Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair
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|Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair|
Stone carving, Cong Abbey
|High King of Ireland|
|Reign||1166 – 1198|
|Predecessor||Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn|
|Successor||Brian Ua Néill|
Kincora, Killaloe, County Clare, Munster
|Died||2 December 1198|
|Burial||Clonmacnois, County Offaly|
|Consort||six, including Dubhchobhlaigh Ní Ruairc|
|Father||Toirdelbach Ua Conchobair|
|Mother||Caillech De Ní hEidhin|
Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair (Modern Irish: Ruaidhrí Ó Conchobhair, or, Ruairí Ó Conchúir; commonly anglicised as Rory O'Connor or Roderic O'Connor) (c. 1116 – 2 December 1198) was King of Connacht from 1156 to 1186, and High King of Ireland from 1166 to 1193. He was the last High King of Ireland before the Norman invasion (Brian Ua Néill and Edward Bruce both claimed the title with opposition in later years).
Rig Damna Connachta
Ruaidrí was not a favourite of his father, his brother Conchobar Ua Conchobair being Tairrdelbach's tánaiste and designated heir. In 1136, he and his brother Aedh (died 1195) took advantage of a low in Tairrdelbach's fortunes to stage a rebellion. Aedh was blinded by Conchobar on Tairrdelbach's orders but Ruaidrí was protected by the Archbishop of Connacht, Muireadhach Ua Dubhthaigh. In 1143, he staged another rebellion. He was arrested by Conchobar and Tighearnán Ua Ruairc.
Ruaidhri, was taken by Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobhair, in violation of laity and clergy, relics and protection. These were the sureties: Muireadhach Ua Dubhthaigh, with the clergy and laity of Connacht; Tadhg Ua Briain, lord of Thomond; Tighearnan Ua Ruairc, lord of Breifne; and Murchadh, son of Gilla-na-naemh Ua Fearghail, lord of Muintir-Anghaile. The clergy of Connacht, with Muireadhach Ua Dubhthaigh, fasted at Rath-Brenainn, to get their guarantee, but it was not observed for them.
After a year's imprisonment, Archbishop of Armagh Gilla Meic Liac mac Diarmata sought his release by April 1144, along with his confederates Domnall Ua Flaithbertaig and Cathal Ua Conchobair. However, Tairrdelbach only acquiesced upon the assassination of Conchobar in Mide, later that year.
Tairrdelbach now chose another son, Donnell Mor Mideach Ua Conchobair, as tánaiste, but Ruaidrí improved his status with raids against Tighearnán Ua Ruairc in 1146 and capturing and killing Tairrdelbach's nephew and opponent, Domnall Ua Conchobar, in 1150. Donnell Mór Mideach began to lose favour in 1147 and his fate was sealed when he was arrested in 1151, making solid Ruadrí's claim as his father's heir. In that year Ruadrí successfully raided Thomond, where Tairrdelbach won a great victory at the Battle of Móin Mór.
In 1152, Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn travelled into Mide, compelling hostages of Tairrdelbach. "They divided Meath into two parts on this occasion; ... On this occasion Dearbhforgaill, daughter of Murchadh Ua Maeleachlainn, and wife of Tighearnan Ua Ruairc, was brought away by the King of Leinster" (Dermot MacMurrough).
Activity to 1156
Ruaidrí remained active in suppressing the Ua Briain's of Munster, burning Croome, dividing Munster in half (Thomond to Tadhg Ua Briain, Desmond to Diarmaid MacCartaigh), expelling Toirrdelbach mac Diarmata into Ailech. This gave reason for Mac Lochlainn to travel south with an army in 1153. Tairrdelbach was beaten off by Mac Lochlainn, leaving Ruaidhri and his men exposed at Fordruim, (now in County Westmeath):
Ruaidhri, son of Toirdhealbhach, and the battalion of West Connacht, and the recruits of Sil-Muireadhaigh, came to Fordruim; but as they were pitching their camp there, the heroes of the North poured upon them without previous notice, and numbers of the Connachtmen were slain by them, and among the rest Gillacheallaigh Ua hEidhin, lord of Aidhne, and his son, Aedh; Brian Ua Dubhda, lord of Ui-Fiachrach of the North; Muircheartach, son of Conchobhar (who was son of Toirdhealbhach) Ua Conchobhair; Domhnall Ua Birn; Domhnall, son of Cathal Ua Conchobhair; and Sitric Mac Dubhghaill.
The Ua Conchobair's brought "the fleets of Dun-Gaillmhe, of Conmhaicne-mara, of the men of Umhall, of Ui-Amhalghadha, and Ui-Fiachrach" north and defeated Mac Lochlainn at Inis Eoghain, but the latter was strong on land, forcing them to respond to incursions in east Connacht and Breifne, along with attempted settlements in Mide in 1155. The latter led to "The castle of Cuileanntrach [being] burned and demolished by Ruaidhri."
