|Born||26 April 1977|
|University of Naples Federico II|
|Rank||Captain, Italian Air Force|
Time in space
|199d 16h 42min|
|Selection||2009 ESA Group|
|Missions||Soyuz TMA-15M (Expedition 42/43)|
Samantha Cristoforetti (Italian pronunciation: [saˈmanta kristofoˈretti]; born 26 April 1977 in Milan) is an Italian European Space Agency astronaut, Italian Air Force pilot and engineer. She holds the record for the longest uninterrupted spaceflight of a European astronaut (199 days, 16 hours), and until June 2017 held the record for the longest single space flight by a woman until this was broken by Peggy Whitson. She is also the first Italian woman in space. Samantha Cristoforetti is also known as the first person who brewed an espresso in space.
She studied in Bolzano and Trento and graduated from the Technical University of Munich with a degree in Mechanical Engineering. She studied at the École nationale supérieure de l'aéronautique et de l'espace in Toulouse, France, and at the Mendeleev Russian University of Chemistry and Technology in Moscow. She graduated in Aeronautics Sciences (University 'Federico II', Naples) at the Accademia Aeronautica in Pozzuoli, becoming one of the first women to be a lieutenant and fighter pilot in the Italian Air Force. She is the second Space Camp alumnus in orbit. As part of her training, she completed the Euro-NATO Joint Jet Pilot training. She has logged over 500 hours and has flown six types of military aircraft: SF-260, T-37, T-38, MB-339A, MB-339CD and AM-X. She now holds the rank of captain.
Cristoforetti was officially selected as an astronaut in 2009 by the European Space Agency.
On 23 November 2014, Soyuz TMA-15M, carrying Cristoforetti and two other astronauts launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan. It successfully docked at the International Space Station roughly six hours later. Cristoforetti, along with her crew mates, returned safely from the ISS on 11 June 2015. She stayed 199 days in space and so became the holder of the record for the longest single mission for a woman. Previously, the NASA astronaut Sunita Williams held that record with 195 days after her Expedition 33 mission to the ISS. Cristoforetti's record was beaten on June 5, 2017 by Peggy Whitson during Expedition 52.
Cristoforetti's mission to the ISS was called Futura. During her stay she performed numerous scientific experiments simulating prolonged stay in space and Lunar and Mars orbit. She was the primary operator during the undocking of the ATV-5. In February 2015, she began the outreach program "Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut", where students 8–12 years old were challenged to get fit during a nine-week program, while Cristoforetti trained in space. Other outreach activities included learning how the Spirulina algae can be a source of food, while creating photosynthesis in a recycled air environment.
Cristoforetti was slated for 1, up to possibly 3, space walks, however when part of her personal EVA equipment was lost due to the failed launch of the Orbital Cygnus Orb-3 mission in October 2014, those EVAs were scrapped. That equipment for the ISS crew was on board of the failed Orb-3 mission is clear from the manifest of its cargo, which listed: "Total Cargo: 2,215 kg (With packaging: 2,296 kg) of which EVA Equipment: 66 kg."
Cristoforetti has been photographed with references to the Hitchhiker's guide to the Galaxy on her shirt while her crewmate Anton Shkaplerov had a shirt with the Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything (being 42). ISS Expedition Mission 42 blog has a special section called "don't panic". In April 2015, when the Dragon capsule bringing the space espresso machine arrived, she posted a picture of herself on Twitter wearing a Starfleet uniform, with the comment "'There's coffee in that nebula'... ehm, I mean... in that #Dragon" (referencing Captain Janeway from Star Trek: Voyager, and her love of coffee), and again with the first cup of coffee brewed on the ISS.  On 28 February 2015, the day following the death of Leonard Nimoy, who portrayed Mr. Spock on Star Trek, she photographed herself in the Cupola, wearing a Starfleet pin on her shirt and giving the Vulcan salute. A one-month delay after the failure of two Russian rockets extended her stay in space past the European astronaut and female astronaut endurance records.
On 16 July 2015 she was awarded the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (Italian: Ordine al merito della Repubblica Italiana) by Italian President Mattarella, who said: "She has been followed with affection and love by all Italians." The Order of Merit is the senior order of knighthood, the highest ranking honour of the Republic.
Cristoforetti can speak Italian, English, German, French, and Russian, and she is currently studying Chinese.
Honors and decorations
- Italy Commander of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic on March 6, 2013
- Italy Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic on July 16, 2015
- Women in space
- Italian Space Agency (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, ASI)
- A Beautiful Planet - IMAX documentary film showing scenes of Earth which features Cristoforetti and other ISS astronauts.
- Dutch astronaut loses space record to Italy's Cristoforetti, Nltimes.nl; accessed 24 June 2015.
- "3 Space Station Astronauts Safely Return to Earth". The New York Times. 11 June 2015. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
- "Samantha beats ESA astronaut single-duration record - Outpost 42". Outpost 42. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
- "To boldly brew: Italian astronaut makes first espresso in space". the Guardian. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
- "Space Camp Alumni Newsletter". Spacecampalumni.com. Space and Rocket Center. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
- "Samantha Cristoforetti". A.S.I. - Agenzia Spaziale Italiana. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
- "Space Camp Alumni Newsletter". Spacecampalumni.com/. Space and Rocket Center. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
- "Samantha Cristoforetti". ESA. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
- "ESA astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti set for Space Station in 2014". ESA website. 3 July 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
- "Crew docks at International Space Station". USA Today. 23 November 2014. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
- "Astronaut Peggy Whitson Ends Record-Breaking Space Mission with Smooth Landing". space.com. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
- "Mission X – Training like an Astronaut". Web Portal of the European Space Agency (ESA). European Space Agency (ESA). Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- "Futura Mission". ESA website. 7 October 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
Food from Spirulina - How can astronauts sustain themselves on long missions in space? . . . Mission planners are looking at Spirulina algae to provide a source of protein and at the same time to use up excess carbon dioxide to produce oxygen.
- "AJ-26 Engine Turbopump likely Suspect in Antares Launch Failure". Spaceflight101 website. 5 November 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
- "NASA'S RESPONSE TO ORBITAL'S OCTOBER 2014 LAUNCH FAILURE: IMPACTS ON COMMERCIAL RESUPPLY OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION" (PDF). 17 September 2015.
- "Cygnus Orb-3 Cargo Manifest". Spaceflight101 website. 3 July 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
- "Sam Cristoforetti on Flicker, A Dragon is coming!#DontPanic". flicker. Retrieved January 12, 2015.
- "Don't panic | Outpost 42". Outpost42.esa.int. Retrieved 2016-02-17.
- "Sam Cristoforetti on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
- "Sam Cristoforetti on Flickr, Of all the souls I have encountered.. his was the most human". flickr. Retrieved 2017-03-27.
- "Samantha overtakes Sunita as holder of longest spaceflight for women". ESA. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
- "Samantha Cristoforetti becomes Cavaliere di Gran Croce". Italoamericano.org. Retrieved 2015-07-21.
- Sainty, Guy Stair World Orders of Knighthood and Merit (pp.1233-4) Buckingham: Burke's Peerage and Gentry, 2006
- Samantha Cristoforetti – Futura Mission (2014), European Space Agency, esa.int; accessed 24 June 2015.
- "Cristoforetti Cap. Samantha decorated". The official website of the Presidency of the Italian Republic.
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