|Tolkien's legendarium character|
|Aliases||See Names and titles|
|Book(s)||The Children of Húrin,
The Lays of Beleriand
Túrin Turambar (pronounced [ˈtuːrɪn tuˈrambar]) is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium. "Turambar and the Foalókë", begun in 1917, is the first appearance of Túrin in the legendarium. J.R.R. Tolkien consciously based the story on the medieval tale of Kullervo in the Finnish mythological poem Kalevala, saying that it was "an attempt to reorganize...the tale of Kullervo the hapless, into a form of my own". Also called "The Tale of Grief", "Narn i Chîn Húrin", commonly called "The Narn", it tells of the tragic fates of the children of Húrin, namely his son Túrin (Turambar) and his daughter Nienor. Excerpts of the story were published before, in The Silmarillion (prose), Unfinished Tales (prose), The Book of Lost Tales Part II (prose), The Lays of Beleriand (verse in alliterative long-lines) and most recently in 1994 in The War of the Jewels (prose), the latter three part of The History of Middle-earth series.
Túrin Turambar is the primary protagonist and tragic hero of the novel The Children of Húrin, published after Tolkien's death by his son Christopher Tolkien and drawing from many of the above sources to finally present a complete narrative. His title, "Turambar", means master of fate. Later, on his tombstone, it was written, "...Master of Fate, yet by fate mastered," concluding his tragedy, and ultimately showing his failure to achieve his goals of escaping the curse ill fate Morgoth had cast upon him.
In the books, Túrin was a Man of the First Age of Middle-earth, whose family had been cursed by the ultimate evil being of the legendarium, Morgoth. In course of his unsuccessful attempts to defy the curse, Túrin brought ruin upon several Mannish and Elven strongholds as well as upon himself and his sister Nienor Níniel. Their history was recorded in the Tale of the Children of Húrin or Narn i Chîn Húrin, which was claimed by Tolkien to be the ultimate source of the published writings.
Túrin is briefly mentioned in The Fellowship of the Ring, but little more is said than that he was one of "the mighty Elf-friends of old". In The Two Towers, his name is briefly mentioned as a strong warrior.
Túrin was the son of Húrin Thalion, Lord of the Folk of Hador, and Morwen Eledhwen of the House of Bëor. He was born in the month of Gwaeron (March) of the Year of the Sun 464. He had a younger sister, Lalaith, but she died of a plague at the age of three, when a pestilent wind came from Angband. Túrin was also taken sick at that time, but recovered. His closest childhood friend was Sador One-foot.
The Siege of Angband was already broken at that time, but Túrin's homeland of Dor-lómin was still contested by the Folk of Hador against Morgoth's forces. When Túrin was eight years old, Húrin led most of his Men to war, and all were slain during the Battle of Unnumbered Tears. Húrin himself was captured alive, and cursed by Morgoth together with his family. Dor-lómin was invaded by the Easterlings at Morgoth's command. Túrin remained with Morwen, who hid him from the Incomers, fearing that they would enslave or kill him as the heir of both Dor-lómin and Ladros. She sent him secretly and under protection of Grithnir and Gethron to the Elven-realm of Doriath; Morwen remained in Dor-lómin herself, and shortly afterwards Túrin's second sister, Nienor, was born.
Túrin and his guides eventually reached Doriath, and were enmeshed in the Girdle of Melian. There they came near to death, but the marchwarden Beleg Strongbow found them and led them to the halls of Menegroth. King Thingol adopted Túrin, in memory of Húrin's heroism and because of his kinship with Beren. One of Túrin's friends there was an elven-lady Nellas, who watched over him at Queen Melian's bidding and taught elven-lore. Túrin became esteemed and renowned for his prowess and bravery, and Beleg became his teacher of warfare.
When after eight years Dor-lómin was cut off and tidings from Morwen and Nienor ceased, Túrin decided to pit his strength against Morgoth's forces, hoping to avenge thus the sorrows of his kin. Thingol appointed him to be one of his "knights of the sword", and Túrin departed to the northern marches of Doriath to fight the Orcs, where he was joined by Beleg. His chief weapon for ever after became the sword, and in addition he wore now the Dragon-helm of Hador, so that the Orcs began to fear him.
