From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Autonomous Territorial Unit of Gagauzia
Avtonom Territoriali Bölümlüü Gagauziya (Gagauz)
Unitatea Teritorială Autonomă Găgăuzia (Romanian)
Автономное территориальное образование Гагаузия (Russian)
Yaşasın Gagauziya! (Gagauz)
"Long live Gagauzia!"
Anthem: Tarafım (Gagauz)
"My Land"
  Gagauzia within Moldova
Gagauz ASSR declared12 November 1989
Gagauz Republic declared19 August 1990
Autonomy agreement reached23 December 1994
Autonomy established[1]14 January 1995
and largest city
46°19′N 28°40′E / 46.317°N 28.667°E / 46.317; 28.667
Official languages
GovernmentDevolved parliamentary autonomous territorial unit
• Başkan (Governor)
Evghenia Guțul
Dmitri Constantinov
LegislaturePeople's Assembly
• Total
1,832 km2 (707 sq mi)
• Water (%)
• 2014[2] census
• Density
73.43/km2 (190.2/sq mi)
CurrencyMoldovan leu (MDL)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+373

Gagauzia or Gagauz-Yeri,[a] officially the Autonomous Territorial Unit of Gagauzia[b] (ATUG),[3][c] is an autonomous territorial unit of Moldova. Its autonomy is intended for the local Gagauz people, a Turkic-speaking, primarily Orthodox ethnic group.[4][5]

Bessarabia, previously the eastern half of the Principality of Moldavia, was annexed by the Russian Empire in 1812. At the end of World War I, all of Bessarabia – including what was known as 'Gagauzia' – switched control to the Kingdom of Romania. A Soviet invasion and occupation began in June 1940, but the territory was again occupied by Romania from 1941 to 1944, after the latter joined the Axis powers and helped invade the USSR. After World War II, it was incorporated into the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1990, Gagauzia declared itself independent from Moldova as the Gagauz Republic during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, but was ultimately reintegrated into Moldova in 1995.


In the early 20th century, Bulgarian historian M. Dimitrov enumerated 19 different theories concerning the origin of the Gagauz people. Several decades later, the Gagauz ethnologist M. N. Guboglo listed 21 such theories. In some, the Gagauz are presented as descendants of Bulgars, Cumans-Kipchaks,[6] or a clan of Seljuk Turks led by the Turkoman dervish Sarı Saltık. Their Orthodox confession may suggest that their ancestors were already living in the Balkans prior to the Ottoman conquest in the late 14th century. Another theory suggests a Kutrigur descent.[7] In the official Gagauz museum, a plaque mentions that one of the two main theories is that they descend from the Bulgars.

Russian Empire[edit]

Bessarabia, previously the eastern half of the Principality of Moldavia, was annexed by the Russian Empire in 1812 following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War of 1806–1812 (see Treaty of Bucharest (1812)). Nogai tribes who inhabited several villages in south Bessarabia (or Budjak) were forced to leave. Between 1812 and 1846, the Russians relocated the Gagauz people from what is today eastern Bulgaria (which was then under the Ottoman Empire) to the orthodox Bessarabia, mainly in the settlements vacated by the Nogai tribes. They settled there together with Bessarabian Bulgarians in Avdarma, Comrat, Congaz, Tomai, Cișmichioi, and other former Nogai villages. Some Gagauz were also settled in the part of the Principality of Moldavia that did not come under Russian control in 1812. But, within several years, villagers moved to live with their own people in the compact area in the south of Bessarabia where their descendants inhabit in the 21st century.

With the exception of a six-day de facto independence in the winter of 1906, when a peasant uprising declared an autonomous Comrat Republic, ethnic Gagauz have always been ruled by other dominant groups: the Russian Empire (1812–1917), the Kingdom of Romania (1918–1940 and 1941–1944), the Soviet Union (1940–41 and 1944–91), and Moldova (1917–18 and 1991 to date).

Soviet Union[edit]

Gagauz nationalism remained an intellectual movement during the 1980s, but strengthened by the end of the decade, as the Soviet Union began to embrace liberal ideals. In 1988, activists from the local intelligentsia aligned with other ethnic minorities to create a movement known as the Gagauz People. A year later, the Gagauz People held its first assembly; they passed a resolution demanding the creation of an autonomous territory in southern Moldova, with the city of Comrat as its capital.

