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The S-train is a type of electrified hybrid urban and suburban railway. They are especially common in Germany, where they are known as S-Bahn, which originally in the 1930s was an abbreviation of either Schnellbahn, Stadtbahn or Stadtschnellbahn, depending of city, but they must not be confused with the new German U-Stadtbahns of today. Also, the tourist attraction Berliner Stadtbahn as of today is a four track elevated railway, of which two of the tracks is a part of the S-train system in Berlin.
Most S-train systems are entirely built on older local railways or in some cases parallel to an existing dual track railway (alternatively a new S-train branch can take over two of several already existing tracks), but they are never based on old metro tracks or underground fast tram tracks. Most use old local railways, but a few branches were purposely built for S-trains  Similar S-train systems exist also in Denmark, there known as S-tog, the Czech Republic as Esko, Switzerland and Austria also as S-Bahn, and northern Italy as Servizio ferroviario followed by either the word "metropolitano" (in Turin) or "surburbano" (in Milano). S-trains are, where they exist, the most local type of railway. Some of the larger S-train systems may be difficult to distinguish from Metro systems. They have always been driven through electricity, but voltage, AC-power or DC-power differs between the cities where they exist. The same applies to powering through hanging lines or a "third track". In Hamburg does the S-trains use both the latter methods, depending of which line that's powered.
The Hamburg S-Bahn and Copenhagen S-train are all S-train systems that use separate, dedicated tracks without level crossings, with passengers access to the platforms without crossing the tracks. The latter also applies to the Vienna S-Bahn, but parts of the Vienna S-Bahn share tracks with other train types outside the city centre. S-trains are generally the most local type of railway where they exist, and usually belong to a certain city, rather than connecting different cities, although in high population density areas a few exceptions from this exist. A good example of a such exception is the Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn, which interconnects the cities, towns and suburbs of the Ruhr, the large urban agglomeration which contains cities like Dortmund, Essen, Wuppertal and Düsseldorf, unlike the large net of regional trains and local trains which also serve the area. The S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland constitutes the main local railway system for Leipzig but also connects to Halle, where a few stations are located. The Rostock S-Bahn is an example of a smaller S-Bahn system.
S-trains generally stop at all stations along a route with frequent service, with typical weekday service in regular 10 or 15 minute intervals. In many cases, multiple lines serving separate suburban branches will converge into a central trunk line with high combined frequency of all the branches. For instance, on weekdays the Copenhagen S-train serves seven centrally located stations with five lines connecting to and from three main branches, which amounts to 30 trains in each direction. This gives a very high departure frequency through those parts of the city centre area that are home to such stations.
Usually, S-trains serve a similar purpose to a commuter rail. However, a commuter rail tends to focus less on travel within a city's inner boroughs, often in a pattern that radiates out from the city center or runs express through the central area, unlike S-trains that serve both the center city and suburban areas with equal priority. Many larger cities offer S-train service alongside subway, tram, and bus service. Many of the larger S-train systems also have central underground sections that all the individual suburban branches feed into, making these stretches high frequency corridors. Busy S-train corridors sometimes run on their own tracks but parallel to mainline railways. The S-trains stop at all stations, while other trains only stop at the largest stations (typically junction stations).
- 1 Classification
- 2 Name
- 3 History
- 4 List of S-train networks
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
There is no complete definition of an S-train system. The S-trains typically stops at all existing stations inside and around a city. They are slower than mainline railways and may or may not operate separately from the national railway network. The following are typical characteristics:
- The trains run on common electrified railway tracks. Where several lines uses the same path, with few exceptions, all S-train lines share that double track. Sharing tracks with other rail traffic is common in the smaller S-train systems and the outer sections of larger ones with the Berlin S-Bahn, Hamburg S-Bahn and Copenhagen S-train being notable exceptions.
- Often but not always, tunnels through city centres are used for S-trains, whether in combination with other types of trains or not. In cities with both an S-train and a Metro system, Metro tracks and S-train tracks seldom run in parallel, even in tunnels.
- The trains may get their electrical power either from catenaries or from a third rail, or as in Hamburg through both, depending on the line.
- The rolling stock is, like on Metro systems, designed for short journeys. Consequently, the trains are not usually equipped with toilets. On the schematic line and station maps all stations with toilets are marked, as also stations with facilities for the disabled such as lifts to street level.
