# Standard electrode potential (data page)

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The data values of standard electrode potentials are given in the table below, in volts relative to the standard hydrogen electrode, and are for the following conditions:

• A temperature of 298.15 K (25.00 °C; 77.00 °F).
• An effective concentration of 1 mol/L for each aqueous species or a species in a mercury amalgam (an alloy of mercury with another metal).
• A partial pressure of 101.325 kPa (absolute) (1 atm, 1.01325 bar) for each gaseous reagent. This pressure is used because most literature data are still given for this value (1 atm) rather than for the current standard of 100 kPa.
• An activity of unity for each pure solid, pure liquid, or for water (solvent). The relation in electrode potential of metals in saltwater (as electrolyte) is given in the galvanic series.
• Although many of the half cells are written for multiple-electron transfers, the tabulated potentials are for a single-electron transfer. All of the reactions should be divided by the stoichiometric coefficient for the electron to get the corresponding corrected reaction equation.
• After dividing by the number of electrons, the standard potential E is related to the standard Gibbs free energy of formation ΔG by:
${\displaystyle E=(\sum \Delta G_{left}-\sum \Delta G_{right})/F}$
where F is the Faraday constant. The Nernst equation will then give potentials at concentrations, pressures, and temperatures other than standard.

Legend: (s) – solid; (l) – liquid; (g) – gas; (aq) – aqueous (default for all charged species); (Hg) – amalgam; bold – water electrolysis equations.

Half-reaction (V) Ref.
Oxidant Reductant
Sr+ + e Sr −4.101 [1]
Ca+ + e Ca −3.8 [1]
Pr3+ + e Pr2+ −3.1 [1]
3 N2(g) + 2H+ + 2e 2HN3(aq) −3.09 [2][3]
Li+ + e Li(s) −3.0401 [3][4]
N2(g) + 4H
2
O
+ 2e
2 NH2OH(aq) + 2OH −3.04 [2]
Cs+ + e Cs(s) −3.026 [3]
Ca(OH)2 + 2e Ca + 2 OH −3.02 [1]
Er3+ + e Er2+ −3.0 [1]
Ba(OH)2 + 2e Ba + 2 OH −2.99 [1]
Rb+ + e Rb(s) −2.98 [3]
K+ + e K(s) −2.931 [3]
Ba2+ + 2e Ba(s) −2.912 [3]
La(OH)3(s) + 3e La(s) + 3OH −2.90 [3]
Fr+ + e Fr −2.9 [1]
Sr2+ + 2e Sr(s) −2.899 [3]
Sr(OH)2 + 2e Sr + 2 OH −2.88 [1]
