Shifnal

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Shifnal
Market Place and Park Street Shifnal.jpg
Market Place and Park Street
Shifnal is located in Shropshire
Shifnal
Shifnal
Shifnal shown within Shropshire
Population7,009 (2017)
OS grid referenceSJ7407
Civil parish
  • Shifnal
Unitary authority
Ceremonial county
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townSHIFNAL
Postcode districtTF11
Dialling code01952
PoliceWest Mercia
FireShropshire
AmbulanceWest Midlands
EU ParliamentWest Midlands
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Shropshire
52°39′54″N 2°22′23″W / 52.665°N 2.373°W / 52.665; -2.373Coordinates: 52°39′54″N 2°22′23″W / 52.665°N 2.373°W / 52.665; -2.373

Shifnal is a market town and civil parish in Shropshire, England, about 3 miles (5 km) east of Telford. It has a railway station on the Shrewsbury-Wolverhampton Line and is near the M54 motorway. At the 2001 census, it had a population of 6,391,[1] increasing to 6,776 at the 2011 census.[2] With a large number of on-going housing developments this is expected to pass 10,000 by 2020.

History[edit]

Early medieval time[edit]

The town, also once known as "Idsall" (relating to potential Roman links), most probably began as an Anglian settlement, established by the end of the 7th century.

Shifnal is thought to be the place named "Scuffanhalch" in a 9th-century charter, as a possession of the monastery at Medeshamstede (later Peterborough Abbey).[3] Though this seems a dubious claim, and the ancient charter is in fact a 12th-century forgery, the full picture is more complex. Sir Frank Stenton considered that "Scuffanhalch", along with "Costesford" (Cosford) and "Stretford", formed part of a list of places which had once been connected with Medeshamstede; and the charter purports to have been issued by King Æthelred of Mercia, during much of whose reign the bishop of Mercia was Sexwulf (or "Saxwulf"), founder and first abbot of Medeshamstede.[4]

The first part of the name "Shifnal" is reckoned to be a personal name, "Scuffa", while the second part, from "halh", means a valley, thus describing the town's topography.[5]

Unusually, the name of the town has alternated through the centuries between Idsall and Shifnal. Idsall is mentioned in a 9th-century charter as "Iddeshale", meaning "Idi's nook" or corner. A nook is said to be an area of land of approximately 20 acres (81,000 m2). It is often conjectured that the two names of Idsall and Shifnal were names of settlements on the east and west sides respectively of Wesley Brook, a brook which runs through the town, and is a tributary of the River Worfe. In the 19th century, J. C. Anderson, in his Shropshire its Early History and Antiquities, wrote that Idsall means "Hall of Ide", and that Shifnal is "Hall of Sceafa".

A Key to English Place-names has an entry for Shifnal that reads '*Scuffa's nook of land'. It was also known as Iddeshale, '*Idi's nook of land'.[6]

The oldest part of the town is said to be the area around St Andrew's Church, Church Street and Innage Road where excavations have turned up evidence of ancient buildings.

Norman[edit]

The village, as it would have been in 1086, is recorded in the Domesday Book within the hundred of Alnodestreu.[7] The initial part of the entry states:

Robert, son of Theobald, holds of Earl Roger Iteshale. Earl Morcar held it."

This entry records that possession was lost by the Saxon Earl Morcar when he rebelled against the Norman conquerors.

The church of St Andrew has a Norman chancel and was almost certainly built on the site of an earlier church. It was a collegiate church or minster with a chapter of priests ministering to the needs of congregations in outlying settlements. St Andrew's lost its collegiate status when it was given to Shrewsbury Abbey c. 1087.

Plantagenet period[edit]

In 1245 Walter de Dunstanville, the Crusader and lord of the manor, applied to King Henry III for, and was granted, a market charter for the town.[8] Walter then laid out a broad market street that is Broadway, Bradford Street, Market Place and Park Street for the markets. This area to the east of the stream was known as Shifnal and gradually this name superseded Idsall as the town's name.

Tudor and Stuart times[edit]

Old Idsall House, Church Street, Shifnal and blue plaque inset.
Idsall House, Park Street, Shifnal

Shifnal had something of an early industrial revolution during the late 16th century with the construction of a charcoal fired blast furnace near to the Manor House.