- Levels of passenger comfort may sometimes be slightly higher than on Metro trains, but areas and handgrips for standing passengers are common.
- At central stations and other large stations where all (or most) trains call, S-trains have platforms of their own, and unlike Metro systems the S-train platforms are located parallel to the platforms for other train types. Changing from the mainline railway to the S-train is usually easier than changing from a mainline train to a Metro, as one usually must exit the large station and enter the Metro outside, or walk through pedestrian tunnels.
- At smaller stations (whether in tunnel or not), the difference between an S-train station and a Metro station can be harder to distinguish.
- S-trains may or may not share tracks with other kinds of trains, but in larger S-train systems the often have sections of exclusive trackage of their own. S-trains that partly run parallel with other tracks are not unusual. A good example of this is the part of Berlin's S-Bahn, which is regarded as a tourist attraction  and have a special name, Berliner Stadtbahn. This is an elevated four track railway. Two of the tracks are for the S-trains and the two other ones are for other trains.
- In city centres and central boroughs S-trains have stop spacings similar to metro systems, typically between 400 and 1,500 metres. Further out from the central parts of a city the distances between stations can exceed 5 km, similar to commuter rail.
- Trains run at high frequencies in the core sections. In smaller systems, frequencies may be over 15 minutes.
- The high frequency service can be achieved either by using many trains on a "from station A to station B -line", but longer intervals (up to 30 minutes, daytime) can instead be used in combination with several lines serving the station (but they end at "station C" or "station D" instead). This system is for instance used on Berliner Ringbahn (an orbital dual track line surrounding Berlin's most central parts, served by three lines) while for instance the otherwise similar Line F in Copenhagen, a "half-moon" shaped line that serves a quite similar purpose, uses 5 minutes between each departure, but as a single line.
- Unlike most suburban railways proper, S-trains have a dual transportation purpose - the service not only includes transport from a single or a few centrally located stations directly out to the suburbs, but often functions as a complement to a simultaneously existing Metro system.
- In general, in cities where a Metro also co-exists, Metro tickets are also valid on S-trains, and vice versa.
- S-trains typically allow travel both within a city centre and other central boroughs of larger cities, as well as to suburbs.
- Usually all parts of a station shared with for instance Light Rail share the same station name, like junction stations for travelling interchange.
- Each line departs typically every 5 or 10 minutes (possibly every 20 minutes in remote suburbs late at night and on Sundays).
- Symbols at every station (in Germany usually a green S, in Copenhagen a red hexagon with a white "S", others can be seen to the right).
- Integration with other local transport, in terms of ticketing, connectivity and easy interchange between lines or other system like metros are typical for S-trains. Where both S-train and metro exist the number of interchange stations is substantial, and not tied to one or two stations.
- Generally and buses aside, Metro (U-Bahn in Germany) is often considered the most local system on tracks (along with the so-called U-Stadt-Bahns, trams which partly use tunnels in larger city centres), then follows S-trains as the second most local train system. After that come various types of regional train. These may or may not be a part of a city's local ticket fare zones. This is unlike travel with for instance Inter-City and Express trains. Long-distance trains have ticket systems of their own.
What isn't S-train
- Metro system and larger S-train systems which have "tracks of their own" are closely related, especially in the underground parts. But S-trains are always railways, while for instance London Underground, Paris Metro, New York Subway, U-Bahn Berlin and Moscow Metro are regarded separately from railways. (Though the London Underground's earliest built tracks was originally called the "Underground railways" )
- Commuter trains are not S-trains in general, especially not if they only use high frequency during typical peak hours on weekdays and the city centre and inner boroughs only is served by very few stations.
Germany, Austria and Switzerland
The name S-Bahn (S-train) is an abbreviation for the German "Stadtschnellbahn" (meaning "city rapid railway") and was introduced in December 1930 in Berlin. The label was introduced along with the reconstruction of the suburban commuter train tracks— the first section to be electrified was a section of the Berlin–Szczecin railway from Berlin Nordbahnhof to Bernau bei Berlin station in 1924, leading to the formation of the Berlin S-Bahn.
