Szybka Kolej Miejska (Tricity)
|Founded||December 22, 2000
(as a separate company)
(as a part of PKP)
|Revenue||93 832 300 zł (2006)|
|1 920 100 zł (2006)|
Number of employees
|Slogan||We give the people a freedom to move
(Dajemy ludziom swobodę przemieszczania się)
PKP Szybka Kolej Miejska w Trójmieście Sp. z o.o. (Polish pronunciation: [ˈʂɨpka ˈkɔlɛi̯ ˈmjɛi̯ska]; Fast Urban Railway), or SKM, is a railway transportation system in Poland's Tricity area (Gdańsk, Sopot and Gdynia), which also reaches Słupsk, which is 110 km west of Gdynia, and Tczew, which is 31 km south of Gdańsk.
The SKM functions as a commuter rail service for the Tricity, operating frequent trains on the central section between Gdańsk and Gdynia, and less frequently to outlying sections. The SKM route has 27 stops covering the Tricity between Gdańsk, Gdynia and Wejherowo.
The SKM was established after World War II ended in 1945, when the cities of the Tricity, which had previously been divided under Polish and non-Polish administrations, all became part of Poland. For the first 24 years, from the start of SKM service in January 1952 until December 1976, SKM trains used cars built in the 1930s for the Berlin S-Bahn. These cars had been taken from Germany to Poland in 1945 as war reparations.
In December 1976 the ageing Berlin cars were retired, and replaced by cars built in Poland. The collapse of Communism in Poland in 1989-1990 brought little improvement or investment to the SKM, whose ridership dropped by some 50 percent as underfunded public transportation had to compete with a growing fleet of private automobiles.
Poland's increasing prosperity since joining the European Union in 2004, together with European Union funding for infrastructure improvements has improved the condition of much of Polish transport. In 2014 nearly one-third of the SKM fleet was rebuilt in a way which has produced almost brand-new cars. An order for new cars is on the horizon, and the SKM is entering a phase of modernization and improvement.
- 1 The Railway
- 2 The Company
- 3 History
- 4 SKM electric multiple unit specifications
- 5 In other Polish cities
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Route and Service
The SKM route has 27 stops covering the Tricity between Gdańsk, Sopot, Gdynia and Wejherowo, all located along one continuous line parallel to the coast of the Baltic Sea. SKM service has been extended to Wejherowo, Lębork and Słupsk, 110 km west of Gdynia,.and Tczew, 31 km south of Gdańsk. The entire line is electrified, and service is operated by electric multiple unit trains at a frequency of 6 to 30 minutes between trains (depending on the time of day) on the central section between Gdańsk and Gdynia, and less frequently on outlying sections. It is similar to a subway service or light rail in other European cities. The Tricity area is suited for this method of transport, as it occupies a relatively narrow north-south corridor between Gdańsk Bay and the Tricity Landscape Park.
SKM uses mostly PKP class EN57 and EN71 electric multiple unit trains, whose design dates back to 1962 and 1976. They have since been modernized to meet EU requirements such as accessibility for handicapped passengers, advanced security and comfort. The rolling stock is maintained in Gdynia Cisowa Elektrowozownia (Gdynia Cisowa Depot), which is located on the border between Gdynia and Rumia, and also serves as company headquarters.
The EMUs have doors on both sides of the train and therefore can easily be used in either direction. Even though the SKM line has stops with high platforms, the units can be used on low platform stations as well. The most common livery for SKM electric multiple units is yellow and blue. The exception are units with advertising labels, which are coloured according to the advertiser's wishes. The SKM company logo is placed on both sides of the unit, next to the doors.
On October 29, 2007, newly refurbished EN57 units modernized by ZNTK Mińsk Mazowiecki entered service. The refurbishments included an improved shape for aerodynamics. New security systems, one of which prevents the doors from opening while the train is in motion, were also added. Additionally, dividing walls between cars were removed and seats were mounted on walls instead of on the floor. The trains were made more accessible by improving access to toilets and adding electronic displays and station announcements. Crew compartments were equipped with an air conditioning system. The total cost of modernization came to 18,000,000zł, 5,000,000 of which was covered by the European Union.