The Gagauz national movement intensified when Moldovan (Romanian) was accepted as the official language of the Republic of Moldova in August 1989, challenging the then-dominant Russian language which was the official language of the USSR. A part of the multiethnic population of southern Moldova was concerned about the change in official languages.[8]: 104–5  They did not trust the central government in Chișinău. The Gagauz were also worried about the implications for them if Moldova reunited with Romania, as seemed likely at the time. In November 1989, the Gagauz ASSR was declared within Moldova.[citation needed] In August 1990, Comrat declared itself an autonomous Soviet republic separate from Moldova,[8]: 117  but the Moldovan government annulled the declaration as unconstitutional. At that time, Stepan Topal emerged as the leader of the Gagauz national movement.

Independent Moldova[edit]

"Gagauzia – Comrat District" sign
Physical map of Gagauzia
Schematic map of Gagauzia

Support for the Soviet Union remained high in Gagauzia, with a referendum in March 1991 returning an almost unanimous vote in favour of remaining part of the USSR.[9] Many Gagauz supported the Moscow coup attempt in August 1991,[8]: 117  and in September the same year, Transnistria declared its independence, thus further straining relations with the government of Moldova. But, when the Moldovan parliament voted on independence on 27 August 1991, six of the 12 Gagauz deputies in the Moldovan parliament voted in favour, while the other six abstained. The Moldovan government began to pay more attention to minority rights.[citation needed] The economic dependence of Gagauzia on the rest of Moldova, and the Moldovan army's inability to defeat Transnistria, created reasons for compromise on both sides.[8]: 117–118 

In February 1994, President Mircea Snegur promised autonomy to the Gagauz, but opposed independence. He was also opposed to the suggestion that Moldova become a federal state made up of three republics: Moldova, Gagauzia, and Transnistria.

In 1994, the Parliament of Moldova awarded to "the people of Gagauzia" (through the adoption of the new Constitution of Moldova) the right of "external self-determination". On 23 December 1994, the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova accepted the "Law on the Special Legal Status of Gagauzia" (Gagauz: Gagauz Yeri). The law entered into force on 14 January 1995, resolving the dispute peacefully. 23 December is now a Gagauz holiday. Gagauzia is now a "national-territorial autonomous unit" with three official languages: Romanian, Gagauz, and Russian.

Communes with over 50% ethnic Gagauz held referendums where a simple majority was required to join the autonomous region. Communes with fewer Gagauz could have referendums if they were requested by one-third of the population. Following the 5 March 1995 referendum, three towns and 26 communes were included in the Autonomous Gagauz Territory.[8]: 118  Gheorghe Tabunșcic [ro] was elected to serve as the Governor (Romanian: Guvernator, Gagauz: Başkan) of Gagauzia for a four-year term, as were the deputies of the local parliament, "The People's Assembly" (Gagauz: "Halk Topluşu"), with Petru Pașalî [ro] as chairman.

Dumitru Croitor [ro] won the 1999 governor elections and began to assert the rights granted to the governor by the 1994 agreement. The central authorities of Moldova proved unwilling to accept the results, initiating a lengthy stand-off between the autonomy and Chișinău. Finally, Croitor resigned in 2002 due to the pressure from the Moldovan government, which accused him of abuse of authority, relations with the separatist authorities of Transnistria, and other charges.

The central electoral commission of Gagauzia did not register Croitor as a candidate for the post of the governor in the subsequent elections, and Tabunșcic was elected in what was described as unfair elections.[10][11] Mihail Formuzal served as the governor of Gagauzia from 2006 until 2015. That year Irina Vlah was elected to the position, with 51% of the vote.[12]

On 2 February 2014, Gagauzia held a referendum. An overwhelming majority of voters opted for closer ties with Russia over EU integration. They also said they preferred the independence of Gagauzia if Moldova chooses to enter the EU.[13][14]

On 23 March 2015, Irina Vlah was elected as the new governor after a strongly pro-Russian campaign, dominated by the quest for closer ties with the Russian Federation.[15][16]


Gagauzia comprises four enclaves, and is divided into three districts. The main, central enclave includes the cities Comrat and Ceadîr-Lunga and is divided into two districts with those cities serving as administrative centers. The second largest enclave is located around the city of Vulcănești, while two smaller enclaves are the villages of Copceac and Carbalia. The village of Carbalia falls under administration of Vulcănești, while Copceac is part of the Ceadîr-Lunga district.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Gagauzia consists of one municipality, two cities, and 23 communes containing a total of 32 localities.[17]