The main line Berlin Stadtbahn (English: City railway of Berlin) was electrified with a 750 volt third rail in 1928 (some steam trains ran until 1929) and the circle line Berlin Ringbahn was electrified in 1929. The electrification continued on the radial suburban railway tracks along with changing the timetable of the train system into a rapid transit model with no more than 20 minutes headway per line where a number of lines did overlap on the main line. The system peaked during the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin to a train schedule below 2 minutes.
The idea of heavy rail rapid transit was not unique to Berlin. Hamburg had an electric railway between the central station ("Hauptbahnhof") and Altona which opened in 1906 and in 1934 the system adopted the S-Bahn label from Berlin. The same year Copenhagen's S-tog opened its first line. Vienna had its Stadtbahn main line electrified in 1908 and also introduced the term Schnellbahn ("rapid railway") in 1954 for its then planned commuter railway network (which eventually started operations in 1962) - the S-Bahn label was sometimes used as well, but officially the name only switched to S-Bahn Wien in 2005. As for Munich, a first breaking ground for an S-train-like rapid transport system running through tunnels in downtown areas, bundling and interconnecting existing suburban and local railways, as well as the construction of what is now Goetheplatz underground station (line U6) took place in 1938, executed by then "Führer" Adolf Hitler. Plans and construction work came to a halt early in World War II and were no longer pursued in its aftermath. The nowadays very extensive S-Bahn-System, together with the first two U-Bahn lines, began to operate prior to the 1972 Summer Olympics only.
The "S" originally stands for "station". Just before the opening of the first line in Copenhagen the newspaper Politiken at 17. February 1934 held a competition about the name, which in Danish became known as "Den elektriske enquete" or "The electrical survey" (as the Copenhagen S-trains would become the first electrical railways in Denmark). But since an "S" already was put up at all the stations, weeks before the survey, the result became "S-tog" which means "S-train". This was also just a few years after the S-trains had opened in Berlin and Hamburg.
Early steam services
In 1882, the growing number of steam-powered trains around Berlin prompted the Prussian State Railway to construct separate rail tracks for suburban traffic. The Berliner Stadtbahn connected Berlin's eight intercity rail stations which were spread throughout the city (all but the Stettiner Bahnhof which today is a pure S-train station known as Berlin Nordbahnhof; as the city Stettin today is Polish city Szczecin). A lower rate for the newly founded Berliner Stadt-, Ring- und Vorortbahn (Berlin City, Circular and Suburban Rail) was introduced on 1 October 1891. This rate and the growing succession of trains made the short-distance service stand out from other railways.
The second suburban railway was the Hamburg-Altonaer Stadt- und Vorortbahn connecting Hamburg with Altona and Blankenese. The Altona office of the Prussian State Railway established the electric powered railway in 1906.
The beginning of the 20th century saw the first electric trains, which in Germany operated at 15,000 V on overhead lines. The Berliner Stadt-, Ring- und Vorortbahn instead implemented direct current multiple units running on 750 V from a third rail. In 1924, the first electrified route went into service. The third rail was chosen because it made both the modifications of the rail tracks (especially in tunnels and under bridges) and the side-by-side use of electric and steam trains easier.
The Hamburg service had established an alternating current line in 1907 with the use of multiple units with slam doors. In 1940 a new system with 1200 V DC third rail and modern electric multiple units with sliding doors was integrated on this line (on the same tracks). The old system with overhead wire remains up to 1955. The other lines of the network still used steam and later Diesel power. In 1934, the Hamburg-Altonaer Stadt- und Vorortbahn was renamed as S-Bahn.
Train and station logotypes
The symbol for the S-Bahn in Germany is a white "S" on a green circle. In Copenhagen, Denmark, the equivalent symbol is a red hexagon with a white "S". In Austria, S-Bahn lines and stations are displayed by a blue circle with a white "S" in it. There are proper S-Bahn systems in Vienna, Graz, and Salzburg. In Switzerland, S-Linien (S-lines) is displayed in black letters on a white background. The term S-Bahn has spawned many similar notations, like the name R-Bahn for regional trains, which do not meet S-Bahn criteria.
The term S-Bahn was until March 14, 2012 a registered wordmark of Deutsche Bahn, where at the request of a transportation association the Federal Patent Court of Germany ordered the wordmark to be removed from the records of the German Patent and Trade Mark Office. Prior to the said event Deutsche Bahn collected a royalty of 0.4 cents per train kilometer for the usage of the said term.