At the age of 20, Túrin accidentally killed Saeros, one of Thingol's counsellors, who had scorned him for his attire and mortal lineage. Túrin injured him for this, but later was ambushed by Saeros. Túrin overpowered him, chasing him at sword point to a ravine where, in an attempt to jump, Saeros stumbled and died on the rocks below. Heedless of Mablung's counsels, and before Túrin could have been either punished or absolved, he fled from Doriath, fearing imprisonment. Thingol, after learning of the circumstances from Nellas, eventually pardoned Túrin, and Beleg obtained leave to seek out his friend.
Túrin was unaware of this and fled westward, eventually meeting up with a band of outlaws called Gaurwaith that dwelt in the woods south of the river Taeglin. He proved his worth for them by killing one of their best warriors, and thus earned himself a place in the band. At that moment he wished neither to depart anywhere else, nor to strive with them, and so he did little to restrain other members from their evil deeds, such as harassing scattered homesteads of Men. A year later, in an attempt to save the daughter of Larnach, a woodman, Túrin accidentally killed Forweg, the leader of the band. He then claimed his place, and this was granted to him as "the best man" among the outlaws.
Soon Beleg found the band in the wild, while Túrin was absent spying upon the Orcs. The outlaws treated the Elf badly, and this, as well as the counsels of Beleg, made Túrin stop the lawless way of the band's life, hunting hereafter only the servants of Angband. He rejected Beleg's advice to return to Doriath, and the Elf then departed to Menegroth. Later Túrin's band captured Mîm the Petty-dwarf; his two sons escaped, but one of them, Khîm, was mortally wounded by an outlaw Andróg. In order to save his own life, Mîm was forced to share his dwellings upon the hill of Amon Rûdh with the band.
Beleg returned to Túrin after a time, healing those of the band that had become sick with cold and delivering them lembas of Melian. He also brought the Dragon-helm, and the area around Amon Rûdh became known as Dor-Cúarthol, the "Land of Bow and Helm". Many warriors joined them, and much of West Beleriand was freed from evil by the prowess of the "Two Captains", Beleg and Túrin. However, by wearing the Helm Túrin revealed his identity to Morgoth, who sent a host of Orcs against Amon Rûdh two years later. These found Mîm, and he once again bought his life by leading them up the hill. Túrin was captured and all his men slain, except Beleg and Andvír.
Beleg followed the Orcs through the forest of Taur-nu-Fuin, where he met Gwindor, a slave who escaped from Angband. Together they rescued Túrin upon the confines of Anfauglith. Unfortunately, when Beleg was cutting the sleeping Túrin free from his bonds, he pricked Túrin's foot with the sword Anglachel, and Túrin, mistaking Beleg in the darkness for an orc come to torment him, took the sword and slew Beleg. Túrin became dazed with grief after this, but Gwindor led him to the Pools of Ivrin, where he returned to senses.
They journeyed to the hidden fortress of Nargothrond, where Gwindor had formerly been a lord. He gave Beleg's black sword Anglachel to Túrin now, who had it reforged and renamed as Gurthang, "Iron of Death". Túrin hid his own name, eventually becoming known as Mormegil or the Blacksword of Nargothrond, because of his prowess with Gurthang. Gwindor met there again his beloved, Finduilas daughter of King Orodreth, but she unwillingly fell in love with Túrin; however, Túrin did not perceive this and held her in awe.
Túrin was extremely influential in Nargothrond, becoming a chief counsellor of Orodreth and eventually overruling both him and Gwindor. He encouraged the Elves to abandon their practice of secrecy, and they built a great bridge before the Doors of Nargothrond and managed to clear the land between River Sirion and Falas from enemies. However, Túrin became arrogant, ignoring even a warning from the Vala Ulmo, brought by Gelmir and Arminas, to destroy the bridge and return to secrecy.