Modernization of Rolling Stock, 2014
In September 2013 SKM signed a contract with Pesa SA of Bydgoszcz to modernize 21 trainsets, comprising nearly one-third of SKM's fleet of 65 trainsets. The first modernized train was delivered on 31 March 2014.
The modernization is so thorough that these are practically totally new trains. Modernization includes: totally new interiors, new seats, new lighting, new windows; new heating systems with thermostats to regulate temperature, new thermal insulation; new toilets; new information displays; and features providing accessibility for handicapped persons. The car exteriors, and the exterior of the driver's cab, have a totally new appearance. Electrical and mechanical changes include totally new propulsion systems, using modern AC motors fed by AC inverters, providing smoother acceleration, energy savings by returning braking energy to the power supply, and a higher top speed of 120 km/h (75 mph).
The delivery of the 21 modernized train-sets was completed on 25 October 2014. Modernization of the 21 trainsets cost 121 million zł.
One of the most urgent and most difficult problems which affect not only SKM, but the whole Tricity transport system, is the lack of a common ticket for the whole agglomeration and different modes of transport. Riders must buy different types of tickets for trams and buses in Gdańsk, trolleybuses and buses in Gdynia, and for SKM trains. Attempts to correct this situation are in progress.
Most of the train stops have ticket booths, and passengers wishing to start a journey at a stop without one can buy a ticket directly from the conductor. The price of a normal ticket depends on the distance of a trip, and varies from 2,20 zł. to 6,20 zł. Monthly and weekly tickets are also available, as well as discounts for students.
Tickets purchased from a machine do not come pre-validated. Passengers must validate their tickets using the validators located on the platforms. A passenger boarding a train without a validating their ticket is regarded as the same as a passenger without a ticket. SKM has subcontracted a company called Renoma for ticket inspections.
Since 2002, SKM tickets are not valid on other PKP Group trains. Previously PKP Przewozy Regionalne tickets could be used on SKM trains, and SKM tickets could be used on PKP Przewozy Regionalne trains on SKM routes. It is still possible to buy a monthly ticket valid on both companies.
The layout of the ticket has changed with time. At first, tickets were identical on all local lines, and were small cardboard rectangles, often with a hole pierced in the middle. Tickets then became orange, with a white strip on one end for stamping information about the station and time of validation. The SKM then moved to light blue tickets, also with a white stripe which were only valid on its lines. Originally, this new layout had a list of stops printed on the reverse. Recently, this has been replaced by advertisements, or information about the possibility of advertising. There are also blank tickets, sold by train conductors to sell tickets at stops where no ticket office is available. These have a list of stops with boxes to note start and destination of the journey, type of discount (if any) and number of tickets. An extra fee for sale on the train can also be noted on these tickets, for instance if a passenger boards at a stop where he could buy a ticket normally.
A passenger caught traveling without a valid ticket is asked for his or her documents and charged a fine. If the passenger refuses to show his identification, conductors can call the police to wait at the nearest stop in order to verify the passenger's identity. The fine for traveling without a ticket is rather serious, and it is currently (2014) more than 100 zł (over $30).
Since May 2006, SKM has been systematically introducing new layouts of single and monthly tickets. The is mainly to distinguish the SKM tickets from other Polish railway companies. This change did not immediately cancel previous types of tickets, so that both layouts were accepted simultaneously for some time.
Since 27 January 2007, it has been possible to buy tickets (both single and monthly) from special vending machines. For the first week after introducing those devices SKM employees were available to show passengers how to operate them.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Trójmiejska SKM.|
Szybka Kolej Miejska owns 27 stops on the way from Gdańsk to Wejherowo, of which 8 are connected with railway stations. All the stops lie along a single continuous line. This has been the situation since 2005, when the spur to Gdańsk – Nowy Port was closed for passenger traffic, and the five stops on this line are no longer used.
