Scottish New Zealanders
|Regions with significant populations|
|throughout New Zealand, but especially Otago & Southland|
|New Zealand English (Southland burr), Scots, Scottish Gaelic|
|Roman Catholic, Protestantism (Presbyterianism, Anglicanism etc)|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Scottish people, European New Zealanders, Irish New Zealanders, Welsh New Zealanders|
Scottish migration to New Zealand dates back to the earliest period of European colonisation. However, identification as "British" or "European" New Zealanders can sometimes obscure their origin. The majority of Scottish immigrants settled in the South Island. All over New Zealand, the Scots developed different means to bridge the old homeland and the new. Many Caledonian societies were formed, well over 100 by the early twentieth century, who helped maintain Scottish culture and traditions. From the 1860s, these societies organised annual Caledonian Games throughout New Zealand. The Games were sports meets that brought together Scottish settlers and the wider New Zealand public. In so doing, the Games gave Scots a path to cultural integration as Scottish New Zealanders.
|Scotland-born population of New Zealand – Census|
|Year||Population||% of overseas-born population||Ref|
In 2013, the number of New Zealanders born in Scotland was recorded as 25,953, making it the eighth most common place of birth. This can be contrasted with the mid-20th century, e.g. in 1956, when the figure was 46,401, making Scotland the second most common place of birth. However, these figures only include people born in Scotland, not those New Zealanders who claim a Scottish identity through their parents, grandparents, or even further back. In addition, many New Zealanders come from mixed origins, with Scottish New Zealanders co-identifying as Māori or another ethnic group. In 2006, 15,039 self-identified as Scottish.
Scottish culture in New Zealand
Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand notes that in many cases, the distinctive features of Scottish settlers were often wiped out in a generation or two, and replaced with a British identity which consisted mostly of English culture:
- After one generation in New Zealand the Irish and Gaelic languages disappeared, and a more generalised loyalty to Britain developed. School pupils learnt about the heroes of Britain and read British literature. Most of this was in fact English culture, although certain Scottish writers like Walter Scott had their place. Even the Irish, who followed the fortunes of their homeland politically, played the English game of rugby football. The sense of being Britons was a necessary prelude to becoming New Zealanders.
Today, if there can be said to be a "stronghold" of Scottish culture in New Zealand, it would be in the regions of Southland and Otago, although many of the place names around the Waikato Region also bear links with Scotland (notably the city of Hamilton and town of Huntly).
Some of the following aspects of Scottish culture can still be found in some parts of New Zealand.
- Bagpiping and pipe bands
- Burns Supper
- Highland games
- Hogmanay, the Scottish New Year
- Presbyterianism – the majority of Scottish settlers were Presbyterian (although a substantial number were not).
- Tartan, some regions having their own tartan, such as Otago. Additionally Scottish dress is worn by some New Zealanders to celebrate their ancestral heritage.
- Tartan Day, which in New Zealand falls on 1 July, the date of the repeal proclamation in 1782 of the Act of Proscription that banned the wear of Scottish national dress.
- Some parts of South Island have a rhotic accent called Southland burr, reflecting an influence from Lowland Scots and Scottish English, although this is less pronounced than in Scotland itself.
- New Zealand contains two battalions of New Zealand Scottish affiliated to the Black Watch. Their forerunners include a number of Highland Companies, and the Dunedin Highland Rifles
Otago and Southland Province
The Otago Settlement, sponsored by the Free Church of Scotland, materialised in March 1848 with the arrival of the first two immigrant ships from Greenock on the Firth of Clyde – the John Wickliffe and the Philip Laing. Captain William Cargill, a veteran of the Peninsular War, served as the colony's first leader: Otago citizens subsequently elected him to the office of Superintendent.
Provincial government in New Zealand ceased in 1876, and the national limelight gradually shifted northwards. The colony divided itself into counties in 1876, two in Otago being named after the Scottish independence heroes Wallace and Bruce.
Originally part of Otago Province, Southland Province (a small part of the present Region, centred on Invercargill) was one of the provinces of New Zealand from 1861 until 1870. It rejoined Otago Province due to financial difficulties, and the provinces were abolished entirely in 1876.
In 1856, a petition was put forward to Thomas Gore Browne, the Governor of New Zealand, for a port at Bluff. Browne agreed to the petition and gave the name Invercargill to the settlement north of the port. Inver comes from the Scots Gaelic word inbhir meaning a river's mouth and Cargill is in honour of Captain William Cargill, who was at the time the Superintendent of Otago, of which Southland was then a part.
The Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland founded Dunedin at the head of Otago Harbour in 1848 as the principal town of its Scottish settlement. The name comes from Dùn Èideann, the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the Scottish capital. Charles Kettle the city's surveyor, instructed to emulate the characteristics of Edinburgh, produced a striking, 'Romantic' design. The result was both grand and quirky streets as the builders struggled and sometimes failed to construct his bold vision across the challenging landscape. Captain William Cargill, a veteran of the war against Napoleon, was the secular leader. The Reverend Thomas Burns, a nephew of the poet Robert Burns, was the spiritual guide.
The Octagon was first laid out during Charles Kettle's surveying of the city in 1846. His plans for the centre of Dunedin included a large Octagonal area (Moray Place) enclosing a smaller octagonal shape, originally designated as a reserve. Despite the reserve status, the Church of England sought to build in the centre of the Octagon, applying directly to Governor Sir George Grey. It was not until building was about to commence that the local (predominantly Scottish and Presbyterian) community became aware of what was happening. This resulted in a major furore within the city. Otago Superintendent William Cargill was put in charge of the dispute, resulting in the Anglicans being forced to withdraw their plans for The Octagon (The Anglican St. Paul's Cathedral stands today at the northern edge of The Octagon).
Dunedin's main rugby team are called The Highlanders. The name Highlanders was chosen after the early Scottish settlers in the lower South Island. These Scottish settlers were the founders of Dunedin—known as the "Edinburgh of the South", and the city where the Highlanders are based. According to the Highlanders official website: " The name and image of the Highlander conjures up visions of fierce independence, pride in one's roots, loyalty, strength, kinship, honesty, and hard work." The colours of the Highlanders encompasses the provincial colours of North Otago, Otago, and Southland; yellow, blue and maroon. Blue is also the predominant colour of the Flag of Scotland, and is used by many sports teams in that country.
University of Otago
Dunedin founders Thomas Burns and James Macandrew urged the Otago Provincial Council during the 1860s to set aside a land endowment for an institute of higher education. An ordinance of the council established the university in 1869, giving it 100,000 acres (400 km2) of land, and the power to grant degrees in Arts, Medicine, Law and Music. Burns was named Chancellor, but he did not live to see the university open on 5 July 1871. The university issued just one degree before becoming an affiliate college of the federal University of New Zealand in 1874. With the dissolving of the University of New Zealand in 1961 and passage of the University of Otago Amendment Act 1961, the university regained authority to confer degrees.
- Janet Frame, born in Dunedin of Scottish parents.
- William Cargill (28 August 1924 – 29 January 2004)
- John Barr, poet, wrote in Lallans
- Norman McLeod (minister)
- Katie Sadleir, Olympian, born Torphins
- Elizabeth Yates (mayor)
- Alistair Campbell (poet)
- James Keir Baxter, writer
- Winston Peters, New Zealand First politician, of Scottish and Maori roots.
- Minnie Dean (1844–1895) murderer, and the only woman to receive the death penalty in New Zealand, born Greenock.
- James Mckenzie, possibly born in Ross-shire, Scotland, in 1820 was a New Zealand outlaw who has become one of the country's most enduring folk heroes. The Mackenzie Basin in the central South Island is named for him.
- Kate Sheppard, suffragette, born in Liverpool, England to Scottish parents.
- George Smith Duncan
- Elizabeth Grace Neill, lobbied for passage of laws requiring training and registration of nurses and midwives in New Zealand.
- Bret McKenzie, one-half of the comedy duo Flight of the Conchords
Many of the prime ministers of New Zealand have been of Scottish descent. They include:
- Robert Stout (1844–1930), born Lerwick
- Thomas Mackenzie (1854–1930), born Edinburgh
- Peter Fraser (1884–1950), born Tain
- Edward Stafford (politician), on three occasions in the mid-19th century, born Edinburgh.
- Sir John Ross Marshall (New Zealand politician), (1912-1988)
"Kilted Kiwi" is a nickname given to New Zealanders who would go on to play in the Scotland national rugby union team. They have had a mixed reception, but have included some notable players. The original "kilted Kiwi" was Sean Lineen. However one of the first New Zealand born Scotland players was Andrew Alexander Bonar Lindsay, who played 2 tests in 1910-11. To qualify, they either have to have at least one Scottish parent or grandparent.
Other so-called "kilted Kiwis" apart from Sean Lineen have included:
- Brendan Laney
- John Leslie
- Martin Leslie
- Glenn Metcalfe
- Gordon Simpson
- Sean Maitland
- John Hardie
- Blair Cowan
- Hugh Blake
- Grayson Hart
- Calum Hood
There are Scottish placenames all over New Zealand, but they tend to be concentrated in the southern part of South Island. Notable Scottish placenames in New Zealand include:
- North Island
- South Island
- Dunedin, from Dun Eideann, the Scottish Gaelic for Edinburgh. The town was originally to be called "New Edinburgh". Many of its street and suburb names mirror those of Edinburgh.