Ca2+ + 2e Ca(s) −2.868 [3][4]
Li+ + C6(s) + e LiC6(s) −2.84 [3]
Eu2+ + 2e Eu(s) −2.812 [3]
Ra2+ + 2e Ra(s) −2.8 [3]
Ho3+ + e Ho2+ −2.8 [1]
Bk3+ + e Bk2+ −2.8 [1]
Yb2+ + 2e Yb −2.76 [1]
Na+ + e Na(s) −2.71 [3][5]
Mg+ + e Mg −2.70 [1]
Nd3+ + e Nd2+ −2.7 [1]
Mg(OH)2 + 2e Mg + 2 OH −2.690 [1]
Sm2+ + 2e Sm −2.68 [1]
Be2O32− + 3 H2O + 4e 2 Be + 6 OH −2.63 [1]
Pm3+ + e Pm2+ −2.6 [1]
Dy3+ + e Dy2+ −2.6 [1]
No2+ + 2e No −2.50 [1]
HfO(OH)2 + H2O + 4e Hf + 4 OH −2.50 [1]
Th(OH)4 + 4e Th + 4 OH −2.48 [1]
Md2+ + 2e Md −2.40 [1]
Tm2+ + 2e Tm −2.4 [1]
La3+ + 3e La(s) −2.379 [3]
Y3+ + 3e Y(s) −2.372 [3]
Mg2+ + 2e Mg(s) −2.372 [3]
ZrO(OH)2(s) + H
2
O
+ 4e
Zr(s) + 4OH −2.36 [3]
Pr3+ + 3e Pr −2.353 [1]
Ce3+ + 3e Ce −2.336 [1]
Er3+ + 3e Er −2.331 [1]
Ho3+ + 3e Ho −2.33 [1]
H2AlO3 + H2O + 3e Al + 4 OH −2.33 [1]
Nd3+ + 3e Nd −2.323 [1]
Tm3+ + 3e Tm −2.319 [1]
Al(OH)3(s) + 3e Al(s) + 3OH −2.31
Sm3+ + 3e Sm −2.304 [1]
Fm2+ + 2e Fm −2.30 [1]
Am3+ + e Am2+ −2.3 [1]
Dy3+ + 3e Dy −2.295 [1]
Lu3+ + 3e Lu −2.28 [1]
Tb3+ + 3e Tb −2.28 [1]
Gd3+ + 3e Gd −2.279 [1]
H2 + 2e 2 H −2.23 [1]
Es2+ + 2e Es −2.23 [1]
Pm2+ + 2e Pm −2.2 [1]
Tm3+ + e Tm2+ −2.2 [1]
Dy2+ + 2e Dy −2.2 [1]
Ac3+ + 3e Ac −2.20 [1]
Yb3+ + 3e Yb −2.19 [1]
Cf2+ + 2e Cf −2.12 [1]
Nd2+ + 2e Nd −2.1 [1]
Ho2+ + 2e Ho −2.1 [1]
Sc3+ + 3e Sc(s) −2.077 [6]
AlF63− + 3e Al + 6 F −2.069 [1]
Am3+ + 3e Am −2.048 [1]
Cm3+ + 3e Cm −2.04 [1]
Pu3+ + 3e Pu −2.031 [1]
Pr2+ + 2e Pr −2.0 [1]
Er2+ + 2e Er −2.0 [1]
Eu3+ + 3e Eu −1.991 [1]
Lr3+ + 3e Lr −1.96 [1]
Cf3+ + 3e Cf −1.94 [1]
Es3+ + 3e Es −1.91 [1]
Pa4+ + e Pa3+ −1.9 [1]
Am2+ + 2e Am −1.9 [1]
Th4+ + 4e Th −1.899 [1]
Fm3+ + 3e Fm −1.89 [1]
Np3+ + 3e Np −1.856 [1]
Be2+ + 2e Be −1.847 [1]
H2PO2 + e P + 2 OH −1.82 [1]
U3+ + 3e U −1.798 [1]
Sr2+ + 2e Sr(Hg) −1.793 [1]
H2BO3 + H2O + 3e B + 4 OH −1.79 [1]
ThO2 + 4H+ + 4e Th + 2 H2O −1.789 [1]
HfO2+ + 2 H+ + 4e Hf + H2O −1.724 [1]
HPO32− + 2 H2O + 3e P + 5 OH −1.71 [1]
SiO32− + H2O + 4e Si + 6 OH −1.697 [1]
Al3+ + 3e Al(s) −1.662 [1]
Ti2+ + 2e Ti(s) −1.63 [5]
ZrO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e Zr(s) + 2H
2
O
−1.553 [7]
Zr4+ + 4e Zr(s) −1.45 [7]
Ti3+ + 3e Ti(s) −1.37 [8]
TiO(s) + 2H+ + 2e Ti(s) + H
2
O
−1.31
Ti2O3(s) + 2H+ + 2e 2 TiO(s) + H
2
O
−1.23