Throughout the Tricity, SKM has its own stops built only for its own use. The stops have high platforms, with tracks on both sides. Except at the Gdańsk Główny stop, all trains heading south stop at the western side of platform, and trains heading north on the eastern side. SKM is systematically working on improving the quality of stops, as most of them are currently in bad shape, lacking basic services such as elevators for handicapped passengers or proper ticket validators. The company recently launched a survey, asking visitors to its website which of the stops should be repaired first. Since January 2006 SKM decided to install video cameras at stops and stations in order to improve the security level on platforms and inside station buildings.
In 2004 Szybka Kolej Miejska signed an agreement with Relay, the owner of a chain of press outlets, giving the latter exclusive rights for building its kiosks on platforms. One of the conditions was unification of the general look of kiosks. Outside the Tricity, on the Gdynia Cisowa-Wejherowo line SKM uses stops built more recently, mostly with two platforms on both sides of the tracks. The two platforms are connected by underground or overhead pedestrian passageways.
Not all stops have ticket offices, some consist simply of a platform, sometimes even without a roof. A few of the stops are connected with railway stations, as the SKM tracks are paralleled by tracks used by long distance and regional trains. At these stations, high platforms have been built for SKM trains. Over 90% of stops are connected with other transport services (both buses and trams, or trolley buses in Gdynia). For major stops, the timetables of the two services are synchronized, especially for night connections. The company makes a big effort to keep passengers well informed. Informational tables, lists of fares and timetables are changed as soon as the previous is out of date or destroyed (which unfortunately occurs quite often).
The stops on Gdańsk-Nowy Port line are no longer used, as the line is closed and despite their antique character (those stops were built before launching SKM service in Gdańsk) most of them are now ruined. Even in the last years when SKM still served this line no efforts were made to repair underground or overground pedestrian walkways or platforms. Gdańsk Nowy Port stop was the first one to be closed, when the line was shortened in 2000.
A new rail line, Pomorska Kolej Metropolitalna (PKM, the 'Pomeranian Metropolitan Railway') has been built between Wrzeszcz near Gdańsk and Gdynia via Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport, using the right-of-way of a pre-war line which lies further inland than the SKM line. The PKM connects with the Szybka Kolej Miejska at both ends of its route. SKM was chosen as the operator of the PKM. There are presently no plans to electrify the new line, which uses Diesel multiple unit trains built by Pesa SA. Service on the PKM opened on September 1, 2015.
New connections (not using the SKM line) were started to Iława, Lębork and Elbląg in 2003. At the end of 2005 a decision was made to buy a few German used diesel multiple units to serve the Gdynia–Kartuzy line (non electrified). The future of this line is still uncertain due to doubts of the local authorities.
Since December 10, 2005, the southern area of SKM service has been shortened to reach only Tczew and cancel connections to Elbląg, Malbork and Iława. In exchange the company has extended its service to the north to Słupsk.
On May 2006 one of SKM's employees, Marek Pleśniar, discovered an old EMU, like ones that used to operate on SKM lines until the 1970s (and previously on Berlin S-Bahn - built in 1936 specially for 1936 Summer Olympics). Those EMUs were retired on December 20, 1976 when the traction voltage was changed from 800 V to 3000 V. After this change many of them were used as technical cars or even as holiday houses for PKP employees. The EMU found in Tuchola Forest had probably been used for this last purpose.
The EMU is now waiting in the SKM sheds in Gdynia Cisowa and will probably be used as an old-style customer service office on one of the stops. The train is well preserved and SKM officials say the renovation will not be difficult.
A big problem for SKM are homeless people who in winter time seek shelter in the trains. SKM is trying to solve security problems in the trains, problems that are especially evident at night. Security is handled by SOK (Służba Ochrony Kolei, Rail Protection Office) officers and private security companies. Police and City Guard patrols are also more common than they once were. Another essential problem for SKM management are people defacing Electrical Multiple Units (EMUs) with graffiti. The company's spokesman, Wróblewski, assumes annually costs of removing paint from the trains as ce. 150 000 zł (about 50 000 USD).
PKP Szybka Kolej Miejska w Trójmieście is a limited company. It is part of the PKP Group, which was founded in 2001 after PKP had been split into several companies in order to meet European Union standards. SKM is responsible for passenger transport across Tricity, and is fully dependent on PKP SA company. SKM is one of the companies which is set for quick privatization.