- Invercargill, from "Inver" meaning a river mouth (an anglicisation of the Scottish Gaelic Inbhir), plus "Cargill"
- Balclutha, from Baile Chluaidh meaning the town on the Clutha River (Abhainn Chluaidh – River Clyde)
- Lammerlaw Range (mountains)
- Lammermoor Range (mountains)
- The Grampians (mountains)
- Oban, the "capital" and only town of Stewart Island/Rakiura
- Ulva Island
- Water of Leith (river)
The South Island also contains the Strath-Taieri and the Ben Ohau Range of mountains, both combining Scots Gaelic and Maori origins. Invercargill has the appearance of a Scottish name, since it combines the Scottish prefix "Inver" (Inbhir), meaning a river's mouth, with "Cargill", the name of a Scottish official. (Many of Invercargill's main streets are named after Scottish rivers: Dee, Tay, Spey, Esk, Don, Doon, Clyde, etc.). Inchbonnie is a hybrid of Lowland Scots and Scottish Gaelic.
In popular culture
- An Angel at My Table (1990), is a fictionalised film version of Janet Frame's autobiographical works, and deals with her family life.
- Black Sheep (2006), a comedy horror, which features the Oldfields, a family of Scottish New Zealanders who live on a farm called "Glenolden". The villain is called Angus, and it also features a scene in which haggis is being made.
- A novel based partly on James Mckenzie's life, Chandler's Run, by Denise Muir, was published in 2008.
- The Piano (1993) tells the story of a silent but strongwilled Scotswoman, Ada McGrath (played by Holly Hunter), whose father arranges a marriage to New Zealand frontiersman Alistair Stewart (portrayed by Sam Neill).
- Demographics of New Zealand
- Immigration to New Zealand
- Europeans in Oceania
- European New Zealanders
- History of New Zealand
- Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. "Scots: The Story". Retrieved 26 February 2015.
- "QuickStats About Culture and Identity: Birthplace and people born overseas". stats.govt.nz. 2007. Archived from the original on 1 December 2007.
- Tanja Bueltmann, "'No Colonists are more Imbued with their National Sympathies than Scotchmen,'" New Zealand Journal of History (2009) 43#2 pp 169–181 online
- Birthplaces of New Zealand’s population 1858–2006 Birthplaces of people living in New Zealand
- "Special Report on the 2013 Census of New Zealand's Population and Dwellings" (PDF). Research New Zealand. 11 March 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- John Wilson (25 March 2015). "Story: Scots Page 12 – Facts and figures". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand: Britons, retrieved 30 September 2009
- Seenan, Gerard (31 December 2005). "BBC's new year off on wrong foot for Hogmanay stalwart". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- "Worldwide Tartan Day Events". scotland.org. 2008. Archived from the original on 9 February 2009.
- John Clelland Hocknull (1 July 2002). "International Tartan Day". Burke's Peerage and Gentry. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008.
- Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand: Wanganui places, East of Wanganui, retrieved 30 September 2009
- "Expatriate Scottish Regiments", p808 in Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. London. HarperCollins.
- McLintock, A H (1949), The History of Otago; the origins and growth of a Wakefield class settlement, Dunedin, NZ: Otago Centennial Historical Publications, OCLC 154645934
- Hocken, Thomas Moreland (1898), Contributions to the Early History of New Zealand (Settlement of Otago), London, UK: Sampson Low, Marston and Company, OCLC 3804372
- "Highlanders". highlanders-rugby.co.nz. Archived from the original on 18 July 2008. Retrieved 18 November 2007.
- McLintock, A. H. (ed) (1966). "Burns, Thomas". Te Ara – The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 2008-09-20.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- "History of the University of Otago". University of Otago. Archived from the original on 11 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-20.
- King, Michael (2003). Penguin History of New Zealand, page 209. ISBN 0-14-301867-1
- "Janet Frame (Paterson)". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature 2003, Oxford University Press 2003.
- "Scotland - Players & Officials - Andrew Lindsay". ESPN Scrum. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- Scottish New Zealanders at AllBlacks.com
- "Black Sheep". 12 June 2007. Archived from the original on 12 June 2007.
- Donovan, Brooke (3 March 2008). "Gran has a story to be proud of". The New Zealand Herald.
- Bueltmann, Tanja. "'No Colonists are more Imbued with their National Sympathies than Scotchmen,'" New Zealand Journal of History (2009) 43#2 pp 169–181 online
- McCarthy, Angela, Scottishness and Irishness in New Zealand since 1840 Manchester University Press, 2011.
- McCarthy, Angela, Personal narratives of Irish and Scottish migration, 1921–65 : 'for spirit and adventure' Manchester University Press, 2007.
- Patterson, Brad; Brooking, Tom; McAloon, Jim, Unpacking the kists: the Scots in New Zealand Otago University Press, 2013.