A fire swept through the town on 7 July 1591, setting alight the roof of the church. The fire is thought to have been started by a maidservant's candle that accidentally set fire to some hanging flax. The fire devastated many, if not all, of the buildings east of the brook now known as Wesley Brook. The church and the timber-framed Old Idsall House at its foot to the east (a listed building), are said to be the only two buildings to have survived the fire that destroyed the rest of the settlement. This is now commemorated by a blue plaque fixed to the wall of the house. After the fire, Elizabeth I sent money to help rebuild the town.

A wall memorial tablet inside St Andrew's Church is for Mary Yates – known locally as Nanny Murphy - who walked to London as a teenager just after the Great Fire in 1666, and married her third husband Joseph Yates when she was over 90. And she finally died at the age of 127. There is a Nanny Murphy Lane just to the north of Shifnal. The same stone memorial tablet records that William Wakely was baptised on May 1, 1590, and was buried on November 28, 1714, after living through the reigns of eight kings and queens.

The best example of Shropshire Scroll – a 16th-century style of swirling wall painting unique to the county - was uncovered in 2010 by renovators in a Grade II listed property on Broadway. The 2m by 2.5m work, on display at what is now the Black Orchid hair salon, had been hidden behind a wall for more than a century.

18th and 19th centuries[edit]

Thomas Beddoes, a well-known physician, was born in 1760 at Balcony House, named for a room projecting above the roof line, on the east side of Market Place. This building later became the Star Hotel.

Aston Hall, built about 1720 at the east side of the town, was home to tobacco plantation and slave owners - George Austin and John Moultrie – the latter rising to acting governor of East Florida.

Austin was born in the town in 1710, the son of a mercer and went to South Carolina where he became involved in developing tobacco plantations, one of which he named Shifnal, 1,415 acres next to next to the Ashepoo river and which had 85 slaves. Austin became one of the wealthiest men in the colonies, but following disputes with his business partner, Henry Laurens, returned to England in 1762 and settled at Aston Hall.

(Austin was also responsible for the first person of colour recorded as living in Shifnal. In 1766 Benjamin Priouleu "a black servant to Mr Austin" was baptised in the town. Some 19 years later the parish records note that Lucy Bartlet "a black woman" was buried there.)

Austin's daughter Eleanor stayed in Carolina and married John Moultrie, of Charleston, another wealthy tobacco farmer and slave owner. After Spain ceded Florida to Britain in 1763 Moultrie became a member of the new established council of East Florida, and its president. He bought some 14,000 acres and was active in encouraging Florida’s agricultural and commercial development, experimenting with new crops such as sugar, rice, oranges and indigo.

In 1771, Moultrie became Lieutenant-Governor of Florida and encouraged a road-building programme. He became acting governor when his predecessor, James Grant, was invalided home in 1771 and held the position until 1774. His four brothers were key players on opposing sides of the Revolutionary War.

However he and Eleanor left in 1784, after Florida was handed back to the Spanish and inhabitants were required to convert to Catholicism. Selling his slaves in the Bahamas, the Moultries moved to Aston Hall, which had been left to Eleanor in Austin’s will. Austin had been opposed the marriage and stipulated everything was to be managed by trustees - so that Eleanor only had an annuity and her husband had no access to the capital. Moultire died in 1798 and was buried at St Andrew’s Church.

A Baptist church was established in Aston Street at the end of the 18th century, but it closed down before the 20th century.

The old Magistrates' Court, 1843

Thomas Telford upgraded Watling Street, the turnpike road that passed through the town, in the late 18th century. This road carried traffic from London to Shrewsbury, Chester and Holyhead for Ireland. It is reported that as many as 18 coaches a day called at Shifnal. Passengers could rest from their travels at three coaching inns the Jerningham Arms, the Star Hotel and the Unicorn.

During this period of prosperity many new houses were built, lending Shifnal a Georgian air. The name Idsall was still used to distinguish the area around the St Andrew's Church and the Manor from the market and commercial area of Shifnal.

There are records of a parish workhouse in operation in Shifnal in 1777 with accommodation for up to 40 inmates. A new parish workhouse was built on Park Street in 1817. It was adopted as the workhouse for the Shifnal Poor Law Union and was enlarged in 1840-1 at about £800. The number of inmates was never more than 100. The buildings later became part of Shifnal Hospital before being turned into homes.

The railway line from London and Birmingham to Holyhead was constructed through Shifnal at high level in the late 1840s. A station was built, but the opening of the line on 12 November 1849 brought an abrupt end to the already declining coaching traffic. The viaducts constructed were cast by Horseley Ironworks.