The main goal of the company is to manage the special rail line (PKP rail line 250) and provide urban rail transport. The incorporation act was signed on December 22, 2000, and the company was registered on December 29, 2000. Operations began on July 1, 2001.
SKM is one of the most profitable companies of PKP Group. Although it noted a loss in 2003, SKM posted profits in previous years, as well as in 2004 and 2005. The company is involved in many cultural events in Tricity, mainly as a sponsor. SKM is managed by a three-person management board.
The ownership structure as follows:
- 121,206 shares (44.266%) Are owned by Polish State Railways SA.
- 56,605 shares (20.673%) Owned by the ministry of finance.
- 34,000 shares (12.417%) Owned by the province of Pomerania.
- 42,000 shares (15.339%) Owned by the Municipality of Gdańsk.
- 7,000 shares (2.557%) Owned by the Municipality of Sopot.
- 8,600 shares (3.141%) Owned by the Municipality of Gdynia.
- 4,000 shares (1.416%) Owned by the Municipality of Pruszcz Gdansk.
- 400 shares (0.146%) Owned by the Municipality of Rumia.
The first steps towards building additional tracks for suburban service between Gdańsk and Sopot were taken in 1912. Station tracks were modified, and buildings were torn down on the planned route. The project was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I.
During the interwar period 1919 – 1939, the Tricity area was divided into two zones under two different governments. Gdansk (Danzig) was a Free City not in Poland, while the new city of Gdynia was part of Poland. The transportation systems of the two zones were completely separate. Although rail transport in Gdańsk was operated by PKP, the city authorities of Gdańsk did not revive plans for an urban rail service.
After World War II
When World War II ended in 1945, all of the Tricity became part of Poland.
The first plan for electrification of the Gdansk railway network was developed by Prof. Roman Podoski of the Politechnika Warszawska, an advocate of railway electrification. The plan called for electrification of the existing tracks. But a much bolder and more expensive plan, calling for construction of two additional tracks to serve traffic within the urban area, was proposed by Zbigniew Modliński, then director of the Gdańsk Regional Board of Polish Railways, and later Polish Vice-minister of Transport. The second plan was adopted. In October 1950 the decision was made to build separate tracks for the urban railway. A branch of the Warsaw 'Bureau of Railway Electrification' was established in Gdańsk to prepare the plans.
Rolling stock for the new service came to Poland as war reparations from Germany. During the war, Berlin S-Bahn cars were overhauled in the (then) German town of Luben to the east of Berlin. When that town, now known as Lubin, was ceded to Poland under the terms of the Potsdam Conference in 1945, eighty four (84) S-Bahn cars were in the Luben repair shops. Additional cars were sent to countries east of Germany as war reparations, and while many were sent to Russia, at least 80 two-car sets, and possibly as many as 189 cars, remained in Poland. These cars were allocated to the Tricity region for use on suburban services, and one set is preserved in this condition at a museum at Koscierzyna.
The cars operated in Berlin on an 800 volt DC third rail power supply, a system which is still used today in Germany but was not used in Poland. They were modified in Poland by changing the power supply system from 800V using third rail to a system using an overhead catenary. Also, the small lights were changed to larger ones that would conform with PKP standards. A total of 80 two-car electric multiple units, belonging to three different series ET165, ET166 and ET167 were modified. They were later renumbered as Polish series EW90, EW91 and EW92. A temporary depot for the German cars was established on the Gdańsk – Gdańsk Nowy Port route near Gdańsk Zaspa Towarowa station.
The first train from Gdansk to Sopot ran on 2 January 1952. At that time, double track existed only on the Gdańsk – Gdańsk Wrzeszcz segment, and the line to Sopot still had only one track. The second track to Sopot was completed on 22 June 1952. This second track allowed service frequency to be increased to every 10 minutes. On July 22, 1952 the double track connection to Gdynia Orłowo was completed. On May 1, 1954 the elecrified double track reached Gdynia Główna railway station, the principal station in Gdynia. On 15 January 1956 the double track was extended further to Gdynia Chylonia, and on December 31, 1957 the first electric multiple units reached Wejherowo.
