|Città di Bolzano
Panorama of Bolzano
Bozen in Italy
|Province||South Tyrol (BZ)|
|• Mayor||Luigi Spagnolli (PD)|
|• Total||52.3 km2 (20.2 sq mi)|
|Elevation||262 m (860 ft)|
|Population (December 2013)|
|• Density||2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Bolzano (Italian pronunciation: [bolˈtsaːno] listen (help·info) German: Bozen, historically also Botzen; Ladin: Balsan or Bulsan; Latin: Bauzanum) is the capital city of the province of South Tyrol in northern Italy. With a population of 105,713 (2013), Bolzano is also by far the largest city in South Tyrol.
Bolzano is the seat of the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, where lectures and seminars are held in English, German and Italian. The city is also home to the Italian Army's Alpini High Command (COMALP) and some of its combat and support units. It is one of five mainly Italian-speaking municipalities in the Germanic province of South Tyrol.
In a 2010 quality-of-life survey by the Italian newspaper Il Sole 24 Ore, Bolzano was ranked first among 107 Italian cities on the survey's list. In the 2011 edition of the survey, Bolzano was ranked number two and came after the top-ranked Bologna. In the 2012 edition, Bolzano regained the top place as the city with the Best Quality of Life in Italy.
Along with other Alpine towns in South Tyrol, Bolzano engages in the Alpine Town of the Year Association for the implementation of the Alpine Convention. The Convention aims to promote and achieve sustainable development in the Alpine Arc. Consequently, Bolzano was awarded Alpine Town of the Year 2009.
Prehistory and Roman Settlement
The modern-day Bolzano was in ancient times a marshy region inhabited by the Raetian Isarci people, traditionally believed to be descendants of Etruscan refugees fleeing Italy from the invading Gauls. The Romans built a settlement after the area had been conquered in 15 BC by General Nero Claudius Drusus. The military settlement, Pons Drusi (Drusus Bridge), was named after this Roman General. During this time the area became part of the region Venetia et Histria (Regio X) of ancient Italy.
In 1948, excavations of the current Cathedral led to the discovery of an ancient Christian basilica from the 4th century. Also discovered was a Roman cemetery, including the tomb of "Secundus Regontius" with Latin inscriptions dating to the 3rd century, making him the oldest known inhabitant of Bolzano.
During the gradual decline of the Roman's influence in the 7th century, Bavarian immigration took place and the first mention of a Bavarian ruler in Bolzano dated from 679. At that time, the Bavarians named the nearby villages around Bolzano Bauzanum or Bauzana. German populations have been present in the region of Tyrol since this time.
Bishopric of Trent
In 1027 the area of Bolzano together with the rest of the diocese was conferred, by the emperor Conrad II from the Salian dynasty, upon the bishops of Trent. In the late-12th century, the bishop founded a market town, along the Lauben thoroughfare. The town therefore became an important trading post on the Transalpine Augsburg-Venice route over the Brenner Pass, elevation 1,371 metres (4,498 ft) above sea level, within the Holy Roman Empire.
County of Tyrol and Holy Roman Empire
In 1277 Bolzano was conquered by Meinhard II, the Count of Tyrol, leading to a struggle between the Counts of Tyrol and the bishops of Trent. In 1363, the County of Tyrol fell under the influence of Habsburg Austria and the Holy Roman Empire. In 1381, Duke Leopold granted the citizens of Bolzano the privilege of a town council. This gradually eliminated the influence and power previously held by the bishops of Trent over the next few decades. In 1462, the bishops eventually resigned all their rights of jurisdiction over the town.
From the 14th and 15th centuries onwards, a large market fair was organised four times per year to greet tradesmen and merchants en-route the Brenner Pass. The Mercantile Magistrate was therefore founded in 1635 by the Austrian duchess Claudia de' Medici. During every market season, two Italian and two Germanic officers, who were appointed among the local tradesmen, worked in this magistrate office. The establishment of an official trade organisation strengthened Bolzano as a cultural crossroad in the Alps.
Part of Italy
After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Bolzano became part of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and was incorporated into the Dipartimento Alto Adige. After the Congress of Vienna (1814-15) Bolzano returned to the County of Tyrol, within the Austrian Empire and subsequently the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary in 1866. The County covered both modern-day South Tyrol and the Federal States of Tyrol and East Tyrol in Austria.