In April 2018 Star Housing (Shropshire Towns and Rural Housing) began work demolishing the former Zion Baptist Chapel and magistrates’ court on Shrewsbury Road, built in 1845. Star replaced it with seven affordable homes, keeping the frontage and railings. The building was badly decayed after being left vacant for at least two decades, becoming one of the town's worst eyesores. This was despite much debate over its possible future - including proposals to turn it into offices or an arts centre. The building, which could accommodate 300 worshipers, was built through public subscription and donations from Charles King and his wife, who were buried at the front of the building.

In 1855 a house on Broadway, used by the town’s 200-odd Catholics for mass, was burnt down during an anti-Irish riot. Lord Stafford replaced it in 1860 with a combination school and church he built on land he donated at the corner of Victoria Road and Shrewsbury Road. The school closed about 1917, but the building has continued as a church. The present presbytery on Victoria Road, the original school-master's house, still has Lord Stafford's coat of arms above the door.[9]

The Shifnal Bank Fraud[edit]

One of the biggest bank frauds in Victorian Britain took place in Shifnal when a director and staff stole almost £244,000, worth the equivalent of £16 million today. Alongside the ‘insider jobs’ were allegations of blackmail, cover-ups and fraudsters being helped to escape.

The Shropshire Banking Company was formed in 1836 from four local banks – in Newport, Wellington, Coalbrookdale and Shifnal. Shifnal became its head office and Abraham Darby IV, of the historic iron master dynasty, was among its first chairmen.

Initially the bank seemed to do well, paying local investors dividends of 12.5 per cent a year, and was successful enough to need new premises in Park Street, Shifnal, with heavy security measures.

But in 1856 the bank was forced to write off £193,834 to cover losses through fraud. It emerged that one of the directors, John Horton, had taken an unauthorised overdraft of £10,000 “against worthless security”. Horton, who was being paid £300 a year as a director, was forced to resign. But this was as nothing to £234,000 siphoned off by the bank’s manager, Allen, and his cashier Gilbert over a decade.

Although the Bow Street Runners (forerunners of the police) arrived to arrest Allen in Shifnal he managed to slip away while they were on the premises - one version has him vaulting over the counter to escape - reportedly after being tipped off by the bank’s directors.

Gilbert gave information about his part of the fraud on the understanding that, if he paid back what he had stolen, he would not be prosecuted. Although he returned £53,000 in cash and £87,000 worth of securities this was still £25,000 short of what he had taken.

Allen meanwhile had taken a spectacular £159,000, and it appears that this money was never returned: all the directors found were vague statements about speculation in mining and railway shares.

The whole incident had the air of a cover-up, with the full story suppressed by the directors: newspaper reporters were barred from a crisis shareholders’ meeting at the Jerningham Arms opposite; a barrister was brought in to represent the directors and “skilfully parry” questions from angry shareholders, who were prevented from reading out statements “for some insufficient reason.”

Allen was never prosecuted: a report in The Shrewsbury Chronicle says Allen “told directors he would expose them and break up the company. It would seem from the fact of him having left the neighbourhood upon the hint being given to him by some of the directors, that they are afraid of his threat.” When shareholders demanded to know why Allen had been allowed to escape the directors said “it was on best advice” and refused to reveal more on “the ground of the impolicy of telling all they knew of the past”.

To cover the losses the bank’s directors lent it £120,000 - £100,000 from Henry Dickenson, who took over as chairman, and £5,000 each from four others: they never asked for their loans to be repaid, and their cash injection was used as a foundation to raise more money from shareholders.

Surprisingly the Shropshire Banking Company recovered quickly under Dickenson – six months later the directors were given a unanimous vote of thanks by shareholders and it grew steadily over the next few years, finally being bought by Lloyds Bank in 1874.[10]

The 20th century[edit]

Church Street, Shifnal
Shifnal (in Red) shown with Telford.

The Star Hotel was demolished after a fire in 1911. The Eight Bells or Ring of Bells was occupied in 1911 by the Pitchford family, descendants of the nobility who took their name from the area of Pitchford in Shropshire. Herbert James Pitchford ran the Eight Bells among other public houses. He served in the King's Shropshire Light Infantry, and died in Flanders in the First World War. His name appears on the Menin Gate in Belgium and on the war memorial in St Andrew's Church, Shifnal, near the Eight Bells public house. Today the building is occupied by the Oddfellows Wine Bar.

Hinckesman’s Brewery Co was established at Hinnington spring – just south of the town – in 1897, and changed its name to the Shifnal Brewery Co in 1899. After closing in 1910 the name was revived in 1927 before being acquired by Broadway Brewery (Shifnal) in 1934. In turn this was acquired by Banks’s in Wolverhampton in 1960.