Zn(OH)42− + 2e Zn(s) + 4OH -1.199 [7]
Mn2+ + 2e Mn(s) −1.185 [7]
Fe(CN)64− + 6H+ + 2 e Fe(s) + 6HCN(aq) −1.16 [9]
Te(s) + 2e Te2− −1.143 [10]
V2+ + 2e V(s) −1.13 [10]
Nb3+ + 3e Nb(s) −1.099
Sn(s) + 4H+ + 4e SnH4(g) −1.07
SiO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e Si(s) + 2H
2
O
−0.91
B(OH)3(aq) + 3H+ + 3e B(s) + 3H
2
O
−0.89
Fe(OH)2(s) + 2e Fe(s) + 2OH −0.89 [9]
Fe2O3(s) + 3H
2
O
+ 2e
2Fe(OH)2(s) + 2OH −0.86 [9]
TiO2+ + 2H+ + 4e Ti(s) + H
2
O
−0.86
2H2O + 2e H2(g) + 2OH −0.8277 [7]
Bi(s) + 3H+ + 3e BiH3 −0.8 [7]
Zn2+ + 2e Zn(Hg) −0.7628 [7]
Zn2+ + 2e Zn(s) −0.7618 [7]
Ta2O5(s) + 10H+ + 10e 2 Ta(s) + 5H
2
O
−0.75
Cr3+ + 3e Cr(s) −0.74
Ag2S(s) + 2e 2Ag(s) + S2−(aq) −0.69
[Au(CN)2] + e Au(s) + 2 CN −0.60
Ta3+ + 3e Ta(s) −0.6
PbO(s) + H
2
O
+ 2e
Pb(s) + 2OH −0.58
2 TiO2(s) + 2H+ + 2e Ti2O3(s) + H
2
O
−0.56
Ga3+ + 3e Ga(s) −0.53
U4+ + e U3+ −0.52 [11]
H3PO2(aq) + H+ + e P(white)[note 1] + 2H
2
O
−0.508 [7]
H3PO3(aq) + 2H+ + 2e H3PO2(aq) + H
2
O
−0.499 [7]
H3PO3(aq) + 3H+ + 3e P(red)[note 1] + 3H
2
O
−0.454 [7]
Fe2+ + 2e Fe(s) −0.44 [5]
2 CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e HOOCCOOH(aq) −0.43
Cr3+ + e Cr2+ −0.42
Cd2+ + 2e Cd(s) −0.40 [5]
GeO2(s) + 2H+ + 2e GeO(s) + H
2
O
−0.37
Cu2O(s) + H
2
O
+ 2e
2 Cu(s) + 2OH −0.360 [7]
PbSO4(s) + 2e Pb(s) + SO42− −0.3588 [7]
PbSO4(s) + 2e Pb(Hg) + SO42− −0.3505 [7]
Eu3+ + e Eu2+ −0.35 [11]
In3+ + 3e In(s) −0.34 [10]
Tl+ + e Tl(s) −0.34 [10]
Ge(s) + 4H+ + 4e GeH4(g) −0.29
Co2+ + 2e Co(s) −0.28 [7]
H3PO4(aq) + 2H+ + 2e H3PO3(aq) + H
2
O
−0.276 [7]
V3+ + e V2+ −0.26 [5]
Ni2+ + 2e Ni(s) −0.25
As(s) + 3H+ + 3e AsH3(g) −0.23 [10]
AgI(s) + e Ag(s) + I −0.15224 [7]
MoO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e Mo(s) + 2H
2
O
−0.15
Si(s) + 4H+ + 4e SiH4(g) −0.14
Sn2+ + 2e Sn(s) −0.13
O2(g) + H+ + e HO2•(aq) −0.13
Pb2+ + 2e Pb(s) −0.126 [5]
WO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e W(s) + 2H
2
O
−0.12
P(red) + 3H+ + 3e PH3(g) −0.111 [7]
CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e HCOOH(aq) −0.11
Se(s) + 2H+ + 2e H2Se(g) −0.11
CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e CO(g) + H
2
O
−0.11
SnO(s) + 2H+ + 2e Sn(s) + H
2
O
−0.10
SnO2(s) + 2H+ + 2e SnO(s) + H
2
O
