to succeeding. After several skirmishes and with dwindling supplies, York and his exhausted army withdrew, leaving the defence of Pontoise (now strengthened and resupplied) to his captains once again.[l] He had helped secure the town for a few more months, the French having lost much of the campaign season. They nevertheless took it in September, by assault. The loss of the last outpost in the Île-de-France was a serious blow to the English; York's efforts had ultimately been in vain.[m]
In 1442, with the attention of the French focused on Gascony, military activity in Normandy was greatly reduced.[n] Pontoise was York's only military action during his second lieutenancy, and he otherwise dealt with usual matters of governance and diplomacy. On 9 September, York was made chief commissioner to treat with France should peace talks successfully develop. He also helped negotiate an indefinite truce between England and Burgundy, signing a treaty at Dijon on 23 April 1443 with Isabel, duchess of Burgundy. On the financial side, the outlook wasn't good. Following the pattern of York's first lieutenancy, the English crown was struggling to pay his expenses, delaying or failing to execute his payments.[o]
However, in 1443, notwithstanding the amount owed to York, Henry VI of England put the newly created Duke of Somerset, John Beaufort, in charge of an army of 8,000 men, initially intended for the relief of Gascony. This denied York much-needed men and resources at a time when he was struggling to hold the borders of Normandy. Not only that, but the terms of Somerset's appointment could have caused York to feel that his own role as effective regent over the whole of Lancastrian France was reduced to that of governor of Normandy. The campaign itself also added to the insult: Somerset's conduct brought England to odds with the dukes of Brittany and Alençon, disrupting York's attempts (conducted during 1442–43) to involve the English in an alliance of French nobles. Somerset's army achieved nothing and eventually returned to Normandy, where Somerset died in 1444. This may have been the start of the hatred that York harboured for the Beaufort family, a resentment that would later turn into civil war.
English policy now turned back to a negotiated peace (or at least a truce) with France, so the remainder of York's time in France was spent in routine administration and domestic matters. The disaster of Somerset's expedition may have prompted the English government to give York some of his pending expenses as well as an appanage in Normandy in February 1444, but in any event the peace contracted shortly after with the Treaty of Tours removed the need for further military activity and consequent large expenses. The treaty stipulated the marriage of Henry VI with Charles VII's niece Margaret of Anjou, whom York met on 18 March 1445 at Pontoise. York himself entered into correspondence with Charles VII for the marriage of his eldest son Edward of Rouen to a daughter (Jeanne or Madeleine) of the latter. In this, he was supported by Margaret of Anjou and the peace party in England, as a means of strengthening the truce with France, but nothing came of it.
England and Ireland (1445–1450)
York returned to England on 20 October 1445 at the end of his five-year appointment in France. He must have had reasonable expectations of reappointment. However, he had become associated with the English in Normandy who were opposed to the policy of Henry VI's Council towards France, some of whom had followed him to England (for example Sir William Oldhall and Sir Andrew Ogard). Eventually (on 24 December 1446) the lieutenancy went to Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset, who had succeeded his brother John. During 1446 and 1447, York attended meetings of Henry VI's Council and of Parliament, but most of his time was spent in administration of his estates on the Welsh border.
York was present at the Bury parliament of 1447, which saw the king's uncle Humphrey of Gloucester be charged with treason. Humphrey died mysteriously on 23 February; he was until then the heir to the throne, and his death left the succession unclear, given that Henry VI was childless. Being a prince of blood, York might've had a good chance to succeed. The Beaufort family's proximity in kinship to the king placed them as alternative heirs, however. The betrothal of John de la Pole (son of the Duke of Suffolk) to Margaret, the Beaufort heiress, as well as the Duke of Somerset's position as the most senior royal agnate, put the de la Pole and Beaufort families as potential successors.
York's attitude toward the Council's surrender of the French province of Maine, in return for an extension of the truce with France and a French bride for Henry, must have contributed to his appointment on 30 July 1447 as Lieutenant of Ireland. In some ways it was a logical appointment, as Richard was also Earl of Ulster and had considerable estates in Ireland, but it was also a convenient way of removing him from both England and France. His term of office was for ten years, ruling him out of consideration for any other high office during that period.
Domestic matters kept him in England until June 1449, but when he did eventually leave for Ireland, it was with Cecily (who was pregnant at the time) and an army of around 600 men. This suggests a stay of some time was envisaged. However, claiming lack of money to defend English possessions, York decided to return to England. His financial state may indeed have been problematic, since by the mid-1440s he was owed £38,666 by the crown, (equivalent to £28.8 million in current value) and the income from his estates was declining.