On the Gdynia – Wejherowo segment, SKM ran on tracks shared with other trains. Tracks built for urban rail service from Gdańsk to Gdynia were built to different specifications than mainline tracks, with curves of smaller radius, bridges built for lower loads, and top speed limited to 70 km/h.
The electrification on the long-distance tracks was switched over to 3000V DC, the Polish standard system, on 14 September 1969, and on 19 October 1969 it was switched to 3000V DC between Gdynia Główna railway station and Wejherowo. Since the former Berlin cars only operated on 800V DC, service between Gdynia and Wejherowo was taken over by new EN57 EMUS built in Poland by Pafawag in Wrocław. To relieve the pressure on the increasingly worn-out Berlin cars, these were only used on the line between Gdansk Glowny and Gdynia Stocznia, and passengers traveling to further points changed trains at Gdynia Stocznia.
1976: Retirement of Berlin Cars, Power Supply Changed to 3000V DC
It had been originally assumed that the useful life of the ex-German cars and the associated 800V DC power supply would be 15 to 20 years, and in the early 1970s it became clear that the time for a complete replacement of rolling-stock had come – to occur on a day called 'Day X.' Finally, on Sunday, 19 December 1976 all SKM traffic was halted in preparation for the switch-over, and on 20 December 1976 the entire SKM system was switched over to 3000V DC, the standard Polish system. On the changeover date, the electrical substations supplying 800V DC power were disconnected, and the power supply was reconnected to new electrical substations supplying 3000V DC which had been built in advance. This required other changes, including lengthening of platforms and building a new depot complex in Gdynia Cisowa. The changeover caused widespread disruption in the Tricity, since it happened on the busy weekend before Christmas and the public did not receive adequate notice in advance
The former Berlin cars were immediately withdrawn from service, since they could not operate on 3000V DC. One of the old Berlin trainsets can be viewed in the railway museum in Kościerzyna. In preparation for the changeover, a new series of cars called EW58 had been developed, incorporating technical innovations such as thyristor controls, anti-wheel-slip devices and so forth, which were expected to provide major improvements. The first EW58s were tested in 1974. But the EW58s required components purchased with Western hard currency, a major problem in Communist Poland. The technological innovations proved troublesome in actual practice, and the high energy demands of the EW58s strained the power supply. In the end, twenty-eight (28) three-car EW58 trainsets were produced by 1980.
Until the 1970s, the ridership continued to grow heavily, which surprised even the builders of the line. In 1959 the number of travellers reached over 50 million passengers annually. About 152,700 residents were said to live within a distance no more than 800 metres from SKM stations. More than 40% of the Tricity population used this means of urban transport. However, this led to a problem that is still evident to this day—crowding in the trains. Back in those days, some people were forced to ride on the outside of the trains.
1970s and 80s
Traffic on the lines reached its peak during this period. The introduction of automatic block signals allowed an increase in train frequency to every 6 minutes. Construction of a third track on the Gdynia – Rumia segment also continued. Thanks to the change to 3000V, the electric multiple units were able to operate beyond the Gdańsk – Wejherowo line, and run on the same tracks as standard trains in case of emergency. As a result, regular trains could also run on SKM tracks. In 1975, the annual number of passengers travelling by SKM exceeded 100 million people. Ridership sometimes reached 300 thousand passengers daily.
The eighties were a time of economic recession, not only for railroad. No new investments, except for the ones started in 1970s, were made. The electrification of Polish railways was progressing rapidly instead, and plans appeared to electrify the Gdynia – Kościerzyna route. Construction of the first Polish nuclear power plant in Żarnowiec started in 1986, and three units were planned for this village in 1986–1990.