List of S-train networks
The oldest S-Bahn system in Austria is the Vienna S-Bahn, which predominantly uses intercity rails. It was established in 1962, although it was usually referred to as Schnellbahn until 2005. The white "S" on a blue circle used as the logo reflects the layout of the central railway lines. The rolling stock was blue for a long time, reflecting the logo colour, but red is used uniformly for nearly all local traffic today.
In 2004, the Salzburg S-Bahn went into service as the first Euroregion S-Bahn, crossing the border to the neighbouring towns of Freilassing and Berchtesgaden in Bavaria. The network is served by three corporations: the Austrian Federal Railways (ÖBB), the Salzburger Lokalbahn (SLB) and the Berchtesgadener Land Bahn (BLB). The Salzburg S-Bahn logo is a white S on a light blue circle.
The S-Bahn network in Graz is in its first phase (Network plan). Currently the following lines are active: S1, S11, S5, S51, S6, S7 while S3, S31 and S32 are still under construction. Extension works shall be finished by 2012.
The suburban railways of Brussels are currently being integrated into the Brussels Regional Express Network (French: Réseau Express Régional Bruxellois, RER; Dutch: Gewestelijk ExpresNet, GEN), which is identified by the letter S across both languages.
In Czech Republic, integrated commuter rail systems exist in Prague and Moravian-Silesian Region. Both systems are called Esko, which is how S letter is usually called in Czech. Esko Prague has been operating since December 9, 2007 as a part of the Prague Integrated Transport system. Esko Moravian-Silesian Region began operating on 14 December 2008 as a part of the ODIS Integrated Transport system serving the Moravian-Silesian Region. Both systems are primarily operated by České dráhy. Several shorter lines are operated by other companies.
Copenhagen S-train connects the city centre, other inner and outer boroughs and suburbs with each other. The average distance between stations is 2.0 km, shorter in the city core and inner boroughs, longer at the end of lines that serve suburbs. Of the 85 stations, 32 are located within the central parts of the city. The Copenhagen Metro opened in 2002 as a complement to the already existing S-train system. Copenhagen's S-train system is the only one in the country. Outside Denmark, in cities where both exist, is it far from unusual that a metro system later has been complemented with S-trains. The branch towards Køge (the southernmost S-train station in Copenhagen's S-network) has a rather unique history, as it was built in the 1970s where no previous railway ever had existed. At least north of the Alps, most S-train tracks have been taken over from other local trains during electrifications and other modernisations.
The trains of the Berlin and Hamburg S-Bahn systems ran on separate tracks from the beginning. When other cities started implementing their systems in the 1960s, they mostly had to use the existing intercity rail tracks.
The central intercity stations of Frankfurt, Munich and Stuttgart are terminal stations, so all three cities have monocentric S-Bahn networks. The S-Bahn trains use a tunnel under the central station and the city centre.
The high number of large cities in the Ruhr area promotes a polycentric network connecting all cities and suburbs. The S-Bahn Rhein-Ruhr, as it is called, features few tunnels, and its routes are longer than those of other networks. The Ruhr S-Bahn is the only S-Bahn network to be run by more than one corporation in Germany, and the Salzburg S-Bahn holds a similar distinction in Austria. Most Swiss S-Bahn systems are multi-corporation networks, however.
Most German S-Bahn networks have a unique ticket system, separated from the Deutsche Bahn rates, instead connected to the city ticket system. The S-Bahn of Hanover, however, operates under five different rates due to its large expanse.
List of German S-Bahn systems
- Berlin S-Bahn
- Bremen S-Bahn
- Dresden S-Bahn
- Hamburg S-Bahn
- Hanover S-Bahn
- Magdeburg S-Bahn (uses track sharing with other train types)
- S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland (previously known as Leipzig-Halle S-Bahn)
- Munich S-Bahn
- Nuremberg S-Bahn
- Rhine-Main S-Bahn (Frankfurt / Mainz / Offenbach / Wiesbaden)
- Rhine-Neckar S-Bahn (Ludwigshafen / Mannheim / Heidelberg / Karlsruhe)
- Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn (Ruhr Area / Cologne)
- Rostock S-Bahn
- Stuttgart S-Bahn (Line S60 is a single track which also is used by freight trains)
One S-Bahn system is no longer in operation; it is the Erfurt S-Bahn which operated from 1976 until 1993 and was an 8.6 km (5.3 mi) single-line system which consisted of four stations from Erfurt Central Station to Erfurt Berliner Straße station in the then newly built northern suburbs of Erfurt.