York stayed in Ireland for about a year (1449–50). Upon his arrival, various Irish nobles submitted to him, somewhat replicating the outcome of when Richard II visited the island in the 14th century. York tried to befriend some important groups in Irish politics (notably the O'Neill dynasty), which would help turn Ireland into a safe refuge for him when the political situation back at home became tense. His rule would also contribute to the later popularity the House of York would enjoy on Ireland.
Leader of the Opposition (1450–1453)
In 1450, the defeats and failures of the English royal government of the previous ten years boiled over into serious political unrest. In January, during Jack Cade's Rebellion, Adam Moleyns, Lord Privy Seal and Bishop of Chichester, was lynched. In May the chief councillor of the king, William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk, was murdered on his way into exile. The House of Commons demanded that the king take back many of the grants of land and money he had made to his favourites.
In June, Kent and Sussex rose in revolt. Led by Jack Cade (taking the name Mortimer), they took control of London and killed James Fiennes, 1st Baron Saye and Sele, the Lord High Treasurer of England. In August, the final towns held in Normandy fell to the French and refugees flooded back to England.
On 7 September, York landed at Beaumaris, Anglesey. Evading an attempt by Henry to intercept him, and gathering followers as he went, York arrived in London on 27 September. After an inconclusive (and possibly violent) meeting with the king, York continued to recruit, both in East Anglia and the west. The violence in London was such that Somerset, back in England after the collapse of English Normandy, was put in the Tower of London for his own safety. In December Parliament elected York's chamberlain, Sir William Oldhall, as speaker.
York's public stance was that of a reformer, demanding better government and the prosecution of the traitors who had lost northern France. Judging by his later actions, there may also have been a more hidden motive – the destruction of Somerset, who was soon released from the Tower. Although granted another office, that of Justice of the Forest south of the Trent, York still lacked any real support outside Parliament and his own retainers.
In April 1451, Somerset was released from the Tower and appointed Captain of Calais. When one of York's councillors, Thomas Young, the MP for Bristol, proposed that York be recognised as heir to the throne, he was sent to the Tower and Parliament was dissolved. Henry VI was prompted into belated reforms, which went some way to restore public order and improve the royal finances. Frustrated by his lack of political power, York retired to Ludlow.
In 1452, York made another bid for power, but not to become king himself. Protesting his loyalty, he aimed to be recognised as Henry VI's heir to the throne (Henry was childless after seven years of marriage), while also trying to destroy the Duke of Somerset, who Henry may have preferred to succeed him over York, as a Beaufort descendant. Gathering men on the march from Ludlow, York headed for London to find the city gates barred against him on Henry's orders. At Dartford in Kent, with his army outnumbered, and the support of only two of the nobility (Lords Courtenay and Cobham), York was forced to come to an agreement with Henry. He was allowed to present his complaints against Somerset to the king, but was then taken to London and after two weeks of virtual house arrest, was forced to swear an oath of allegiance at St Paul's Cathedral.
Protector of the Realm (1453–1455)
By the summer of 1453, York seemed to have lost his power struggle. Henry embarked on a series of judicial tours, punishing York's tenants who had been involved in the debacle at Dartford. The Queen consort, Margaret of Anjou, was pregnant, and even if she should miscarry, the marriage of the newly ennobled Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, to Margaret Beaufort provided for an alternative line of succession. By July, York had lost both of his offices, Lieutenant of Ireland and Justice of the Forest south of the Trent.
Then, in August 1453, Henry VI suffered a catastrophic mental breakdown, perhaps brought on by the news of the defeat at the Battle of Castillon in Gascony, which finally drove English forces from France. He became completely unresponsive, unable to speak, and had to be led from room to room. The Council tried to carry on as though the king's disability would be brief, but they had to admit eventually that something had to be done. In October, invitations for a Great Council were issued, and although Somerset tried to have him excluded, York (the premier duke of the realm) was included. Somerset's fears were to prove well grounded, for in November he was committed to the Tower.
On 22 March 1454, Cardinal John Kemp, the Chancellor, died, making continued government in the King's name constitutionally impossible. Henry could not be induced to respond to any suggestion as to who might replace Kemp. Despite the opposition of Margaret of Anjou, York was appointed Protector of the Realm and Chief Councillor on 27 March 1454. York's appointment of his brother-in-law, Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, as Chancellor was significant. Henry's burst of activity in 1453 had seen him try to stem the violence caused by various disputes between noble families. These disputes gradually polarised around the long-standing Percy–Neville feud. Unfortunately for Henry, Somerset (and therefore the king) became identified with the Percy cause. This drove the Nevilles into the arms of York, who now for the first time had support among a section of the nobility.