When Túrin had dwelt in Nargothrond for five years, Morgoth sent a great host of Orcs led by the dragon Glaurung against Nargothrond, and Túrin encouraged Orodreth to send his forces to fight them in the open. During the ensuing Battle of Tumhalad, Nargothrond's forces were destroyed and Orodreth was slain, while the bridge helped Morgoth's forces to locate the fortress and cross the river Narog. Túrin fought valiantly and was alone able to withstand Glaurung, but he forsook the battle to carry away the mortally wounded Gwindor. Before he died, he instructed Túrin to save Finduilas, prophesying that she alone can save Túrin from his doom.
Hastening to save the captives of Nargothrond, Túrin was caught by the powerful gaze of Glaurung, and stood by enspelled and immobile as Finduilas was dragged away, calling to him. The dragon deceived him into believing that Morwen and Nienor were suffering in Dor-lómin, and Túrin abandoned Finduilas to seek out his kin.
Next year he reached Dor-lómin, but found his old house empty and went to the halls of Brodda the Easterling, who had taken Húrin's lands and possessions. There Túrin learned from Brodda's wife Aerin that Morwen had already left for Doriath before the fall of Nargothrond, as Túrin's own efforts had made the way passable. In his rage he killed Brodda and his followers, rising a revolt. As he left, Aerin burnt herself alive in her halls, and the remnant of the Folk of Hador was persecuted even more cruelly from that time.
Túrin next tried to find Finduilas and followed the trail towards the forest of Brethil, but came too late: the woodmen informed him that she had been killed by the orcs when the Men of Brethil had ambushed them in an attempt to rescue the prisoners. Túrin collapsed of grief upon her grave, and was brought to Ephel Brandir. There he took up his life again, now calling himself Turambar ("Master of Doom") and renouncing his descent, hoping to overcome thus his curse. The Folk of Haleth dwelling there was ruled by Brandir the Lame, who hoped to preserve his people by secrecy. Turambar quickly gained the favour of the Folk and once again overruled Brandir, gathering companies to fight Orcs upon the borders. He stopped wielding Gurthang and fought rather with a spear and a bow.
Meanwhile, Morwen and Nienor dwelt in Doriath, but when the news of Nargothrond's destruction had reached them, they rashly went to look for Túrin, aided by a small company of Elves. Glaurung, who now lived in the ruined halls of Nargothrond, descended into the river so that a fog rose and enmeshed the company. Morwen was lost, but Nienor met the dragon and was enspelled by him, forgetting her past. Eventually she fled from both the Elves and the Orcs that pursued her and reached Brethil.
Turambar found her at Finduilas's grave, naked, unable to speak and remembering nothing. He named her Níniel, "Maid of Tears", and took her to Ephel Brandir. There she was healed by Brandir, who fell in love with her; however, Níniel and Turambar came to love each other. Túrin asked her in marriage, but Brandir managed to dissuade her, foreboding evil; yet when Turambar had vowed to forsake war for her sake unless to protect her, Níniel finally married him. Turambar was forced to go back to war when Glaurung sent Orcs to attack Brethil: taking the sword up again, Túrin drove them away, taking control of the Folk from Brandir. Next year Níniel conceived; however, soon Glaurung attacked Brethil himself.
Turambar decided to ambush the Dragon as he crossed the ravine of Cabed-en-Aras and to try stabbing him from beneath. He took two companions with him, Dorlas and Hunthor, but the first deserted them and the other was slain by a stone. Turambar mortally wounded Glaurung with Gurthang, but was hurt by the venom of the Dragon's blood and fell in a swoon. When Níniel came to search for him, Glaurung with his last words undid his spell, and she remembered who she was and realized that Turambar was her brother. Horrified, Nienor cast herself over the brink of the ravine into the river Taeglin and died.
Brandir witnessed this, and when Turambar awoke, he told him what had happened and taunted him from his jealousy that Túrin had more respect than he and had had the love of Níniel. Refusing to believe and in wrath on his fate, Túrin slew the defenceless Brandir and ran in madness towards Finduilas's grave. There he was met by Mablung of Doriath, who confirmed the words of Brandir were true. In despair and shame Túrin fled back to Cabed-en-Aras and cast himself upon the point of his sword Gurthang.