In 1915, the Triple Entente powers promised Italy territorial gains if she would enter the First World War on the side of the Entente instead of siding with the German Empire and Austria-Hungary. When Italy abandoned the Triple Alliance (1882), the Entente offered her territorial promises in Tyrol and Istria. This secret arrangement was confirmed in the Treaty of London (1915).
After Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary on May 24, 1915, heavy fighting took place all along Tyrol`s southern border for the entire duration of the conflict. For the next 3 and a half years Tyrol`s southern border became the front line between Austro-Hungarian and Italian troops. Tyrol`s south frontier was - and still is - dotted with tens of defensive fortresses that had been built in view of a possible Italian attack. Losses on both sides amounts to several thousands. During WWI, tens of thousands of civilians living along Tyrol`s southern border were evacuated to either of the two countries, the majority to Bohemian and inner Austrian areas, and some to Italian internment camps, away from the front line. On November 3, 1918 the armistice of Villa Giusti, near Padova ended military operatons between Italy. Subsequently, Italian troops entered Tyrol and occupied the Austrian areas south of the Brenner Pass. Italian control of South Tyrol was internationally recognized in 1919. At the time of Bolzano's annexation by the Kingdom of Italy the town was settled primarily by a German-speaking population. As of 1910, 29,000 inhabitants identified themselves as German speakers and only 1,300 as Italian speakers, these latter ones mainly from the Italian speaking areas of Tyrol, namely Welschtirol, currently known as Trentino. 
Along with the rest of South Tyrol, Bolzano was subjected to an intensive Italianisation programme enforced by Fascist leader Benito Mussolini from the 1920s onwards to September 8, 1943 - when Italy left the military alliance with nazi-Germany and South Tyrol fell under direct German control. The goal of such programme was to outnumber the local German-speaking population by tripling Bolzano's population through force-fed Italian immigration from other regions of Italy. In 1927 Bolzano became the capital of the province of Bolzano. Any reference to and use of the words Tyrol and Tyrolean were banned by law and were punishable offenses. In 1933, Adolf Hitler came to power in the Weimar Republic. Mussolini and the Fascists worried that Hitler, in pursuing his ideology of all ethnic Germans under one Reich, would claim South Tyrol from Italy. To avoid such prospect, in 1939 Mussolini and Hitler signed the Option Agreement, by which Germany would renounce territorial claims over South Tyrol as Germany's Lebensraum (living space). Furthermore, ethnic South-Tyroleans who had opted to stay in South Tyrol and refused resettlement to the Third Reich were subjected to full-scale Italianisation, including loss of their German names and national identity, prohibition of schooling in German and use of German for their daily transactions. 
Second World War
During the Second World War, Bolzano was the site of the Nazi's Bolzano Transit Camp, a concentration camp for persecuted Jews and political prisoners. After 1943, heavy fighting against Nazi Germany and the Axis Powers took place in the Dolomites.
After the War, independence movements gained popularity among the German-Tyrolean population in Bolzano and South Tyrol. In the 1960s a series of terrorist attacks and assassinations were carried out by the South Tyrolean Liberation Committee – a German secessionist movement – against Italian police and electric power structures(one notable incident being the Night of Fire on 12 June, 1961), after which the United Nations intervened to enforce the start of bilateral negotiations between Italy and Austria. After 11 years of mediation and negotiation the two counties reached an agreement that would guarantee self-government to the newly created Autonomous Province of South Tyrol.
In 1996, the European Union approved further cultural and economic integration between the Austrian province of Tyrol and the Italian autonomous provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino (Welschtirol)by recognizing the creation of the Euro Region of Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino.
|Largest groups of foreign residents|
The city thrives on a mix of old and new high-quality intensive agriculture (including wine, fruit, and dairy products), tourism, traditional handicraft (wood, ceramics), and advanced services. Heavy industry (machinery, automotive, and steel) installed during the 1930s has now been mostly dismantled. The local economy is very dependent on the public sector and especially the provincial government.
