South African Class 8 4-8-0

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This article is about one of several different Cape Government Railways locomotive types to be designated "8th Class". For the others, see Cape Government Railways 8th Class locomotives.
CGR 8th Class 4-8-0 1902
South African Classes 8 and 8W 4-8-0
SAR Class 8 1088 (4-8-0) CGR 779.jpg
CGR (Eastern System) 8th Class no. 779
SAR Class 8 no. 1088, East London, c. 1930
Type and origin
♠ Original locomotive, as built
Superheated, outside admission valves
Superheated, inside admission valves, Class 8W
ʘ XD tender - XE1 tender - ʘ XF tender
Power type Steam
Designer Cape Government Railways
(H.M. Beatty)
Builder Neilson, Reid and Company
Serial number 6111-6113, 6216-6225, 6241-6250
Model CGR 8th Class (4-8-0)
Build date 1901-1902
Total produced 23
Specifications
Configuration 4-8-0 (Mastodon)
Driver 2nd coupled axle
Gauge 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) Cape gauge
Leading dia. 28 12 in (724 mm)
Coupled dia. 48 in (1,219 mm)
Tender wheels ʘʘ 33 12 in (851 mm) as built
ʘʘ 34 in (864 mm) retyred
Wheelbase 46 ft 10 12 in (14,288 mm)
 • Engine 23 ft 3 in (7,087 mm)
 • Leading 6 ft (1,829 mm)
 • Coupled 13 ft 6 in (4,115 mm)
 • Tender ʘʘ 14 ft 7 in (4,445 mm)
 • Tender bogie ʘʘ 4 ft 7 in (1,397 mm)
Length:
 • Over couplers 54 ft 2 in (16,510 mm)
Height ♠ 12 ft 10 in (3,912 mm)
12 ft 8 in (3,861 mm)
Frame type Bar
Axle load ♠ 11 LT 14 cwt (11,890 kg)
12 LT (12,190 kg)
12 LT 11 cwt (12,750 kg)
 • Leading ♠ 12 LT 9 cwt (12,650 kg)
12 LT 15 cwt (12,950 kg)
 • Coupled ♠ 11 LT 14 cwt (11,890 kg)
12 LT (12,190 kg)
 • 1st coupled 11 LT 18 cwt (12,090 kg)
 • 2nd coupled 12 LT 11 cwt (12,750 kg)
 • 3rd coupled 11 LT 19 cwt (12,140 kg)
 • 4th coupled 11 LT 18 cwt (12,090 kg)
 • Tender bogie Bogie 1:
ʘ 16 LT 15 cwt (17,020 kg)
ʘ 20 LT 14 cwt (21,030 kg)
Bogie 2:
ʘ 17 LT 8 cwt (17,680 kg)
ʘ 22 LT 7 cwt (22,710 kg)
 • Tender axle ʘ 8 LT 14 cwt (8,840 kg)
9 LT 14 cwt 1 qtr (9,868 kg) av.
ʘ 11 LT 3 cwt 2 qtr (11,350 kg)
Adhesive weight ♠ 46 LT 16 cwt (47,550 kg)
48 LT (48,770 kg)
48 LT 6 cwt (49,080 kg)
Loco weight ♠ 59 LT 5 cwt (60,200 kg)
60 LT 15 cwt (61,720 kg)
61 LT 1 cwt (62,030 kg)
Tender weight ʘ 34 LT 3 cwt (34,700 kg)
36 LT 18 cwt (37,490 kg)
ʘ 43 LT 1 cwt (43,740 kg)
Total weight ♠ʘ 93 LT 8 cwt (94,900 kg)
96 LT 3 cwt (97,690 kg)
ʘ 102 LT 6 cwt (103,900 kg)
ʘ 94 LT 18 cwt (96,420 kg)
ʘ 103 LT 16 cwt (105,500 kg)
ʘ 95 LT 4 cwt (96,730 kg)
97 LT 19 cwt (99,520 kg)
Tender type ʘ XD (2-axle bogies)
XE1 (2-axle bogies)
ʘ XF (2-axle bogies)
XC, XC1, XD, XE, XE1, XF, XF1, XF2, XJ, XM, XM1, XM2, XM3 permitted
Fuel type Coal
Fuel capacity ʘ 5 LT 10 cwt (5.6 t)
ʘ 10 LT (10.2 t)
Water cap ʘ 2,730 imp gal (12,400 l)
2,855 imp gal (13,000 l)
ʘ 3,000 imp gal (13,600 l)
Firebox type Round-top
 • Firegrate area ♠ 21.35 sq ft (1.98 m2)
21 sq ft (1.95 m2)
Boiler:
 • Pitch ♠ 7 ft (2,134 mm)
7 ft 1 in (2,159 mm)
 • Diameter 5 ft (1,524 mm)
 • Tube plates ♠ 11 ft 12 in (3,366 mm)
11 ft 38 in (3,362 mm)
 • Small tubes 205: 2 in (51 mm)
115: 2 in (51 mm)
 • Large tubes 18: 5 12 in (140 mm)
Boiler pressure 180 psi (1,241 kPa)
Safety valve Ramsbottom
Heating surface ♠ 1,315 sq ft (122.2 m2)
1,081 sq ft (100.4 m2)
 • Tubes ♠ 1,184 sq ft (110.0 m2)
950 sq ft (88 m2)
 • Firebox 131 sq ft (12.2 m2)
Superheater:
 • Heating area 214 sq ft (19.9 m2)
Cylinders Two
Cylinder size 18 12 in (470 mm) bore
19 in (483 mm) bore
20 in (508 mm) bore
24 in (610 mm) stroke
Valve gear Stephenson
Valve type Slide - Piston
Couplers Johnston link-and-pin
AAR knuckle (1930s)
Performance figures
Tractive effort ♠ 23,110 lbf (102.8 kN) @ 75%
24,370 lbf (108.4 kN) @ 75%
27,000 lbf (120 kN) @ 75%
Career
Operators Cape Government Railways
South African Railways
Class CGR 8th Class
SAR Classes 8 & 8W
Number in class 23
Numbers CGR 358-365, 771-782, 801-803
SAR 1069-1091
Delivered 1902-1903
First run 1902
Withdrawn 1972
The leading coupled axle had flangeless wheels