Túrin was buried in a high mound near the brink of Cabed-en-Aras, together with Gurthang which had broken asunder. A great stone was set upon the grave, upon which the Elves wrote in Cirth, the runes of Doriath:
TÚRIN TURAMBAR DAGNIR GLAURUNGA
However, Nienor's body was not there and could not have been found. Two years later Morwen and Húrin met at that place for the last time, and Morwen was also buried there. The mound survived the War of Wrath and the Drowning of Beleriand, and as Tol Morwen was one of the islands off the coast of Middle-earth in later ages.
Tolkien also wrote several contradictory versions of a prophecy about Túrin's fate after his death: see Concept and creation below.
Túrin is said to have been one of the fairest Men to have ever lived: "dark-haired and pale-skinned, ... his face more beautiful than any other among mortal Men, in the Elder Days." In this he is stated to have taken after his mother Morwen, descended from the House of Bëor, in contrast to his fair-haired father Húrin from the House of Hador. According to Gwindor's words, Túrin was very tall, "as tall as are the Men from the misty hills of Hithlum," in which he supposedly took after his grandfather Galdor the Tall since both Húrin and the Folk of Bëor were shorter than was usual among the Men of Hador.
Tolkien was not consistent in describing Túrin's eyes. According to some texts "he had the beauty of his mother and the eyes of his father", which were blue, while in other Túrin is said to have inherited the grey eyes of his mother. It is also stated that his eyes were bright, and that "few indeed could challenge the eyes of Túrin in set will or in wrath." Thus it is possible that he inherited the "elven-light ... hard to endure" of his mother's eyes.
As a child of five years, Túrin is described thus:
|“||He was dark-haired as his mother, and promised to be like her in mood also; for he was not merry, and spoke little, though he learned to speak early and ever seemed older than his years. Túrin was slow to forget injustice or mockery; but the fire of his father was also in him, and he could be sudden and fierce. Yet he was quick to pity, and the hurts or sadness of living things might move him to tears.||”|
A similar reference to this last trait of Túrin's character is found in Finduilas' words: "He is not yet awake, but still pity can ever pierce his heart, and he will never deny it. Pity maybe shall be ever the only entry." His reserved nature is also said to have resulted from Morgoth's curse; thus during Túrin's sojourn in Doriath "...it seemed that fortune was unfriendly to him, so that often what he designed went awry, and what he desired he did not gain; neither did he win friendship easily, for he was not merry, and laughed seldom."
Túrin is said to have been greatly affected by the deaths of his friends; thus after overcoming pestilence himself and the death of Lalaith, Túrin's character was hardened and he became even more reserved. Tolkien also stated that Túrin ever after "sought in all faces of women the face of Lalaith," that he did not love Finduilas because "his mind and heart were elsewhere, by rivers in springs long past," and that Túrin did fall in love with Níniel because she reminded him of Lalaith. The grief that he had slain Beleg "was graven on the face of Túrin and never faded"; early Tolkien's writings add that after this time "wild and black was his hair yet streaked with grey, and his face was pale and marked as with deep sorrows of the past."
Tolkien gave another Túrin's trait which differed him from others: "his speech and bearing were that of the ancient kingdom of Doriath", implying that he used a more archaic and 'noble' variant of the Sindarin language.
Túrin was a cousin of Tuor Eladar, father of Eärendil the Blessed. There are many parallels between the circumstances of their lives (both lost their fathers in the Nírnaeth Arnoediad, were raised in part by Elves, spent time as outlaws, were war-leaders in great Elvish fortresses and survived their downfall), but the outcome of Tuor's life was quite different. Even Túrin's colouring was dark, enhancing his resemblance to the Noldorin Elves but further setting him apart from his fair-haired cousin. The two never actually met, but Tuor did once see his cousin in passing at Eithel Ivrin. The cousins' respective fates – suicide and paradise – are analogous to those in Greek myth of Ajax and Achilles.
Túrin is one of the few characters in Tolkien's writings to have committed suicide, and several of the others – Aerin, Nienor, and Húrin – are connected to his story.