Bolzano is the biggest city in South Tyrol, which is an autonomous province in Northern Italy with a special statute. This statute preserves the rights of the German-speaking minority in Italy. This unique system was admired by the Dalai Lama, who visited the city on several occasions to study a possible application in Chinese-occupied Tibet. It has also been presented as role model for the successful and fair resolution of inter-ethnic conflict to other regions of the world.
Being located at multiple climate borders, Bolzano features a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) with hot summers and very cool winters. According to the Trewartha classification, this climate could not be really considered a subtropical climate because fewer than 8 months are at least 10 °C (50 °F), and thus would be considered a semi-continental climate with hot summers. Some of its suburbs are designated an oceanic climate (Cfb) based upon cooler summer temperatures, while mountains in the area may feature a continental climate (Dfb).
|Climate data for Bolzano (1971–2000, extremes 1946–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||21.8
|Average high °C (°F)||6.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||0.9
|Average low °C (°F)||−4.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−18.5
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||23.5
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||3.6||3.1||5.1||6.6||9.3||8.5||8.9||8.2||6.8||6.8||4.9||4.3||76.1|
|Average relative humidity (%)||72||69||62||66||69||66||66||68||71||75||74||73||69|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||102.3||121.5||148.8||159.0||176.7||201.0||232.5||213.9||180.0||151.9||102.0||96.1||1,885.7|
|Source: Servizio Meteorologico (humidity and sun 1961–1990)|
Its medieval city centre, Gothic and Romanesque churches and bilingual signage give it the flavour of a city at the crossroads of Italian and Austrian cultures. This and its natural and cultural attractions make it a popular tourist destination.
Among the major monuments and sights are:
- the Walther Square, with a statue of Walther von der Vogelweide, a German minstrel (minnesinger)
- the Laubengasse or Via dei Portici, a street 300 metres (980 ft) long, in the city centre with medieval carcades along its entire course, now housing countless high-street shops
- the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology, which has the mummy of Ötzi the Iceman
- the Museion, the Museum of modern and contemporary art of Bolzano
- the Gothic Cathedral, started in 1184, expanded in the 14th century by architects Martin and Peter Schiche and completed in the early 16th century by Hans Lutz von Schussenried
- the Old Parish Church of Gries, with an altarpiece by Michael Pacher
- the benedictine monastery of Muri-Gries, with baroque paintings by Martin Knoller
- the Chiesa dei Domenicani/Dominikanerkirche (13th century), with a series of 14th-century Gothic paintings
- various castles, including Castle Maretsch, Runkelstein Castle and Firmian/Sigmundskron Castle
- Victory Monument, a triumphal arch built on the order of Benito Mussolini in 1928, site of a permanent exhibition on the regional history in the context ot the two dictatorships of the Italian fascism and the German nazism
- Messner Mountain Museum of Reinhold Messner
For more historical and geographical information see South Tyrol.
City districts and neighbouring communities
- Centro-Piani-Rencio (German: Zentrum-Bozner Boden-Rentsch)
- Don Bosco (German: Don Bosco-Neugries)
- Europa-Novacella (German: Europa-Neustift)
- Gries-San Quirino (German: Gries-Quirein)
- Oltrisarco-Aslago (German: Oberau-Haslach)
The city is also connected to the Italian railway system. Bolzano railway station, opened in 1859, forms part of the Brenner railway (Verona–Innsbruck), which is part of the main railway route between Italy and Germany. The station is also a junction of two branch lines, to Merano and Mals.
There is a 50-kilometre (31 mi) network of cycle paths, and about 30 percent of journeys in Bolzano are made by bicycle.
The town is host to an annual road running competition – the BOclassic – which features an elite men's 10K and women's 5K races. The event, first held in 1975, takes place on New Year's Eve and is broadcast live on television by Rai Sport Più.
Bolzano is also the host city to the Giro delle Dolomiti annual road bike event.
- Bozner F.C. played 2011/12 in Promozione
- F.C. Bolzano 1996 played 2011/12 in Eccellenza
- F.C. Neugries played 2011/12 in Promozione
- F.C. Südtirol plays in Lega Pro Prima Divisione
- Virtus Don Bosco played 2011/12 in Promozione
- Ice hockey
- EV Bozen 96 plays in Serie A2
- HC Bolzano Bozen Foxes plays in Serie A1 and the EBEL League, successfully winning the EBEL title in their Debut year 2014
- Sudtirolo Rugby Cavaliers The Cavaliers play in the Italian Serie C
- American Football
- Giants Bolzano The Giants plays in IFL (Italian Football League), the first league of the FIDAF
- Softball and Baseball
- Pool 77
- Softball Club Dolomiti
- SSV Bozen plays in the FBL (Austrian Fistball League), the first Austrian league.