The railway bridge over Market Place was rebuilt in 1953: the open spandrels of the original arch were replaced with a plain lined flat panel construction.[11]

The town expanded further during the 1960s. In 2015 it was revealed that planning permission had been granted for a total of 1,167 homes across the town, meaning its population was expected to grow by 50 per cent by 2020.

The town's branch of Barclays Bank was targeted by robbers on 6 May 1991. They drilled into the strongroom and escaped with £50,000.[12] The same bank was subject to armed robberies in March 2013 and March 2017. Its closure was announced a few weeks after the latter, leaving Shifnal without a bank for the first time since 1824.

In 2009 one of the town’s biggest employers, Wrekin Construction, went into administration with the loss of 420 jobs in Shropshire, Yorkshire, Northamptonshire and Cheshire and more than £45m to creditors. Among the business’s assets was the Gem of Tanzania, valued on the business’s balance sheets at £11m. However it emerged that the 2 kg uncut stone’s value had been forged and it was eventually sold for just £8,000.[13]

Culture[edit]

The Reliques of Ancient English Poetry, one of the most influential works on the English Romantic movement, was based on a manuscript discovered in Shifnal.

Thomas Percy

The collection of collection of ballads and popular songs, collected by Bishop Thomas Percy and published in 1765, was primarily based on a folio discovered at the Shifnal home of Percy’s friend Humphrey Pitt. It was on the floor, and Pitt's maid had been using the leaves to light fires.

Once rescued Percy used forty-five of the ballads in the folio for his book of 180, adding others from sources - broadside ballads collected by diarist Samuel Pepys and Collection of Old Ballads published in 1723, possibly by Ambrose Philips. Percy was encouraged to publish by his friends Samuel Johnson and the poet William Shenstone, who also found and contributed ballads.

Percy's Reliques caught the public imagination, inspiring poets such as Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth to compose their own imitations, and inspired Sir Walter Scott. The book is credited, in part, with changing the literary movement of the 18th century from Neo-Classicism, into Romanticism, highlighting the simpler, less artificial traditions of English folklore. It inspired folklore collections and movements in other parts of Europe, such as the Brothers Grimm.

Percy did not treat the folio or the texts in it with the scrupulous care expected of a modern editor of manuscripts. He wrote his own notes directly on the folio pages, amended the rhymes and even pulled pages out of the document to give the printer without making copies.

Charles Dickens, whose grandmother was reputedly employed at nearby Tong Castle,[14] visited the town on several occasions and many believe that the buildings in his book, The Old Curiosity Shop, were based on those in the town.[15][16] Shifnal Historical Society report that he was very taken with the architecture of the town, and for that reason, he based The Old Curiosity Shop on the Unicorn public house, now known as Naughty Nell's.[17]

The diarist Hannah Cullwick (26 May 1833 – 9 July 1909) was born in Shifnal. Cullwick revealed less-known aspects of the relations between Victorian servants and their masters. Working in domestic service, she caught the attention of Arthur Munby, a prominent barrister and philanthropist, who was making a close study of the conditions of working women. To escape poverty, she married him reluctantly and secretly in 1873, and her diaries provide detailed information on the lives of working-class Victorian servant women. Her relation with Munby was unconventional, with bizarre role-playing, as documented in their diaries, letters and photographs as a farm girl, a kitchen drudge, a chimney sweep with blackface, a well-dressed lady and a man. She is buried, under her married name Munby, in St Andrew's churchyard.

Mary Arnold, later known as the writer Mrs Humphry Ward, went to boarding school in the town at Rock Terrace. Her schooldays gave background for one of her later novels, Marcella (published 1894).[18]

It is widely believed that Shifnal had some inspiration for P. G. Wodehouse's fictional town Market Blandings – or rather, the town is mentioned numerous times in the Blandings Castle saga.[15]

In 1968, the Shifnal Carnival was launched, a revival of the Shifnal Club Day - itself deriving from an annual parade by the 'Dove Club' friendly society. Taking place on the last Saturday of June, a funfair is set up on the main street, as well as the usual procession.[19]

In 2010, after research as part of the town plan, the Shifnal Festival was revived due to residents expressing interest for a festival of arts, culture and entertainment. It ran for three years, spawning groups such as an amateur dramatics company and a children's manga society.[20]

In the 1990s and 2000s Shifnal become well known throughout the region for its annual Christmas lights display, which attracted visitors from the outside the town.