Names and titles
The name Túrin supposedly comes from the speech of the Folk of Hador, with unknown etymology (see House of Hador). Turambar derives from Quenya, an Elvish language created by Tolkien, with the meaning "Master of Fate" (Q. Tur- 'mastery', umbar or ambar 'fate'). All other names given to and taken by Túrin come from Sindarin, another Elven-tongue devised by Tolkien. The Sindarin form of Turambar, rarely used by Tolkien, was Turumarth (S. umarth or amarth 'fate', also úmarth 'ill-fate').
After leaving Doriath, Túrin usually tried to conceal his curse and, consequently, his true name. When he first appeared among the outlaws, he called himself Neithan, "the Wronged", as he thought that he had been expelled from Doriath. Later he took the name Gorthol, "the Dread Helm" (S. gor- 'horror', thôl 'helm'), since he wore the Dragon-helm then. When Túrin came to Nargothrond, he hid his identity under the epithet Agarwaen son of Úmarth, "the Bloodstained, son of Ill-fate", but soon became generally known as Adanedhel, "Man-Elf", since he greatly resembled Elves in manners and looks. Finduilas also called him Thurin, "the Secret", and after the reforging of the black sword Gurthang and because of his prowess with it, Túrin was known as Mormegil, "the Blacksword" (S. mor- "black", magol or megil "sword"). When he first met the Men of Brethil, Túrin presented himself as the Wildman of the Woods, but soon took the name Turambar when he decided to settle there. He was also entitled Dagnir Glaurunga, "the Bane of Glaurung" (S. dagnir 'slayer').
Line of Túrin and Nienor
|TúrinTuor family tree|
Concept and creation
There is the Children of Húrin, the tragic tale of Túrin Turambar and his sister Níniel – of which Túrin is the hero: a figure that might be said (by people who like that sort of thing, though it is not very useful) to be derived from elements in Sigurd the Volsung, Oedipus, and the Finnish Kullervo.
Another parallel is Milan Toplica, a 14th-century knight in medieval Serbia who also wore a dragon helm and shared a similar story. Túrin is mainly based on Kullervo, a character from the Finnish folklore poems known as Kalevala, who was also "cursed" in a sense, seduced his sister, brought ruin upon his family and slew himself. Sigmund, the father of Sigurd in the Volsunga saga, also resembles Túrin in the incestuous relationship he has with his sister. In Richard Wagner's opera Die Walküre (also drawn in part from the Volsung myths), Siegmund and Sieglinde are parallels of Túrin and Nienor. (One notable resemblance of Túrin to Siegmund is that in the first act of Die Walküre, Siegmund gives his name as Wehwalt, just as Túrin tells the Elves of Nargothrond his name is Agarwaen "blood-stained".) Túrin further resembles Sigurd himself, as both achieve great renown for the slaying of a dragon of immense power and magic.
Other related Old Norse Tales are those such as King Hrolfr Kraki, where the main protagonist King Hrolfr of Denmark is tricked into marrying his own daughter. Yet the most striking similarity to Tolkien's work are the tales of swords such as Tyrfing, that appears in the Hervarar Saga. Svafrlami was the King of Gardariki, and a grandson of the god Odin. He caught the dwarves, Dvalin and Durin, and forced them to forge a sword with a golden hilt that would never miss a stroke, would never rust and would cut through stone and iron as easily as through clothes. The dwarves made the sword, and it shone and gleamed like fire. However, in revenge they cursed it so that it would kill a man every time it was used and that it would be the cause of three great evils. They also cursed it so that it would in the end, kill Svafrlami himself. Then there is Dáinsleif, a sword from the legend of the eternal battle Hjaðningavíg, made by the dwarf Dain. Like Tyrfing, Dainsleif gave wounds that never healed and once drawn it could not be sheathed again without killing a man.
Another parallel is the tale of Sir Balin in the Arthurian Legend. Though he knows he wields an accursed sword, Balin nevertheless continues his quest to regain King Arthur's favour, though he unintentionally causes misery wherever he goes. Fate eventually catches up with him when he unwittingly kills his own brother, who in turn mortally wounds him.