Official name Gagauz name % Gagauz
Comrat (municipality) Komrat 72.8%
Ceadîr-Lunga (municipality) Çadır 73.7%
Vulcănești (city)
Vulcănești stație c.f.
Valkaneş demir yolu
Avdarma Avdarma 94.2%
Baurci Baurçu 97.9%
Beșalma Beşalma 96.7%
Beșghioz Beşgöz 93.0%
Bugeac Bucak 61.8%
Carbalia Kırbaalı 70.2%
Official name Gagauz name % Gagauz
Cazaclia Kazayak 96.5%
Chioselia Rusă Köseli Rus 25.2%
Chiriet-Lunga Kiriyet 92.6%
Chirsova Başküü 45.6%
Cioc-Maidan Çok-Maydan 93.1%
Cișmichioi Çöşmäküü 94.4%
Congaz Kongaz 96.1%
Congazcicul de Sus
Congazcicul de Jos
Kongazçık Yukarkı
Kongazçık Aşaakı
Copceac Kıpçak 95.0%
Official name Gagauz name % Gagauz
Cotovscoe Kırlannar 95.4%
Dezghingea Dezgincä 94.5%
Etulia Nouă
Etulia stație c.f.
Eni Tülüküü
Tülüküü demir yolu
Ferapontievca Parapontika 28.0%
Gaidar Haydar 96.5%
Joltai Coltay 96.0%
Tomai Tomay 95.1%


The autonomy of Gagauzia is guaranteed by the Moldovan constitution and regulated by the 1994 Gagauz Autonomy Act. If Moldova decided to unite with Romania, Gagauzia would have the right of self-determination.[18][19] The Gagauz People's Assembly (Gagauz: Halk Topluşu; Romanian: Adunarea Populară) has a mandate for lawmaking powers within its own jurisdiction. This includes laws on education, culture, local development, budgetary and taxation issues, social security, and questions of territorial administration. The People's Assembly also has two special powers: it may participate in the formulation of Moldova's internal and foreign policy; and, should central regulations interfere with the jurisdiction of Gagauz-Yeri, it has the right of appeal to Moldova's Constitutional Court.

The highest official of Gagauzia, who heads the executive power structure, is the Governor of Gagauzia (Gagauz: Başkan; Romanian: Guvernatorul Găgăuziei). She/he is elected by popular suffrage for a four-year term, and has power over all public administrative bodies of Gagauzia. She/he is also a member of the Government of the Republic of Moldova. Eligibility for governorship requires fluency in the Gagauz language, Moldovan citizenship, and a minimum age of 35 years.

Permanent executive power in Gagauz Yeri is exercised by the executive committee (Bakannik Komiteti / Comitetul Executiv). Its members are appointed by the governor, or by a simple majority vote in the Assembly at its first session. The Committee ensures the application of the laws of the Republic of Moldova and those of the Assembly of Gagauz-Yeri.

As part of its autonomy, Gagauzia has its own police force.[20]

Gagauz Halkı is a former Gagauz separatist political party, now outlawed.


Elections for the local governor and parliament as well as referendums take place in the autonomous region.

The population also votes in the national legislatives elections.

Gagauz regional elections since 1995[21]
Parties 1995 1999 2003 2008 2012 2016 2021
Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova (PSRM) 1 6 9
Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (PCRM) 8 4 16 10 7
We Build Europe at Home Party (PACE) 1
Democratic Party of Moldova (PDM) 1 2 1
Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova (PLDM) 2
Socio-Political Movement "Equality" 1 2
Socialist Party of Moldova (PSM) 2 1
Social Democratic Union "Ant-Hope" (UFS) 2
People's Democratic Party of Moldova (PDPM) 1
People's Party "Homeland" (PPV) 5
Democratic Agrarian Party of Moldova (PDAM) 5
People's Party of the Gagauz (PPG) 1
Trade unions 11
Independents 5 25 17 21 25 28 25


The base of Gagauzia's economy is agriculture, particularly viticulture. The main export products are wine, sunflower oil, non-alcoholic beverages, wool, leather, and textiles. There are 12 wineries, processing more than 400,000 tonnes annually. There are also two oil factories, two carpet factories, one meat factory, and one non-alcoholic beverage factory.


There are 451 kilometres (280 mi) of roads in Gagauzia, of which 82% are paved.


According to the 2014 census, Gagauzia had a population of 134,132, of which 36.2% urban and 63.8% rural population.