Places of interest[edit]

St Andrew's Church, Church Street, Shifnal

Churches[edit]

  • Church of England: St Andrew's Church on Church Street has a Norman chancel with an Elizabethan double-hammerbeam roof and was almost certainly built on the site of an older Saxon church. Its churchyard contains war graves of 13 soldiers of the First World War and 4 of the Second World War, who are all commemorated by a Screen Wall memorial.[21]
  • Methodist: Trinity Church, Victoria Road
  • Roman Catholic: St Mary’s Church, Shrewsbury Road

It also has, through Churches Together in Shifnal,[22] its own Christian bookshop and drop-in centre, Oasis.

Communal services[edit]

A community library run by the council is located on Broadway. The Millennium Sensory Garden lies between St Andrew's Church and Innage Road and contains the town's war memorial. The garden is voluntarily maintained by a dedicated group of committee members and friends and obtained the Queen's Golden Jubilee Award 2003 and Green Pennant Award 2007/08. Shifnal Police Station is located behind the library on Broadway.

Naughty Nell

Pubs, restaurants and hotels[edit]

Naughty Nell's public house, a restored 16th century coaching inn, originally known as the Unicorn, claims to have been the home of Nell Gwyn and her renowned bedchamber. It had been known by her name itself for some time. The building was sold in auction in 2011 and is now vacant and awaiting some works.

The Jerningham Arms opposite, built in 1705 as a coaching inn, closed in the late 1990s/early 2000s and was turned into flats. The Royal George closed in 2015 and was converted into a Co-op supermarket. The Beehive, on Curriers Lane, closed in early 2017: its future is uncertain.

The Anvil pub, on Aston Road, reopened in October 2018 after being bought and refurbished by Dudley-based Black Country Ales.

Sports[edit]

There are several sporting facilities in Shifnal, including the Idsall Sports Centre, which is attached to Idsall School; the school, in the past, receiving a number of prominent football celebrities from the nearby FA School of Excellence at Lilleshall.

The town is also home to sporting clubs which play sports including:

  • Table tennis
  • Ice hockey
  • Rugby
  • Football
  • Tennis
  • Cricket

Shifnal Town F.C. currently has a place in the West Midlands (Regional) League, whilst Shifnal United are in the lower Mercian Regional Football League (Premier Division).

Shifnal was formerly home to a squash club and swimming pool for 35 years, but this has since closed, and following its demolition has been replaced with a housing development.

Shifnal Golf Club goes back to as early as 1913. Initially its course was nine holes on Lodge Hill, to the south of the town, where seven winds are said to meet. The clubhouse was then a room in a private house, Sunnyside. By the outbreak of the Second World War the course had grown to 18 holes: but in 1941 the government ordered that almost all the new holes should be ploughed over for food production.

In 1963 the club moved to north Shifnal, to the Georgian country house of Decker Hill and 113 surrounding acres, bought for £25,500. The new 18 hole course was completed in late 1966.

Education[edit]

There are several pre-school nursery and day centres in the town, as well as two primary schools: Shifnal Primary School, on Curriers Lane;[23] and St. Andrew's Church of England Primary School, on Park Lane. The town has two further schools, Idsall School, in Coppice Green, a comprehensive secondary school; and Young Options College, in Lamledge Lane, an independent specialist secondary school.[24]

Notable people[edit]