Other versions of the story
The idea of Túrin changing his name to escape his doom is present already in the original versions of the tale, although to a lesser extent. The name Turambar goes to preliminary drafts, where however it was taken by Túrin at his first encounter with Glaurung after the latter had "revealed" to Túrin that he was cursed. Blacksword also appears there, as a side-name; in addition Túrin is said to have called himself "Turambar son of the weary forest" when he returned to Dor-lómin, with Quenya form Rúsitaurion and Gnomish bo-Dhrauthodavros.
Tolkien was hesitant about the exact Elvish transcriptions of names: in various texts the later Turumarth appears as Turumart, Turmarth, or Turamarth; Mormegil as Mormagli(r) or Mormael in Gnomish/Sindarin and as Mormakil in Quenya. The original form of Agarwaen "Bloodstained" was Iarwaeth, and Thurin "the Secret" supposedly originated in Thuringud "the Hidden Foe". In early texts Tolkien usually interpreted Turambar as "the Conqueror of Fate".
Fate after death
Tolkien from the beginning was stable in his view that Túrin should have some exceptional destiny after his death, unlike to the fate of other Mortal Men to abide shortly in the Halls of Mandos and then leave Arda forever. However, the precise nature of this part of the legendarium was changed several times.
In the earliest outline preserved, where the tale is drafted only cursorily and has many elements missing, a reference already appears to "purification of Turambar and Vainóni (the original name of Nienor) who fare shining about the world and go with the hosts of Tulkas against Melkor (Morgoth)]." In the finished manuscript of The Tale of Turambar and the Foalókë this is elaborated into a story that Túrin and Nienor were not at first admitted to Mandos because of their deeds; but after their parents' prayers, they were permitted to enter the "bath of flame", where the Sun replenished its light, "and so were all their sorrows washed away." A new detail is introduced, that "in the Great Wrack" Túrin would fight Morgoth's dragons with his renowned sword.
In later Tolkien's writings no reference to Nienor's fate appears, but Túrin's destiny is made even more prominent. The notion maintained for a long time was that Túrin would take part in the Last Battle fought before the End of the World, when Morgoth would return and make the final assault upon the Valar and the Children of Ilúvatar. In an early text it is "the spirit of Túrin" who came back and fought, while in the revision of the Quenta Noldorinwa carried out in 1937 the battle is described thus:
|“||In that day Tulkas shall strive with Morgoth, and on his right hand shall be Fionwë (early name of Eönwë), and on his left Túrin Turambar, son of Húrin, coming from the halls of Mandos; and the black sword of Túrin shall deal unto Morgoth his death and final end; and so shall the children of Húrin and all Men be avenged.||”|
In the same text it is said that to Túrin "a place is given among the sons of the Valar"; however, both the concept of the Children of the Valar and Túrin's ranking among them were removed in later revisions. The idea that Túrin tarried in Mandos for an immeasurable time was seemingly also discarded; instead Tolkien referred to Túrin as "returning from the Doom of Men at the ending of the world;" the precise implications of this phrase are unclear. In addition, he introduced Beren Camlost as likewise returning from the dead. It was also stated at this stage that when Varda set the constellation of Menelmacar, she intended it to be "a sign of Túrin Turambar" and "a foreshowing of the Last Battle."
However, in a late note Tolkien presented an entirely different conception: Túrin had indeed remained in Mandos overlong, but only for some 50 years, not for the whole lifespan of the World. According to the prophecy of Andreth, during the War of Wrath at the end of the First Age Túrin "should return from the Dead, and before he left the Circles of the World for ever should challenge the Great Dragon of Morgoth, Ancalagon the Black, and deal him the death-stroke." Thus the original idea that Túrin was to fight dragons re-emerged, but it would have required of Tolkien serious revisions if he had intended to replace Eärendil with Túrin as the slayer of Ancalagon. Because of these and similar discrepancies, Christopher Tolkien decided not to include any references to the Last Battle or to Túrin's ultimate fate in the published Silmarillion.
Many artists have created illustrations of Túrin's story. The stand-alone novel The Children of Húrin contains images by Alan Lee, while various editions of The Silmarillion and Unfinished Tales were illustrated by Ted Nasmith. Other images were done by John Howe and Anke Eißmann.
- Kullervo - Character of Finnish mythology - Kalevala that Tolkien used while creating story of Túrin Turambar.