The South African Railways Class 8 4-8-0 of 1902 was a steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in the Cape of Good Hope.

In 1902 and 1903, the Cape Government Railways placed 23 8th Class steam locomotives with a 4-8-0 Mastodon type wheel arrangement in service, three on the Cape Western System, eight on the Cape Midland System and twelve on the Cape Eastern System. In 1912, when they were assimilated into the South African Railways, they were renumbered, but retained their Class 8 classification.[1][2][3]

Manufacture[edit]

Evolution[edit]

H.M. Beatty

The first 8th Class locomotives of the Cape Government Railways (CGR) were 2-8-0 Consolidation types, designed by H.M. Beatty, the Chief Locomotive Superintendent of the CGR from 1896 to 1910. They entered service in 1901 and were later to become the South African Railways (SAR) Class 8X.[1]

While these first Schenectady and ALCO-built 2-8-0 locomotives were being subjected to exhaustive testing on all types of traffic and under varying conditions, some trouble was experienced with the leading two-wheeled pony truck. When designs were prepared at Salt River for a later order for more locomotives, the pony truck was replaced with a four-wheeled bogie and the coupled wheelbase was shortened from 14 feet 6 inches (4,420 millimetres) to 13 feet 6 inches (4,115 millimetres).[1][3]

Manufacturer[edit]

The 23 locomotives of 1902 and 1903 were the first 8th Class locomotives of the CGR to be built with a 4-8-0 Mastodon type wheel arrangement. These locomotives were built by Neilson, Reid and Company in 1901 and 1902, and delivered in three batches in 1902 and 1903. In spite of the difference in wheel arrangement, these Mastodons and the earlier Consolidations of the CGR were all grouped together into the 8th Class.[1][3]

They were conceived as mixed traffic locomotives, equally suitable for goods and passenger work. They had larger coupled wheels than the CGR 7th Class, bar frames, used saturated steam and had Stephenson valve gear. In service, it was found that the four-wheeled bogies and the 12 inches (305 millimetres) shorter fixed wheelbase made them steadier and easier riding than their 2-8-0 Consolidation predecessors.[1][3]

Tenders[edit]

The first batch of three locomotives, numbered in the range from 801 to 803, went to the CGR's Western System in 1902. They were delivered with Type XD tenders which had a coal capacity of 5 long tons 10 hundredweight (5.6 tonnes) and a water capacity of 2,730 imperial gallons (12,400 litres).[1][4]

Of the second batch of ten locomotives which arrived in 1902, eight were numbered in the range from 358 to 365 and allocated to the Midland System, while the other two became numbers 771 and 772, allocated to the Eastern System. These engines were delivered with Type XE1 tenders which had a coal capacity of 10 long tons (10.2 tonnes) and a water capacity of 2,855 imperial gallons (13,000 litres).[1][4][5][6]

The last batch of ten locomotives, numbered in the range from 773 to 782, arrived in 1903 and all went to the Eastern System. These engines were delivered with Type XF tenders which also had a coal capacity of 10 long tons (10.2 tonnes), but a water capacity of 3,000 imperial gallons (13,600 litres).[1][4][5][6]

Class 8 sub-classes[edit]

When the Union of South Africa was established on 31 May 1910, the three Colonial government railways (CGR, Natal Government Railways and Central South African Railways) were united under a single administration to control and administer the railways, ports and harbours of the Union. Although the South African Railways and Harbours came into existence in 1910, the actual classification and renumbering of all the rolling stock of the three constituent railways were only implemented with effect from 1 January 1912.[2][7]