Confrontation and aftermath (1455–1456)
According to the historian Robin Storey: "If Henry's insanity was a tragedy, his recovery was a national disaster." When he recovered his reason in January 1455, Henry lost little time in reversing York's actions. Somerset was released and restored to favour. York was deprived of the Captaincy of Calais (which was granted to Somerset once again) and of the office of Protector. Salisbury resigned as Chancellor. York, Salisbury, and Salisbury's eldest son, Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, were threatened when a Great Council was called to meet on 21 May in Leicester (away from Somerset's enemies in London). York and his Neville relations recruited in the north and probably along the Welsh border. By the time Somerset realised what was happening, there was no time to raise a large force to support the king.
Once York took his army south of Leicester, thus barring the route to the Great Council, the dispute between him and the king regarding Somerset would have to be settled by force. On 22 May, the king and Somerset arrived at St Albans with a hastily assembled and poorly equipped army of around 2,000. York, Warwick, and Salisbury were already there with a larger and better-equipped army. More importantly, at least some of their soldiers would have had experience in the frequent border skirmishes with the Kingdom of Scotland and the occasionally rebellious people of Wales.
The First Battle of St Albans that followed hardly deserves the term battle. Possibly as few as 50 men were killed, but among them were some of the prominent leaders of the Lancastrian party, such as Somerset himself, Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, and Thomas Clifford, 8th Baron de Clifford. York and the Nevilles had therefore succeeded in killing their enemies, while York's capture of the king gave him the chance to resume the power he had lost in 1453. It was vital to keep Henry alive, as his death would have led, not to York becoming king himself, but to the minority rule of his two-year-old son Edward of Westminster. Since York's support among the nobility was small, he would be unable to dominate a minority Council led by Margaret of Anjou.
In the custody of York, the king was returned to London with York and Salisbury riding alongside, and with Warwick bearing the royal sword in front. On 25 May, Henry received the crown from York in a clearly symbolic display of power. York made himself Constable of England and appointed Warwick Captain of Calais. York's position was enhanced when some of the nobility agreed to join his government, including Salisbury's brother William Neville, Lord Fauconberg, who had served under York in France.
For the rest of the summer, York held the king prisoner, either in Hertford castle or in London (to be enthroned in Parliament in July). When Parliament met again in November, the throne was empty, and it was reported that the king was ill again. York resumed the office of Protector; although he surrendered it when the king recovered in February 1456, it seemed that this time Henry was willing to accept that York and his supporters would play a major part in the government of the realm.
Salisbury and Warwick continued to serve as councillors, and Warwick was confirmed as Captain of Calais. In June, York himself was sent north to defend the border against a threatened invasion by James II of Scotland. However, the king once again came under the control of a dominant figure, this time one harder to replace than Suffolk or Somerset: for the rest of his reign, it would be the queen, Margaret of Anjou, who would control the king.
Uneasy peace (1456–1459)
Although Margaret of Anjou had now taken the place formerly held by Suffolk or Somerset, her position, at least at first, was not as dominant. York had his Lieutenancy of Ireland renewed, and he continued to attend meetings of the Council. However, in August 1456 the court moved to Coventry, in the heart of the queen's lands. How York was treated now depended on how powerful the queen's views were. York was regarded with suspicion on three fronts: he threatened the succession of the young Prince of Wales; he was apparently negotiating for the marriage of his eldest son Edward into the Burgundian ruling family; and as a supporter of the Nevilles, he was contributing to the major cause of disturbance in the kingdom – the Percy–Neville feud.
Here, the Nevilles lost ground. Salisbury gradually ceased to attend meetings of the council. When his brother Robert Neville, Bishop of Durham, died in 1457, the new appointment was Laurence Booth. Booth was a member of the queen's inner circle. The Percys were shown greater favour both at court and in the struggle for power on the Scottish border.
Henry's attempts at reconciliation between the factions divided by the killings at St Albans reached their climax with the Loveday on 24 March 1458. However, the lords concerned had earlier turned London into an armed camp, and the public expressions of amity seemed not to have lasted beyond the ceremony.