- Timeline of Arda—Years of the Sun 464-499 in the First Age
- Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, p. 214, ISBN 0-395-31555-7
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1993), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Morgoth's Ring, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "Myths Transformed" (I), p. 373 and note 2, ISBN 0-395-68092-1
- Narn: "The Childhood of Túrin".
- Túrin reached Doriath in 473, and Dor-lómin was cut off in 481. Statements in The Silmarillion (Ch. 21) and The Children of Húrin (Ch. 5) that Túrin had dwelt in Doriath for nine years by this time derive from an early version of Quenta Silmarillion (The Lost Road, pp. 320–2), and are contradicted by both earlier and later texts (e.g. The Grey Annals, pp. 79–80), as well as by the statement in The Children of Húrin (ibid.) that he was 17 then.
- Narn: "Túrin in Doriath".
- The War of the Jewels: The Grey Annals, pp. 61–103, 129–165.
- Narn: "Túrin among the Outlaws".
- The War of the Jewels: "Ælfwine and Dírhaval", p. 311–5.
- The War of the Jewels: "The Wanderings of Húrin", p. 256–7 (a plot-synopsis for the Narn).
- The Silmarillion, Ch. 21 "Of Túrin Turambar", p. 207–210.
- The Silmarillion: Ch. 18 "Of the Coming of Men into the West", p. 148.
- Narn: "The Departure of Túrin".
- Narn, "The Death of Túrin": "[Nienor's] eyes were blue, her hair fine gold, the very likeness in woman's form of Húrin her father." Cf. The Silmarillion Ch. 18, p. 148.
- Narn: "Of Mîm the Dwarf".
- The War of the Jewels: The Wanderings of Húrin, p. 273.
- Unfinished Tales, Appendix to Narn i Hîn Húrin.
- Unfinished Tales, notes 6 and 8 to Narn i Hîn Húrin.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1984), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Book of Lost Tales 2, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "Turambar and the Foalókë", pp. 69–143, ISBN 0-395-36614-3
- The Lost Road: The Etymologies, pp. 339–400. Stems TUR-, MBARAT-, MOR-, MAK-, NDAK-.
- The Silmarillion: Appendix, pp. 355–365.
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Humphrey Carpenter, editor, The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Allen and Unwin, 1981, p.150.
- Shippey, Tom (2004). "Tolkien and the Appeal of the Pagan". In Chance, Jane. Tolkien and the Invention of Myth. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 155, 156. ISBN 9780813123011.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1986), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Shaping of Middle-earth, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "The Earliest 'Silmarillion'", p. 29–30, 40–41; "The Quenta", p. 125–131, ISBN 0-395-42501-8
- The Lost Road, pp. 139–140, 315, 321.
- The Silmarillion, Ch. 12 "Of Men".
- The Lost Road: "The conclusion of the Quenta Silmarillion", p. 333.
- The War of the Jewels: "The Later Quenta Silmarillion", p. 247.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1993), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Morgoth's Ring, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, The Annals of Aman, p. 71, ISBN 0-395-68092-1
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1996), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Peoples of Middle-earth, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "The Problem of Ros", p. 374 note 17, ISBN 0-395-82760-4
- Book cover
- Illustrations by Ted Nasmith: Saeros's Fatal Leap, Mîm Pleads For His Life, Beleg is Slain, Túrin Bears Gwindor to Safety, Finduilas is Led Past Túrin at the Sack of Nargothrond, The Slaying of Glaurung, Túrin Prepares to Take His Life
- Illustrations by John Howe: Turambar and Glaurung, The Death of Glaurung, Dragon's Curse
- Illustrations by A. K. Eißmann: Narn i Hîn Húrin –The Tale of the Children of Húrin
- Narn: Tolkien, J. R. R. (1980), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Unfinished Tales, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "Narn i Hîn Húrin", ISBN 0-395-29917-9
- The Silmarillion: Tolkien, J. R. R. (1977), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Silmarillion, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-25730-1
- The War of the Jewels: Tolkien, J. R. R. (1994), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The War of the Jewels, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-71041-3
- The Lost Road: Tolkien, J. R. R. (1987), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Lost Road and Other Writings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-45519-7