The original plans called for electrification of the line from Gdańsk to Pruszcz Gdański, but this plan was abandoned in the 1950s when it was realized that it would require moving some catenary supports which had been placed too close to the track. These catenary supports had been part of a railway line in Sudetenland electrified by the German Railways, then confiscated by the Soviet Red Army and brought to Poland. This former German equipment was subsequently moved to the Gdańsk – Nowy Port line and to the vicinity of Gdynia Postojowa where it remains in use today. Later plans in the 1960s for building new tracks to Pruszcz Gdański would have required demolition of the historic Gdańsk Główny railway station and replacing it with a postmodern concrete-block structure. This plan was not carried out.
In 1953-1954 a project was developed to electrify the Gdańsk – Nowy Port line using 1500V DC current, and a number of EW90 cars were modified to operate at this voltage in 1954. The operation lasted until the 'first snowfalls' of winter, when their electric motors developed problems due to freezing and moisture in their insulation.
Several times in the 1960s and 1970s plans were made to connect Wrzeszcz with Kokoszki and Kartuzy. It is surprising that this line was not rebuilt and electrified, as the cost was relatively modest. A more ambitious project called for a Seaside SKM that was to run from Zaspa Towarowa to Sopot, east of the existing line, to relieve pressure on the crowded (Sopot - Gdańsk) section.
Time of changes
The fall of the communist regime and the change of economic system brought an enormous increase in use of private automobiles, and as a result a decreasing number of passengers in urban mass transport. During the 1990s, the annual number of passengers served by SKM was halved, from 80 million to 40 million, but it continued to be an important urban transport service in Tricity.
Capitalist economy forced much reorganization in PKP. The main change was to leave the division made on geographical basis and start to divide PKP in departments depending on responsibility. As a part of these changes, Urban Passenger Transport Department was founded in Gdańsk, responsible for marketing trade side of SKM.
Alongside these changes, works on commercializing PKP were in progress and soon after SKM became separate company in July 2001. In June 2005 the line to Nowy Port was finally closed, as it proved no income.
On December 2, 2005, SKM achieved 25th place in the top 100 Polish companies by Rzeczpospolita newspaper. It was the highest place in Pomeranian Voivodship and the highest position for the company from the PKP Group.
Tensions in SKM management
After 2003 the key people in SKM were Mikołaj Segień (CEO) and Piotr Małolepszy (CFO). After they finished their terms PKP put Andrzej Osipów and Maciej Lignowski in their places. This move was strongly criticised by SKM employees and labor unions, which were afraid that SKM would be incorporated in PKP Przewozy Regionalne (one of the PKP Group companies, responsible for local railway services). PKP Przewozy Regionalne is widely known to be unprofitable and to have serious debt problems.
Under the threat of a strike (an official letter was sent to PKP on 13 June), PKP management invited labor unions and employees' representatives to talks in Warsaw on 14 July 2006. The talks started at 4 AM and as a result an agreement was signed. This agreement stated that Piotr Małolepszy was to stay on the SKM management board together with new members. The other parties taking part in talks were the government of the Pomeranian Voivodship and the national labor union of railway engineers. Segień had retired after finishing work for SKM, but it is possible that he will be hired by local government as the person responsible for local transport in marshall's office.
SKM electric multiple unit specifications
|Top speed||110 km/h||110 km/h||120 km/h|
|Power (at h)||740 kW||1480 kW||1864 kW|
|Constant power||608 kW||1216 kW||1648 kW|
|Top acceleration||0,5 m/s²||0,6 m/s²||0,9 m/s²|
|Max. axle load||14,3 t||14,3 t||13,0 t|
|Car weight||57 + 2 x 34 t||2 x 57 + 2 x 34 t||42 + 2 x 52 t|
|Wheel diameter (driving/non driving)||1000/940 mm||1000/940 mm||1000/920 mm|
|Car length (external + internal)||20700 + 21570 mm||20700 + 21570 mm||21130 + 20940 mm|
|Number of cars in unit||3||4||3|
|Traction scheme (d: driving trailer, m: non-driving motor car, dm: driving motor car, t: trailer)||d-m-d||d-m-m-d||dm-t-dm|
|Number of doors per car per side||2||2||3|
In other Polish cities
There is also an SKM in the capital of Poland, Warsaw. This was launched in 2004 and runs from the neighbouring town of Pruszków, through the centre of Warsaw to Sulejówek Miłosna station. This SKM is not operated by PKP and is owned by the Warsaw Transport Authority.