King of Connacht
Tairrdelbach died at his capital of Dunmore, County Galway. Ruaidri became king of Connacht "without any opposition" As a precaution, he arrested three of his twenty-two brothers, "Brian Breifneach, Brian Luighneach, and Muircheartach Muimhneach" to prevent them from usurping him; Brian Breifneach was blinded.
Over the winter of 1156–57 he positioned a fleet on the River Shannon in anticipation of an attack from Aileach. Yet Mac Lochlinn successfully imposed his own client king in Mide, took hostages from Dermot MacMurrough, evicted the kings of Loígis, Uí Failghe and Osraige, all of whom fled to Connacht. He then subdued all Munster and captured Luimneach. Forced to attack or lose face, Ruaidrí responded by plundering and burning areas around Strabane and Derry. Then, while Mac Lochlinn was returning home to counter him, Ruaidrí entered Munster and overturned Mac Lochlinn's political settlement.
High King of Ireland
Children and descendants
Aed mac Ruaidri had been five years King of Connacht, as the poet said: 'Aed mac Ruaidri of the swift onslaught, five years his rule over the province, till he fell— a loss on every frontier— by the hand of Fedlimid.' Here ends the rule of the children of Ruaidri O Conchobair, King of Ireland. For the Pope offered him the title to [the kingship of] Ireland for himself and his seed for ever, and likewise six wives, if he would renounce the sin of adultery henceforth; and since he would not accept these terms God took the rule and sovranty from his seed for ever, in punishment for his sin.
The annals and genealogies list thirteen children fathered by Ruaidrí. There may have been more.
- – Conchobar Ua Conchobair
- – Muirchertach Ua Conchobair
- – Aedh Muimhnech Ua Conchobair. Had a son, Conchobar, alive in 1236.
- - Domnall Mór Ua Conchobair. Had a son, Niall, killed 1242.
- - Aed mac Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, died 1159.
- - The daughter of Ruaidhri Ua Conchobair, wife of [F]laithbertach Ua Maeldoraidh, was killed by the sons of Ua Cairella[i]n in 1176.
- - Rose Ní Conchobair, married Hugh de Lacy, Lord of Meath about 1180, and had descendants.
- – Conchobar Máenmaige Ua Conchobhair, died 1189.
- – Diarmait mac Ruaidrí Ó Conchobair, died 1221. Had sons Diarmait (fl. 1237), Donnchad (fl. 1237), Muirchertach (k. 1237) and Cormac.
- – Muirghis Cananach Ua Conchobhair, died 1224.
- - Nuala Ní Conchobair, died 1226.
- - Aedh mac Ruaidri Ó Conchobair, died 1233.
- – Toirdhealbhach mac Ruaidhrí Ó Conchobhair, died 1239. Had sons Conchobar Buide and Brian.
- - M1211.8. Raghnailt and Caillech De, two daughters of Roderic O'Conor, died.
All of Ruaidrí's large male progeny faded into obscurity in the first half of the 13th century. The last to be mentioned in the Gaelic-Irish annals was his grandson, Niall son of Domnall Mór, who was killed in 1242.
The result is that there are no demonstratable male-line descendants of Ireland's last high-king recorded after the 1240s. All kings of Connacht from 1233 descended from Ruaidrí's much younger brother, Cathal Crobhdearg Ua Conchobair. The Ó Conchubhair Donn, the senior member of the entire Síol Muireadaigh dynasty, likewise descends from Cathal Crobhdearg.
Only one of Ruaidrí's descendants have ever attempted to claim the Irish High Kingship:
- Brian Ua Néill from 1258-1260
- Aibhm O Croinin (2013), Early Medieval Ireland, 400-1200, London: Routledge, p. 6,
1175: Treaty of Windsor between Ruaidri Ua Conchobhair, high-king, and Henry II. 1183: Ruaidri Ua Conchobhair deposed.
- O'Donovan, John (1856). Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland. Dublin. p. 2:1071. Retrieved 10 Apr 2017.
- O'Donovan, John (1856). Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland. Dublin. p. 2:1103. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- O'Donovan, John (1856). Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland. Dublin. p. 2:1107–1108. Retrieved 10 Apr 2017.
- O'Donovan. Annals. p. 2:1117.
- "17th-Century Manuscript by Bard Niall MacMhuirich" (PDF). Iona Abbey and Clan Donald. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, in Medieval Ireland:An Encyclopedia, pp. 466–471, ed. Seán Duffy, New York, 2005. ISBN 0-415-94052-4.
- The Annals of Ulster
- Annals of the Four Masters
- Goddard Orpen, Song of Dermot and the Earl (1892)
- William Stubbs, edition of Benedictus Abbas (Rolls Series)
- Kate Norgate, England under the Angevin Kings, vol. ii. (1887).
- Giraldus Cambrensis, Opera, vol. v. (Rolls Series)
Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobhair
| King of Connacht
Conchobar Maenmaige Ua Conchobhair
| High King of Ireland
Brian Ua Néill
| King of Ireland
title vacant until succeeded by Henry VIII in 1542