  • Births (2010): 2,042 (12.7 per 1,000)
  • Deaths (2010): 1,868 (11.6 per 1,000)
  • Growth Rate (2010): 174 (1.1 per 1,000)

Ethnic composition[edit]

According to the 2014 census results, the ethnic breakdown in Gagauzia was:[22]

Ethnic group Population Percent of total
Gagauz 112,403 83.8%
Bulgarians 6,573 4.9%
Moldovans 6,304 4.7%
Russians 4,292 3.2%
Ukrainians 3,353 2.5%
Others 1,207 0.9%

There is an ongoing identity controversy over whether Romanians and Moldovans are the same ethnic group. At the census, every citizen could only declare one nationality; consequently, one could not declare oneself both Moldovan and Romanian.



Gagauzia has 55 schools, the Comrat Pedagogical College (high school plus two years over high school), and Comrat State University (Komrat Devlet Universiteti[23]).

Despite declaring Gagauz as the national language of the autonomous region, the local authorities do not provide any full Gagauz-teaching school; most of those are Russian-language as opposed to inner Moldovan full Romanian language education.[24]


Turkey financed the creation of a Turkish cultural centre (Türk İşbirliği Ve Kalkınma İdaresi Başkanlığı) and a Turkish library (Atatürk Kütüphanesi). In the village of Beșalma, there is a Gagauz historical and ethnographical museum established by Dimitriy Kara Çöban.[citation needed]

In 2013, Ludmila Tukan was selected to represent Gagauzia in the territory's debut at the Turkvision Song Contest, with the song Вернись любовь ("Come back love").[25][26][27]


Not being a sovereign nation, Gagauzia's Football team cannot be admitted to FIFA. However, in 2006 Gagauzia did participate in the ELF Cup, held in North Cyprus, where it competed with teams from other regions around the world which fall short of full national sovereignty.

Gagauzia has various football clubs. FC Olimp Comrat and Univer-Oguzsport are based in Comrat and FC Saxan Gagauz Yeri is based in Ceadîr-Lunga and they play their matches in Ceadîr-Lunga Stadium.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Gagauz: Gagauz Yeri or Gagauziya, pronounced [ɡɑɡɑ̝.uˈz⁽ʲ⁾ijɑ̽]; Romanian: Găgăuzia; Russian: Гагаузия, romanizedGagauziya.
  2. ^ Gagauz: Avtonom Territorial Bölümlüü Gagauziya; Romanian: Unitatea Teritorială Autonomă Găgăuzia; Russian: Автономное территориальное образование Гагаузия, romanized: Avtonomnoye territoriaľnoye obrazovaniye Gagauziya.
  3. ^ Romanian: UTAG; Russian: АТОГ.