Future S-Bahn systems are the Danube-Iller S-Bahn which is expected to enter service in December 2013, and the Augsburg S-Bahn which was originally planned to go into service in 2011 but has now been delayed to 2015. The S-Bahn system in Lübeck is under discussion (Network plan).
Suburban railways service in the northern parts of Italy are operated by regional train companies such as Trenord in Lombardy in joint venture with metropolitan transit authority like GTT in Turin, Piedmont. With ten lines Milan suburban railway service is the biggest one. Operating services in the country are:
- Milan suburban railway service, operated by Trenord and ATM.
- Turin metropolitan railway service, operated by Ferrovie Regione Piemonte and GTT.
- Bologna Suburban railways service, operated by Ferrovie dell'Emilia Romagna.
- Brescia Suburban railways service, operated by Trenord.
S-Bahn is also used in German-speaking Switzerland. While French publications of those networks translate it as RER, the line numbers are still prefixed with an S (e.g. S2).
The oldest network in Switzerland is the Bern S-Bahn, established in stages from 1974 and has adopted the term S-Bahn since 1995. It is also the only one in Switzerland to use a coloured "S" logo. In 1990, the Zürich S-Bahn, which covers the largest area, went into service. S-Bahn services were set up in the course of the Bahn 2000 initiative in Central Switzerland (a collaborative network of S-Bahn Luzern and Stadtbahn Zug), St. Gallen (S-Bahn St. Gallen) and Ticino (Rete celere del Canton Ticino).
The Regio S-Bahn Basel services the whole Euroregion "Regio TriRhena", thus providing cross-border transportation into both France and Germany. A tunnel connecting Basel's two large intercity stations (Basel Badischer Bahnhof and Basel SBB) is planned as Herzstück Regio-S-Bahn Basel (lit. heart-piece Regio-S-Bahn Basel).
The Réseau Express Vaudois of Lausanne will be incorporated in the planned S-Bahn Léman (called RER Léman in French-speaking areas) around Lake Geneva (fr. Lac Léman). Geneva will be the second centre of this network. Transborder networks for the Lake Constance-adjacent German states Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria, the Austrian state Vorarlberg and the Swiss cantons St. Gallen and Thurgau are under discussion. Possible names are Bodensee-S-Bahn and Alpenrhein-Bahn.
- Urban rail transit
- Train categories in Europe
- Commuter rail
- List of suburban and commuter rail systems
- Bay Area Rapid Transit (San Francisco)
- Washington Metro
- See example of this for Stuttgart ("Warum Stuttgart trotz U keine U-Bahn hat" ; literal translation: "Why does Stuttgart despite the U lack a U-Bahn (=Metro/Underground/Subway) 
- An example of this is the Køgebugt or Køge-Bay railway at Copenhagen, built 1971 to 1983 
- S-train tunnel at Hamburg between Central Station and Altona 1967-1979
- From Dybbølsbro to Svanemøllen or other way around (weekdays to the left) schematical map PDF at  lines A,B,C,E & H. Time tables at PDF 
- http://www.stadtschnellbahn-berlin.de (in German)
- http://www.stadtschnellbahn-berlin.de (in German); chose "Geschichte" (History)
- John Poulsen: S-bane 1934-2009 side 47
- See picture of Berliner Stadtbahn by Hackescher Markt S-train station, the third rail is clearly seen between the two S-Train tracks. Original name of that station was "Börse", or "the Stock Market" (which now is located in Frankfurt am Main)
- Beschluss Bundespatentgericht vom 14. März 2012. Retrieved April 14, 2013.
- Alan Hope (15 September 2015). "NMBS releases details of S-train express network". Flanders Today.
- de:S-Bahn Erfurt
- de:Regio-S-Bahn Donau-Iller
- de:S-Bahn Augsburg
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to S-Bahn.|
- Crossing the Berlin border on the S-Bahn (late '80s)—A tourist crosses from East Berlin to West Berlin via the S-Bahn.