- Polskie Koleje Państwowe
- PKP Group
- Polish locomotives designation
- History of rail transport in Poland
- "PKP Group report in PDF" (PDF). 2006. Retrieved 2007-11-01.
- SKM Passenger Information, and Map http://www.skm.pkp.pl/
- "SKM data from PKP Group site on PKP official site". Archived from the original on 2006-12-12. Retrieved 2007-01-21.
- 'SKM: Pierwsze Składy Zmodernizowane przez Pesę,' Rynek Kolejowy 2014 3 31, http://www.rynek-kolejowy.pl/51567/skm_pierwsze_sklady_zmodernizowane_przez_pese.htm
- PESA, 'Modernization of EN57 series EMUs,' http://www.wzp.pl/uploads/pliki/Modernizacja_EN57,_prezentacja_PESA_SA.pdf
- 'SKM: Pierwsze Składy Zmodernizowane przez Pesę,' Rynek Kolejowy 2014 3 31, http://www.rynek-kolejowy.pl/51567/skm_pierwsze_sklady_zmodernizowane_przez_pese.htm
- 'SKM Trójmiasto: Zakończenie projektu modernizacji 21 EZT,' Rynek Kolejowy 2014 10 28, http://www.rynek-kolejowy.pl/54518/skm_trojmiasto_zakonczenie_projektu_modernizacji_21_ezt.htm
- "New SKM tickets layout (Nowe wzory biletów SKM)" (in Polish). 2006-05-17. Retrieved 2006-07-15.
- Marek Potocki. "SKM stops information from Polish railway stations database" (in Polish). Retrieved 2005-12-08.
- http://www.skm.pkp.pl/index.php SKM Official Web Site
- "Podpisano Umowę na dostawę taboru dla PKM,' Rynek Kolejowy 2014 09 02, http://www.rynek-kolejowy.pl/53785/podpisano_umowe_na_dostawe_taboru_dla_pkm.htm
- Leszek Lewiński. "15 minutes to Kartuzy (15 minut do Kartuz)" (in Polish). Retrieved 2007-11-04.
- "Railway - less but the same? (Kolej - mniej, ale tak samo)" (in Polish). Retrieved 2006-02-24.
- "Old-time EMU in Tricity (Zabytkowa kolejka w Trójmieście)" (in Polish). 2006-05-10. Retrieved 2006-07-15.
- "SKM data from PKP Group site on PKP official site". Archived from the original on 2006-12-12. Retrieved 2007-01-21.
- "SKM information from PKP Group's overview in PDF" (PDF) (in Polish). Retrieved 2007-01-16.
- "SKM data from PKP Group site on PKP official site". Retrieved 2007-01-21.
- "SKM's Public Information Bulletin (Biuletyn Informacji Publicznej SKM)" (in Polish). Retrieved 2015-01-15.
- SKM, 'Our History' ('Nasza Historia,' in Polish) http://www.skm.pkp.pl/o-nas/nasza-historia/
- Wikipedia pl, Roman Podoski pl:Roman Podoski[better source needed]
- Fender, Keith; Bent, Mike (February 2011). "Old Berlin/Gdansk S-Bahn cars in museum and in use". Today's Railways (Platform 5 Publishing Ltd). p. 61.
- "Company's history at official site" (in Polish). Retrieved 2007-01-16.
- "PKP press communicate about changes in SKM management board" (in Polish). Retrieved 2006-07-14.
- "SKM chief is fired, are we are going to have a strike? (Szef SKM odchodzi, czy będzie strajk?)" (in Polish). 2006-06-14. Retrieved 2006-07-15.
- "PKP management made an agreement with SKM trade union (Zarząd PKP S.A. porozumiał się ze związkami zawodowymi SKM)" (in Polish). Retrieved 2006-07-16.
- SKM Official Web Site
- Official SKM forum
- SKM sheds in Gdynia Cisowa at Google Local
- Organisational chart of the company