  1. ^ Neukirch, Claus (2002). "Autonomy and Conflict Transformation: The Case of the Gagauz Territorial Autonomy in the Republic of Moldova" (PDF). In Gal, Kinga (ed.). Minority Governance in Europe. Budapest. pp. 105–123. S2CID 31174219. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-02-20 – via Semantic scholar.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  2. ^ "Results of Population and Housing Census in the Republic of Moldova in 2014". National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldova. 2 August 2013. Archived from the original on 2018-09-28. Retrieved 2017-05-01.
  3. ^ Information Note by the Co-Rapporteurs on Their Fact-Finding Visit to Chisinau and Comrat (13–16 May 2015) (PDF). Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. 13 July 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  4. ^ Menz, Astrid. (2007). The Gagauz Between Christianity and Turkishness. 10.5771/9783956506925-123.
  5. ^ Lipka, Michael (22 May 2022). "The Gagauz: 'Christian Turks' between two worlds". TRT World. The Gagauz, a Turkic-Orthodox Christian people, have lived in the Balkans for hundreds of years, managing to preserve their language and culture.
  6. ^ MacDermott, Mercia (1998). Bulgarian Folk Customs. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley. p. 27. ISBN 1-85302-485-6.
  7. ^ Stoykov, Rusi (Руси Стойков) (1964). Селища и демографски облик в Североизточна България и Южна Добруджа. Известия на Варненското археологическо дружество (in Bulgarian). 15: 98.
  8. ^ a b c d e Roper, Steven D. (2001). "Regionalism in Moldova: The Case of Transnistria and Gagauzia". Regional & Federal Studies. 11 (3): 101–122. doi:10.1080/714004699. S2CID 154516934.
  9. ^ Bloch, Alexia (2014). "Citizenship, Belonging, and Moldovan Migrants in Post-Soviet Russia". Ethnos. 79 (4): 445–472. doi:10.1080/00141844.2012.751929. ISSN 0014-1844. S2CID 144754545.
  10. ^ "Information on Previous Elections of Governor of Gagauz ATU". Archived from the original on 2018-06-20.)
  11. ^ Hensel, Stuart (2006). Moldova Strategic Conflict Assessment (SCA) (PDF). Prepared for the UK Global Conflict Prevention Pool. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-10-25.
  12. ^ "Moldova: Semi-Autonomous Region Elects Pro-Russian Leader". The Moscow Times. Associated Press. 23 March 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-11-22.
  13. ^ Minzarari, Dumitru (5 February 2014). "The Gagauz Referendum in Moldova: A Russian Political Weapon?". Jamestown. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
  14. ^ "Gagauzia Voters Reject Closer EU Ties For Moldova". RFE/RL. 3 February 2014. Archived from the original on May 2, 2016. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
  15. ^ Elia, Danilo (27 March 2015). "E la Găgăuzia vota per Mosca". Osservatorio Balcani Caucaso (in Italian). Archived from the original on 9 July 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  16. ^ "Independent Candidate Irina Vlakh Elected Head of Gagauzia". TASS – Russian News Agency. 23 March 2015. Archived from the original on 26 October 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  17. ^ [Organic Law No. 292-XIV (see Annex 4)] (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 2007-09-26 – via
  18. ^ Benkö, Levente. "Autonomy in Gagauzia: A Precedent for Central and Eastern Europe?". Archived from the original on 2003-03-20.
  19. ^ Opinion on the Law on Modification and Addition in the Constitution of the Republic of Moldova in Particular Concerning the Status of Gagauzia. 2002. Archived from the original on 2007-12-11. Retrieved 2007-11-24 – via Council of Europe.
  20. ^ [Moldovan Law on the Special Legal Status of Gagauzia] (PDF) (in Romanian). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 3, 2009.
  21. ^ "Categorie: Alegeri în Găgăuzia". (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 2021-07-14. Retrieved 2021-07-14.
  22. ^ [2004 Census Results] (XLS). Archived from the original on 2017-10-14. Retrieved 2012-03-03 – via
  23. ^ Comrat, street. Galațan, 17,
  24. ^ Именно таким образом видят ситуацию идеологи гагаузского сепаратизма, видящего врагов во всех и каждом, кто не согласен с их ультрарадикальной точкой зрения.. 12 August 2009. Archived from the original on 2011-07-14. Retrieved 2010-03-27.
  25. ^ Granger, Anthony (2013-11-12). "Moldova: Ludmila Tukan To Turkvizyon". Eurovoix. Retrieved 2023-05-11.
  26. ^ Granger, Anthony (2013-10-19). "Türkvizyon 2013: Participating Countries Revealed". Eurovoix. Retrieved 2023-05-11.
  27. ^ Stanton, John (2013-12-18). "Inaugural Türkvizyon to hit the world's screens – Watch the videos". Eurovision Ireland. Retrieved 2023-05-11.

Further reading[edit]

  • Shabashov, A. V. (А.В. Шабашов) (2002). Gagauzy: sistema terminov rodstva i proiskhozhdeniye naroda Гагаузы: система терминов родства и происхождение народа [The Gagauz: terms of kinship system and origin of the people] (in Russian). Odessa: Astroprint.
  • Chinn, Jeff; Roper, Steven D. (1998). "Territorial Autonomy in Gagauzia". Nationalities Papers. 26 (1): 87–101. doi:10.1080/00905999808408552. S2CID 154359743.
  • Delinski, Andrian; Kahl, Thede; Lozovanu, Dorin; Prishchepov, Aleksandr, eds. (2014). Gagauziya (Gagauz Yeri) Avtonom Bölgesi Atlası [Atlas of ATU Gagauzia (Gagauz Yeri)]. Chișinău: Proart. ISBN 978-9975-4116-5-3.
  • Kahl, Thede (2015). "Die Gagausen und ihre Autonomie. Eine kritische Betrachtung aus der Perspektive der Mehrsprachigkeit (Moldauisch/Rumänisch, Russisch, Gagausisch/Türkisch)." In: Wiener Romanistische Landeswissenschaft(en), edited by Fabio Longoni, 147–65. Wien: Praesens.

External links[edit]