  • George Talbot, 4th Earl of Shrewsbury 4th Earl of Waterford,[25] KG, KB, PC (c. 1468 – 1538) was the son of John Talbot, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury, and Lady Catherine Stafford, daughter of the 1st Duke of Buckingham. Born in Shifnal
  • Thomas Brown (1662 - 1704) satirist poet,[26] of "facetious memory" born son of farmer in Shifnal.
  • Thomas Beddoes (1760 – 1808) physician and scientific writer,[27] born in Shifnal. He was a reforming practitioner and teacher of medicine and worked to treat tuberculosis
  • Henry Hill Hickman (1800 - 1830) surgeon and pioneer of anaesthetics, was living and practicing in Shifnal in 1824.
  • Morgan Langford was born in Balcony House, Shifnal in 1760, He became professor of chemistry at Oxford University,[28]
  • Hannah Cullwick (26 May 1833 – 9 July 1909). Diarist.
  • Mary Augusta Ward CBE (1851–1920) novelist [29] who wrote under her married name as Mrs Humphry Ward, brought up in Shifnal
  • Ernest Borough Johnson (artist) (1867-1949). Studied at the Slade School.Painted in oils and watercolours, and was also an important lithographer, etcher and illustrator. Johnson's work was exhibited at the Royal Academy between 1887 and 1892, and he was elected a member of the Royal Society of British Artists in 1896. He subsequently became Professor of Fine Art at London University's Bedford College and Chelsea Polytechnic.
  • Edwin Howard Bennett (1893 – 1929) was an English cricketer, who played four first-class matches, born in Shifnal
  • Bert Williams MBE (1920 – 2014) English international football goalkeeper, at Wolverhampton Wanderers F.C., lived near Shifnal
  • Reg Attwell (1920 – 1986) professional association football player mainly for Burnley F.C.; born in Shifnal
  • Kevin Mulligan (born 1951 in Shifnal) philosopher, working on ontology, the philosophy of mind, and Austrian philosophy
  • Andrew Burn (born 1954 in Shifnal) professor and media theorist, developed the theory of the Kineikonic Mode
  • Peter Alan Baker (born 1967) is an English professional golfer, who was born in Shifnal
  • Stephen Harris (born 1968, Shifnal) music producer and mixer.
  • Peter Lamsdale (born 1971) an English cricketer, a right-handed batsman and right-arm medium-fast bowler. He played for Berkshire. He was born in Shifnal.

Twin cities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Parish Headcounts: Bridgnorth". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
  2. ^ "Town population 2011". Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  3. ^ Birch, W. de Grey, Cartularium Saxonicum, 3 vols., London, 1885-93, no.48.
  4. ^ Stenton, F.M., 'Medeshamstede and its Colonies', in Stenton, D.M. (ed.), Preparatory to Anglo-Saxon England Being the Collected Papers of Frank Merry Stenton, Oxford University Press, 1970, pp.180-1 (see also Pretty, K., 'Defining the Magonsæte', in Bassett, S. (ed.), The Origins of Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms, Leicester University Press, 1989); Bede's Ecclesiastical History, iv, 6.
  5. ^ Ekwall, E., The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names, 4th edn., Oxford University Press, 1960, p. 417.
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ Open Domesday: Shifnal
  8. ^ "Shropshire | Gazetteer of Markets and Fairs in England and Wales to 1516". British-history.ac.uk. 22 June 2003. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  9. ^ "St Mary's Catholic Church, Shrewsbury Road, Shifnal". Churches Together in Shifnal. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
  10. ^ Shrewsbury Chronicle 2 February 1855 and 27 July 1855; Lloyds Bank's in-house magazine The Black Horse. https://archiveshub.jisc.ac.uk/data/gb386-a/8
  11. ^ Hayward, Mike (7 December 2015). "New railway bridge for Shifnal in 1953". Shropshire & Beyond Photo Library. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  12. ^ "Those were the days". Expressandstar.com. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
  13. ^ Wrekin Construction directors banned after gem valuation forgery
  14. ^ "Dickens and Tong (Chapter 13)". Discoveringtong.org. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  15. ^ a b "Behind the Plum line | Books | The Guardian". Books.guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  16. ^ "Shifnal - Shropshire Tourism". Shropshiretourism.info. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  17. ^ "Naughty Nell's, an Inn in Shifnal, Shropshire. Search for Shropshire Inns". Information-britain.co.uk. 13 October 2006. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  18. ^ Dickins, Gordon (1987). An Illustrated Literary Guide to Shropshire. Shropshire Libraries. p. 74. ISBN 0-903802-37-6.
  19. ^ [2] Archived 11 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ [3] Archived 11 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  21. ^ "Cemetery Details". CWGC. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  22. ^ [4] Archived 3 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  23. ^ "Shifnal Primary School, Shropshire". Shifnalprimaryschool.ik.org. Archived from the original on 11 September 2003. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  24. ^ "123-reg : Young Options : Homepage". Youngoptions.co.uk. Archived from the original on 3 May 2008. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  25. ^ Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 55, Talbot, George (1468-1538) retrieved December 2017
  26. ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 4, Brown, Thomas (English satirist) retrieved December 2017
  27. ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 3, Beddoes, Thomas retrieved December 2017
  28. ^ F. F. Cartwright (1967). "The Association of Thomas Beddoes, M.D. with James Watt, F.R.S.". 22 (1/2). Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London: 131–143. JSTOR 531193.
  29. ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 28, Ward, Mary Augusta retrieved December 2017

External links[edit]