Civil war breaks out (1459)
In June 1459 a Great Council was summoned to meet at Coventry. York, the Nevilles and some other lords refused to appear, fearing that the armed forces that had been commanded to assemble the previous month had been summoned to arrest them. Instead, York and Salisbury recruited in their strongholds and met Warwick, who had brought with him his troops from Calais, at Worcester. Parliament was summoned to meet at Coventry in November, but without York and the Nevilles. This could only mean that they were to be accused of treason.
York and his supporters raised their armies, but they were initially dispersed throughout the country. Salisbury beat back a Lancastrian ambush at the Battle of Blore Heath on 23 September 1459, while his son Warwick evaded another army under the command of the Duke of Somerset, and afterwards they both joined their forces with York. On 11 October, York tried to move south, but was forced to head for Ludlow. On 12 October, at the Battle of Ludford Bridge, York once again faced Henry just as he had at Dartford seven years earlier. Warwick's troops from Calais refused to fight, and the rebels fled – York to Ireland, Warwick, Salisbury and York's son Edward to Calais. York's wife Cecily and their two younger sons (George and Richard) were captured in Ludlow Castle and imprisoned at Coventry.
The wheel of fortune (1459–1460)
York's flight worked to his advantage. He was still Lieutenant of Ireland and attempts to replace him failed. The Parliament of Ireland backed him, providing offers of both military and financial support. Warwick's (possibly inadvertent) return to Calais also proved fortunate. His control of the English Channel meant that pro-Yorkist propaganda, emphasising loyalty to the king while decrying his wicked councillors, could be spread around southern England. Such was the Yorkists' naval dominance that Warwick was able to sail to Ireland in March 1460, meet York and return to Calais in May. Warwick's control of Calais was to prove to be influential with the wool-merchants in London.
In December 1459 York, Warwick and Salisbury suffered attainder. Their lives were forfeit, and their lands reverted to the king; their heirs would not inherit. This was the most extreme punishment a member of the nobility could suffer, and York was now in the same situation as Henry of Bolingbroke (the future King Henry IV) in 1398. Only a successful invasion of England would restore his fortune. Assuming the invasion was successful, York had three options: become Protector again, disinherit the king's son so that York would succeed, or claim the throne for himself.
On 26 June, Warwick and Salisbury landed at Sandwich. The men of Kent rose to join them. London opened its gates to the Nevilles on 2 July. They marched north into the Midlands, and on 10 July, they defeated the royal army at the Battle of Northampton (through treachery among the king's troops), and captured Henry, whom they brought back to London.
York remained in Ireland. He did not set foot in England until 9 September, and when he did, he acted as a king. Marching under the arms of his maternal great-great-grandfather Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, he displayed a banner of the Coat of Arms of England as he approached London.
A Parliament called to meet on 7 October repealed all the legislation of the Coventry parliament the previous year. On 10 October, York arrived in London and took residence in the royal palace. Entering Parliament with his sword borne upright before him, he made for the empty throne and placed his hand upon it, as if to occupy it. He may have expected the assembled peers to acclaim him as king, as they had acclaimed Henry Bolingbroke in 1399. Instead, there was silence. Thomas Bourchier, the Archbishop of Canterbury, asked whether he wished to see the king. York replied, "I know of no person in this realm the which oweth not to wait on me, rather than I of him." This high-handed reply did not impress the Lords.
The next day, Richard advanced his claim to the crown by hereditary right in proper form. However, his narrow support among his peers led to failure once again. After weeks of negotiation, the best that could be achieved was the Act of Accord, by which York and his heirs were recognised as Henry's successors. However, Parliament did grant York extraordinary executive powers to protect the realm, and made him Prince of Wales (and Earl of Chester, Duke of Cornwall) and Lord Protector of England on 31 October 1460. With the king effectively in custody, York and Warwick were the de facto rulers of the country.
Final campaign and death
While this was happening, the Lancastrian loyalists were rallying and arming in the north of England. Faced with the threat of attack from the Percys, and with Margaret of Anjou trying to gain the support of the new king of Scotland James III, York, Salisbury and York's second son Edmund, Earl of Rutland, headed north on 2 December. They arrived at York's stronghold of Sandal Castle on 21 December to find the situation bad and getting worse. Forces loyal to Henry controlled the city of York, and nearby Pontefract Castle was also in hostile hands. The Lancastrian armies were commanded by some of York's implacable enemies such as Henry Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland and John Clifford, whose fathers had been killed at the Battle of Saint Albans, and included several northern lords who were jealous of York's and Salisbury's wealth and influence in the North.