Twin towns – Sister cities
Bolzano is twinned with:
- Ch. Dupont (1869). La Station hivernale et climatérique de Gries près de Botzen dans le Sud-Tyrol. Bale: Riehm.
- Le unità di supporto del Comando Truppe Alpine (Italian)
- "Qualità della vita 2010". Il Sole 24 Ore. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "Qualità della vita 2011". Il Sole 24 Ore. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "Qualità della vita 2012". Il Sole 24 Ore. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- Pliny the Elder III.20
- Karl Maria Mayr (1949). "Der Grabstein des Regontius aus der Pfarrkirche in Bozen". Der Schlern, 23, pp. 302-303.
- As reported by Paulus Diaconus in his Historia Langobardorum, V 36, ed. Georg Waitz, MGH Scriptores rerum Langobardicarum, Hannover 1878, p. 35: comes Baioariorum quem illi gravionem dicunt.
- Richard Heuberger (1930). "Natio Noricorum et Pregnariorum". Veröffentlichungen des Museum Ferdinandeum in Innsbruck, No. 10, p. 7.
- Hannes Obermair (2007). "‘Bastard Urbanism’? Past Forms of Cities in the Alpine Area of Tyrol-Trentino". Concilium medii aevi, 10, pp. 53-76, esp. pp. 64-66.
- One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Coolidge, William (1911). "Botzen". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 311.
- Ferdinand Troyer (1648). Bozner Chronik (Cronica der statt Botzen). Bozen.
- Antony E. Alcock (1970). The History of the South Tyrol Question. London: Michael Joseph, p. 9.
- City of Bolzano publication (Italian)
- Claudio Corradetti (2013). "Transitional Justice and the Idea of ‘Autonomy Patriotism’ in South Tyrol." “Un mondo senza stati è un mondo senza guerre”. Politisch motivierte Gewalt im regionalen Kontext, ed. by Georg Grote, Hannes Obermair and Günther Rautz (EURAC book 60), Bozen–Bolzano, ISBN 978-88-88906-82-9, pp. 17–32, esp. p. 21.
- Juliane Wetzel (1994). "Das Polizeidurchgangslager Bozen". Die vergessenen Lager, ed. by Wolfgang Benz and Barbara Distel (Dachauer Hefte, 5), Munich.
- "Volkszählung 2011/Censimento della popolazione 2011". astat info (Provincial Statistics Institute of the Autonomous Province of South Tyrol) (38): 6–7. June 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-14.
- Oscar Benvenuto (2007): "South Tyrol in Figures 2008", Provincial Statistics Institute of the Autonomous Province of South Tyrol, Bozen/Bolzano, p. 16, table 10.
- "Dalai Lama erhielt Südtiroler Minderheitenpreis". STOL. Retrieved 15 January 2014. (German)
- Antony Alcock. The South Tyrol Autonomy. County Londonderry, Bozen/Bolzano, May 2001, p. 22
- "Bolzano (BZ)" (PDF). Atlante climatico. Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
- "STAZIONE 020 Bolzano: medie mensili periodo 61 - 90". Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
- "Bolzano: Record mensili dal 1946" (in Italian). Servizio Meteorologico dell’Aeronautica Militare. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
- BZ '18–'45. One monument, one city, two dictatorships
- A22.it Autostrada del Brennero SpA Brennerautobahn AG. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
- Bolzano città della bicicletta (Bolzano as a cyclist's town)
- Sampaolo, Diego (2010-01-01). Three-peat for Soi in Bolzano. IAAF. Retrieved on 20 May 2010.
- Sampaolo, Diego (2008-12-31). Soi and Kibet at the double? Boclassic preview. IAAF. Retrieved on 20 May 2010.
Media related to Bolzano at Wikimedia Commons
- Bolzano City Hall Official website (in Italian and German)
- Bolzano Tourist Board Official website
- Bolzano travel guide from Wikivoyage