A lingua franca (/ /), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language or vehicular language, is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Lingua francas have developed around the world throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons (so-called "trade languages") but also for cultural, religious, diplomatic and administrative convenience, and as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities. The term originates with one such language, Mediterranean Lingua Franca. A world language is the idea of a global lingua franca.
Lingua franca is a functional term, independent of any linguistic history or language structure. Pidgins and creoles often function as lingua francas, but many such languages are neither pidgins nor creoles.
Whereas a vernacular language is used as a native language in a community, a lingua franca is used beyond the boundaries of its original community and is used as a second language for communication between groups. For example, English is a vernacular in the United Kingdom but is used as a lingua franca in the Philippines and India. Russian, Mandarin Chinese, Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, and French serve a similar purpose as industrial/educational lingua francas in many areas.
The term lingua franca derives from Mediterranean Lingua Franca, the language that people around the Levant and the eastern Mediterranean Sea used as the main language of commerce and diplomacy from late medieval times, especially during the Renaissance era, to the 18th century. At that time, Italian-speakers dominated seaborne commerce in the port cities of the Ottoman Empire and a simplified version of Italian, including many loan words from Greek, Old French, Portuguese, Occitan, and Spanish as well as Arabic and Turkish came to be widely used as the "lingua franca" (in the generic sense used) of the region.
In Lingua Franca (the specific language), lingua means a language, as in Portuguese and Italian, and franca is related to phrankoi in Greek and faranji in Arabic as well as the equivalent Italian. In all three cases, the literal sense is "Frankish", but the name actually applied to all Western Europeans during the late Byzantine Empire.
The Douglas Harper Etymology Dictionary states that the term Lingua Franca (as the name of the particular language) was first recorded in English during the 1670s, although an even earlier example of the use of Lingua Franca in English is attested from 1632, where it is also referred to as "Bastard Spanish".
As recently as the late 20th century, some restricted the use of the generic term to mean only hybrid languages that are used as vehicular languages, its original meaning, but it now refers to any vehicular language.
The use of lingua francas has existed since antiquity. Latin and Koine Greek were the lingua francas of the Roman Empire and the Hellenistic culture. Akkadian and then Aramaic remained the common languages of a large part of Western Asia from several earlier empires.
In certain countries, the lingua franca is also the national language. For example, Urdu is the lingua franca of Pakistan as well as the national language. Indonesian has the same function in Indonesia, although Javanese has more native speakers. Still, Indonesian is the sole official language and is spoken throughout the country. Also Persian is both the lingua franca of Iran and its national language.
The only documented sign language used as a lingua franca is Plains Indian Sign Language, used across much of North America. It was used as a second language across many indigenous peoples. Alongside or a derivation of Plains Indian Sign Language was Plateau Sign Language, now extinct. Inuit Sign Language could be a similar case in the Arctic among the Inuit for communication across oral language boundaries, but little research exists.
- Global language system
- International auxiliary language
- Koiné language
- Language contact
- List of languages by number of native speakers
- List of languages by total number of speakers
- Mixed language
- Mutual intelligibility
- Universal language
- Working language
- World language
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- Intro Sociolinguistics – Pidgin and Creole Languages: Origins and Relationships – Notes for LG102, – University of Essex, Prof. Peter L. Patrick – Week 11, Autumn term.
- "The rise of Hinglish: How the media created a new lingua franca for India's elites".
- Directorate-General for Translation, European Commission (2011). "Studies on translation and multilingualism" (PDF). cordis.europa.eu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-11-15.
- "lingua franca | linguistics". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-08-08.
- Lexico Triantaphyllide online dictionary, Greek Language Center (Kentro Hellenikes Glossas), lemma Franc ( Φράγκος Phrankos), Lexico tes Neas Hellenikes Glossas, G.Babiniotes, Kentro Lexikologias(Legicology Center) LTD Publications. Komvos.edu.gr. ISBN 960-86190-1-7. Retrieved 2015-06-18.
Franc and (prefix) franco- (Φράγκος Phrankos and φράγκο- phranko-
- "An etymological dictionary of modern English : Weekley, Ernest, 1865–1954 : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Archive.org. Retrieved 2015-06-18.
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- Morgan, J. (1632). A Compleat History of the Present Seat of War in Africa, Between the Spaniards and Algerines. p. 98. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
- Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language, Simon and Schuster, 1980
- Ostler, 2005 pp. 38–40
- Ostler, 2010 pp. 163–167
- Mollin, Sandra (2005). Euro-English assessing variety status. Tübingen: Narr. ISBN 382336250X.
- Hall, R.A. Jr. (1966). Pidgin and Creole Languages, Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-0173-9.
- Heine, Bernd (1970). Status and Use of African Lingua Francas. ISBN 3-8039-0033-6
- Kahane, Henry Romanos (1958). The Lingua Franca in the Levant.
- Melatti, Julio Cezar (1983). Índios do Brasil. São Paulo: Hucitec Press, 48th edition
- Ostler, Nicholas (2005). Empires of the Word. London: Harper ISBN 978-0-00-711871-7
- Ostler, Nicholas (2010). The Last Lingua Franca. New York: Walker ISBN 978-0-8027-1771-9
|Look up lingua franca in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- English – the universal language on the Internet?
- Lingua franca del Mediterraneo o Sabir of professor Francesco Bruni (in Italian).
- Sample texts from Juan del Encina, Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme, Carlo Goldoni's L'Impresario da Smyrna, Diego de Haedo and other sources.
- An introduction to the original Mediterranean Lingua Franca.