When these 23 locomotives were assimilated into the South African Railways (SAR) in 1912, they were renumbered in the range from 1069 to 1091, but they retained their Class 8 classification.[2][8]

The rest of the 8th Class Consolidations and Mastodons of the CGR, together with the Class 8-L1 to 8-L3 4-8-0 Mastodon locomotives of the Central South African Railways, were grouped into nine more different sub-classes by the SAR. The other 4-8-0 locomotives became SAR Classes 8A to 8F and the 2-8-0 locomotives became Classes 8X to 8Z.[5][6]

Modification[edit]

During A.G. Watson's term as Chief Mechanical Engineer of the SAR from 1929 to 1936, many of the Class 8 to Class 8F locomotives were equipped with superheated boilers, larger bore cylinders and either inside or outside admission piston valves. The outside admission locomotives had their cylinder bore increased from 18 12 inches (470 millimetres) to 19 inches (483 millimetres) and retained their existing SAR Class 8 classifications, while the inside admission locomotives had their cylinder bore increased to 20 inches (508 millimetres) and were reclassified by having a "W" suffix added to their existing SAR classification letters.[3][5][6]

Of the Class 8 locomotives, five were equipped with superheated boilers, 19 inches (483 millimetres) bore cylinders and outside admission piston valves, while retaining their Class 8 classification.[5][6]

Four locomotives were equipped with superheated boilers, 20 inches (508 millimetres) bore cylinders and inside admission piston valves and reclassified to Class 8W.[5][6]

Service[edit]

In SAR service, the Class 8 4-8-0 family of locomotives served on every system in the country and in the 1920s became the mainstay of motive power on many branch lines. From Volksrust in the Western Transvaal system, the Class 8 worked the 171-kilometre long (106-mile) link line to Bethal for several decades until the end of the 1950s, initially sharing their duties with some versions of the Class 6 family. In their last decade at Volksrust until mid-1961 they were increasingly used on standby and shunting duties while the 1948 batch of North British-built Class 19D locomotives were phased in. By 1972, they were all withdrawn from service.[3][9]

Works numbers[edit]

The Class 8 and Class 8W works numbers, renumbering and superheating modifications are shown in the table.[2][4][5][6]

Illustration[edit]

The main picture shows Class 8 no. 1088, ex CGR no. 779, at East London c. 1930, as built with slide valves, but with a rebuilt Type XF tender. The following pictures serve to illustrate the original slide valve configuration and the modified piston valve and superheating configuration.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Holland, D.F. (1971). Steam Locomotives of the South African Railways, Volume 1: 1859-1910 (1st ed.). Newton Abbott, Devon: David & Charles. pp. 61–63. ISBN 978-0-7153-5382-0. 
  2. ^ a b c d Classification of S.A.R. Engines with Renumbering Lists, issued by the Chief Mechanical Engineer's Office, Pretoria, January 1912, pp. 8, 12, 15, 39-40 (Reprinted in April 1987 by SATS Museum, R.3125-6/9/11-1000)
  3. ^ a b c d e f Paxton, Leith; Bourne, David (1985). Locomotives of the South African Railways (1st ed.). Cape Town: Struik. pp. 48–49. ISBN 0869772112. 
  4. ^ a b c d Neilson, Reid works list, compiled by Austrian locomotive historian Bernhard Schmeiser
  5. ^ a b c d e f g South African Railways & Harbours/Suid Afrikaanse Spoorweë en Hawens (15 Aug 1941). Locomotive Diagram Book/Lokomotiefdiagramboek, 3'6" Gauge/Spoorwydte. SAR/SAS Mechanical Department/Werktuigkundige Dept. Drawing Office/Tekenkantoor, Pretoria. p. 43.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g South African Railways & Harbours/Suid Afrikaanse Spoorweë en Hawens (15 Aug 1941). Locomotive Diagram Book/Lokomotiefdiagramboek, 2'0" & 3'6" Gauge/Spoorwydte, Steam Locomotives/Stoomlokomotiewe. SAR/SAS Mechanical Department/Werktuigkundige Dept. Drawing Office/Tekenkantoor, Pretoria. pp. 6a-7a, 41, 43.
  7. ^ The South African Railways - Historical Survey. Editor George Hart, Publisher Bill Hart, Sponsored by Dorbyl Ltd., Published c. 1978, p. 25.
  8. ^ Holland, D.F. (1972). Steam Locomotives of the South African Railways, Volume 2: 1910-1955 (1st ed.). Newton Abbott, Devon: David & Charles. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-7153-5427-8. 
  9. ^ Soul of A Railway, System 7, Western Transvaal, based in Johannesburg, Part 12. South-Eastwards as far as Volksrust (Part 5) by Les Pivnic. Caption 35. (Accessed on 25 April 2017)