Russians in Moldova
|(369,896 (2004 census) (9.39% of total population))|
|Regions with significant populations|
Russians in Moldova form the second largest ethnic minority in the country. According to the Moldovan Census (2004) and a separate 2004 Census in Transnistria, about 370,000 persons identified themselves as ethnic Russians in Moldova.
| % Core
| % Transnistria
|Population of Moldova||Moldovan (Romanian)||Russian||Ukrainian||Gagauz||Bulgarian||Other languages
|by native language||2,588,355
|by language of first use||2,543,354
Russians settled Moldova, which was then Bessarabia, after the Russian Empire incroporated Bessarabia in 1812. Moldavians under Russian rule enjoyed privileges well, the language of Moldavians was established as an official language in the governmental institutions of Bessarabia, used along with Russian. The publishing works established by Archbishop Gavril Bănulescu-Bodoni were able to produce books and lithurgical works in Moldavian between 1815-1820, until the period from 1871 to 1905, when Russification policies were implemented that all public use of Romanian was phased out, and substituted with Russian. Romanian continued to be used as the colloquial language of home and family, mostly spoken by Romanians, either first or second language. Many Romanians changed their family names to Russian. This was the era of the highest level of assimilation in the Russian Empire.
In 1918, after the relinquishment of Russian Empire, control over the whole of Bessarabia fell under the Kingdom of Romania. The takeover was followed by the policy of Romanianization of ethnic minorities, mostly Russians, pursued by the Romanian authorities. In 1940, Bessarabia was claimed by Soviet Union, meaning Bessarabia came back to Russian power, wherein Bessarabia is now part of Moldova and Ukraine. Among Russians who were Romanianized were descendants of Romanians who underwent Russification laws in the past; because many Russians of Romanian descent speak Romanian as first or second language, they easily obeyed Romanianization laws.
Nowadays, Russian is provided with the status of a "language of interethnic communication", and since Soviet times remains widely used on many levels of the society and the state. According to the above-mentioned National Political Conception, Russian-Moldovan bilingualism is characteristic for Moldova.
380,796 people (11.25%) identify Russian as their native language, and some 540,990 (16%) speak it as first language in daily use. It is the first language for 93.2% of ethnic Russians, and a primary language for 4.9% of Moldovans, 50.0% of Ukrainians, 27.4% of Gagauz, 35.4% of Bulgarians, and 54.1% of other ethnic minorities.
- Demographics of Moldova
- Demographic history of Transnistria
- Russian diaspora
- Russians in post-Soviet states
- Moldova–Russia relations
- (Russian)Charter for the organization of the Bessarabian Oblast, April 29, 1818, in "Печатается по изданию: Полное собрание законов Российской империи. Собрание первое.", Vol 35. 1818, Sankt Petersburg, 1830, pg. 222-227. Available online at hrono.info
- King, Charles, The Moldovans, Hoover Press, 2000, ISBN 08-1799-792-X, pg. 21-22
- Colesnic-Codreanca, Lidia. Limba Română în Basarabia. Studiu sociolingvistic pe baza materialelor de arhivă (1812–1918) ("The Romanian language in Bessarabia. A sociolinguistic study based on archival materials (1812-1918)"). Chișinău: Editorial Museum, 2003.
- (Romanian) "Concepția politicii naționale a Republicii Moldova" Moldovan Parliament: Limba rusă care, în conformitate cu legislația în vigoare, are statutul de limbă de comunicare interetnică se aplică și ea în diverse domenii ale vieții statului și societății. Pentru Moldova este characteristic bilingvismul moldo-rus. În actualele condiţii, este necesar să se creeze posibilități reale pentru ca bilingvismul ruso-moldovenesc să devină realitate.
|This article related to the Republic of Moldova is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|