On 30 December, York and his forces sortied from Sandal Castle. Their reasons for doing so are not clear; they were variously claimed to be a result of deception by the Lancastrian forces, or treachery by northern lords who York mistakenly believed to be his allies, or simple rashness on York's part. The larger Lancastrian force destroyed York's army in the resulting Battle of Wakefield. York was killed in the battle. The precise nature of his end was variously reported; he was either unhorsed, wounded and died fighting to the death or captured, given a mocking crown of bulrushes and then beheaded. Edmund of Rutland was intercepted as he tried to flee and was executed, possibly by Clifford in revenge for the death of his own father at the First Battle of St Albans. Salisbury escaped, but was captured and executed the following night.
York was buried at Pontefract, but his head was put on a pike by the victorious Lancastrian armies and displayed over Micklegate Bar at York, wearing a paper crown. His remains were later moved to Church of St Mary and All Saints, Fotheringhay.
Within a few weeks of Richard of York's death, his eldest surviving son was acclaimed King Edward IV and finally established the House of York on the throne following a decisive victory over the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton. After an occasionally tumultuous reign, he died in 1483 and was succeeded by his twelve-year-old son, Edward V, who was himself succeeded after 86 days by his uncle, York's youngest son, Richard III.
Richard of York's grandchildren included Edward V and Elizabeth of York. Elizabeth married Henry VII, founder of the Tudor dynasty, and became the mother of Henry VIII, Margaret Tudor, and Mary Tudor. All future English monarchs would come from the line of Henry VII and Elizabeth, and therefore from Richard of York himself.
Richard of York is the subject of the popular mnemonic "Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain" to remember the colours of a rainbow in order (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet).
Richard was descended from English and Castilian royalty, as well as several major English aristocratic families.
|Ancestors of Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York|
His twelve children with Cecily Neville are:
- Anne of York (10 August 1439 – 14 January 1476). Married to Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter and Thomas St. Leger.
- Henry of York (10 February 1441, Hatfield – died young).
- Edward IV of England (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483). Married to Elizabeth Woodville.
- Edmund, Earl of Rutland (17 May 1443 – 30 December 1460).
- Elizabeth of York (22 April 1444 – after January 1503). Married to John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk (his first marriage, later annulled, was to Lady Margaret Beaufort when she was about 3 years old).
- Margaret of York (3 May 1446 – 23 November 1503). Married to Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy.
- William of York (b. 7 July 1447, died young).
- John of York (b. 7 November 1448, died young).
- George, Duke of Clarence (21 October 1449 – 18 February 1478). Married to Lady Isabel Neville. Parents of Lady Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury.
- Thomas of York (born c. 1451, died young).
- Richard III of England (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485). Married to Lady Anne Neville, the sister of Lady Isabel, Duchess of Clarence.
- Ursula of York (born 22 July 1455, died young).
- Parts of Richard's estates were initially still held in dower by the widows of the previous land and title holders. The Duchy of York had two dowager duchesses, Joan Holland (d. 1434) and Philippa Mohun (d. 1431), widows of the 1st and 2nd dukes of York respectively. The Mortimer estates also had Anne Stafford (widow of the late Earl of March) as dowager Countess of March. She died on 20 September 1432, one day before York reached the legal age of majority (21). Since the last dowager passed away in 1434, he did not have to wait long after reaching majority to enjoy the full usufruct of his lands.
- Baynard's Castle had belonged to Richard's uncle Edward, but upon the latter's death the inn passed to Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, the uncle of King Henry VI. York would only gain definite possession of it upon Gloucester's death in 1447.
- Gloucester advocated an aggressive and vigorous military presence in the continent as a means to reverse the bad situation, whereas Beaufort tended to favour peace and diplomacy as a means to preserve what was left of the English territories in France.
- Following the death of Bedford, Gloucester became the person with the highest royal stature other than the king, making him perhaps the most obvious choice to succeed his brother in the governorship of France. He was unacceptable to Cardinal Beaufort and his associates, however. Gloucester himself doesn't seem to have been much interested, perhaps due to fear of losing his power base in England.
- Appointments to governorship of France were in part influenced by the ongoing court feud between Gloucester and Cardinal Beaufort. York was succeeded in 1437 by the Earl of Warwick, a political compromise. After Warwick's death in 1439, Cardinal Beaufort seems to have pressed for the appointment of his nephew John Beaufort, 3rd Earl of Somerset, which Gloucester opposed, and who in turn may have sought his own appointment. Somerset briefly took control of the situation from 1439 to around the time of York's arrival in France in 1441.
- The English war effort was now somewhat reliant on loans by Cardinal Beaufort, who would at times in return demand money, land, and office grants for his nephews, as a means to enhance the standing of his family. This was compounded by the fact that the Beauforts were royal favourites and enjoyed considerable influence on King Henry VI. Over time, York would come to dispute appointments and resource grants with the Beaufort family, which likely generated resentment towards them. Given that York's later political career was marked by hostility towards the Beaufort family, these events in France are regarded as a factor in this newly developing feud.
- The English crown had promised to send 11,100 men (9000 archers and 2100 men-at-arms) to France under York. This amount couldn't be sent all at once due to bad weather, with 1770 being sent before him, 970 in January and 800 in February. The February contingent was annihilated while trying to defend Saint-Denis, before York's arrival. He would arrive in France with only 4500 men, which, coupled with the earlier 1770 already sent in advance, amounted to only 6270 (still falling short of the original 11,100 promised). Furthermore, York and his contingent were committed to only one year, while earlier ones were contracted for two.
An additional 2000 (400 men-at-arms and 1600 archers) funded by Cardinal Beaufort were forthcoming.
- Though in February 1438 the privy council and the king offered him royal jewels as payment, as far as 1439 York was still owed £18,000 by the English crown.
- Accompanying York were the earls of Oxford and Ormond, and Lord Bourchier (York's brother-in-law). Also present were the duchesses of York and Bedford.
- At Normandy in 1440, the English had captured Harfleur and Montivilliers, but the French had taken Louviers and Conches. In 1441, the French moved towards English strongholds in the Île-de-France, taking Creil and Conflans.
- A large relief army (of around 6–7,000 men) was assembled, having in its presence lords Talbot and Scales, and sir Richard Woodville.
- Historian Thomas Basin reported that Talbot put into action a plan to ambush and capture Charles VII at Poissy. Basin stated that a pincer movement was planned, whereby Talbot would surprise Charles VII at Poissy while York would intercept him if he escaped to north of the Seine. Charles had apparently left Poissy only shortly before Talbot made his move, and York was not in his supposedly required position. It is unclear whether this was a military blunder by York, as details are scarce. Basin simply said that the duke was not able to intercept Charles. York's army at the time was starving, and not in the best condition to continue military operations. What is certain from contemporary chroniclers is that Talbot did carry out a raid on Poissy, likely on 27 July. York arrived at Rouen on 1 August.
- To make matters worse, the French at the same time also took Beaumesnil, Beaumont, and Évreux. This was only partly alleviated by the English capture of Courville and Gallardon by the Aragonese mercenary François de Surienne, whom York rewarded.
- Faced with the expiry of the 6-month contract of the army he had brought to France, York sent (15 February 1442) Talbot to England to request reinforcements, which was forthcoming in the form of 2500 men. The only notable military actions at Normandy in 1442 were Talbot's recapture of Conches, the loss of Granville, and the siege of Dieppe (the only port held by the French in the Norman coast).
- Though York had been paid the agreed £20,000 in 1441, he was not to receive anything more from England until February 1444, when he got £10,300. These were the only actual payments York received while in France, and the next was only paid in 1446, after York's lieutenancy ended.
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- UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
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|Peerage of England|
Title last held byEdward of Norwich
as holder until 1415
| Duke of York
24 February 1425 – 30 December 1460
| Earl of March|
18 January 1425 – 30 December 1460
Title last held byRichard of Conisburgh
as holder until 1415
| Earl of Cambridge|
19 May 1426 – 30 December 1460
|Vacant|| Prince of Wales
Duke of Cornwall
Earl of Chester
31 October 1460 – 30 December 1460
|Peerage of Ireland|
| Earl of Ulster
18 January 1425 – 30 December 1460
The Duke of Gloucester
| Justice in eyre south of the Trent
14 July 1447 – 2 July 1453
The Duke of Somerset
The Duke of Bedford and
The Duke of Gloucester
as rulers for Henry VI until 1429
| Lord Protector of England
3 April 1454 – 9 February 1455
19 November 1455 – 25 February 1456
31 October 1460 – 30 December 1460
The Duke of Bedford
| Lieutenant of France
8 May 1436 – c. 13 November 1437
The Earl of Warwick
The Earl of Warwick
| Lieutenant of France
2 July 1440 – 29 September 1445
The Earl of Somerset