−0.09
WO3(aq) + 6H+ + 6e W(s) + 3H
2
O
−0.09 [10]
Fe3O4(s) + 8H+ + 8e 3 Fe(s) + 4H
2
O
−0.085 [12]
P(white) + 3H+ + 3e PH3(g) −0.063 [7]
Fe3+ + 3e Fe(s) −0.04 [9]
HCOOH(aq) + 2H+ + 2e HCHO(aq) + H
2
O
−0.03
2H+ + 2e H2(g) 0.0000 = 0
AgBr(s) + e Ag(s) + Br +0.07133 [7]
S4O62− + 2e 2 S2O32− +0.08
N2(g) + 2H
2
O
+ 6H+ + 6e
2 NH4OH(aq) +0.092
HgO(s) + H
2
O
+ 2e
Hg(l) + 2OH +0.0977
Cu(NH3)42+ + e Cu(NH3)2+ + 2 NH3 +0.10 [10]
Ru(NH3)63+ + e Ru(NH3)62+ +0.10 [11]
N2H4(aq) + 4H
2
O
+ 2e
2 NH4+ + 4OH +0.11 [2]
H2MoO4(aq) + 6H+ + 6e Mo(s) + 4H
2
O
+0.11
Ge4+ + 4e Ge(s) +0.12
C(s) + 4H+ + 4e CH4(g) +0.13 [10]
HCHO(aq) + 2H+ + 2e CH3OH(aq) +0.13
S(s) + 2H+ + 2e H2S(g) +0.14
Sn4+ + 2e Sn2+ +0.15
Cu2+ + e Cu+ +0.159 [10]
HSO4 + 3H+ + 2e SO2(aq) + 2H
2
O
+0.16
UO22+ + e UO2+ +0.163 [11]
SO42− + 4H+ + 2e SO2(aq) + 2H
2
O
+0.17
TiO2+ + 2H+ + e Ti3+ + H
2
O
+0.19
SbO+ + 2H+ + 3e Sb(s) + H
2
O
+0.20
3Fe2O3(s) + 2H+ + 2e 2 Fe3O4(s) + H
2
O
+0.22 [13]:p.100
AgCl(s) + e Ag(s) + Cl +0.22233 [7]
H3AsO3(aq) + 3H+ + 3e As(s) + 3H
2
O
+0.24
GeO(s) + 2H+ + 2e Ge(s) + H
2
O
+0.26
UO2+ + 4H+ + e U4+ + 2H
2
O
+0.273 [11]
Re3+ + 3e Re(s) +0.300
Bi3+ + 3e Bi(s) +0.308 [7]
Cu2+ + 2e Cu(s) +0.337 [10]
VO2+ + 2H+ + e V3+ + H
2
O
+0.34
[Fe(CN)6]3− + e [Fe(CN)6]4− +0.3704 [14]
Fc+ + e Fc(s) +0.4 [15]
O2(g) + 2H
2
O
+ 4e
4OH(aq) +0.401 [5]
H2MoO4 + 6H+ + 3e Mo3+ + 4H
2
O
+0.43
CH3OH(aq) + 2H+ + 2e CH4(g) + H
2
O
+0.50
SO2(aq) + 4H+ + 4e S(s) + 2H
2
O
+0.50
Cu+ + e Cu(s) +0.520 [10]
CO(g) + 2H+ + 2e C(s) + H
2
O
+0.52
I3 + 2e 3 I +0.53 [5]
I2(s) + 2e 2 I +0.54 [5]
[AuI4] + 3e Au(s) + 4 I +0.56
H3AsO4(aq) + 2H+ + 2e H3AsO3(aq) + H
2
O
+0.56
[AuI2] + e Au(s) + 2 I +0.58
MnO4 + 2H
2
O
+ 3e
MnO2(s) + 4OH +0.595 [1]
S2O32 − + 6H+ + 4e 2 S(s) + 3H
2
O
+0.60
H2MoO4(aq) + 2H+ + 2e MoO2(s) + 2H
2
O
+0.65
+ 2H+ + 2e +0.6992 [7]
O2(g) + 2H+ + 2e H2O2(aq) +0.70
Tl3+ + 3e Tl(s) +0.72
PtCl62− + 2e PtCl42− + 2 Cl +0.726 [11]
Fe2O3(s) + 6H+ + 2e 2Fe2+ + 3H
2
O
+0.728 [13]:p.100
H2SeO3(aq) + 4H+ + 4e Se(s) + 3H
2
O
+0.74
PtCl42− + 2e Pt(s) + 4 Cl +0.758 [11]
Fe3+ + e Fe2+ +0.77
Ag+ + e Ag(s) +0.7996 [7]
Hg22+ + 2e 2 Hg(l) +0.80
NO3(aq) + 2H+ + e NO2(g) + H
2
O
+0.80
2FeO42− + 5H
2
O
+ 6e
Fe2O3(s) + 10 OH +0.81 [9]
[AuBr4] + 3e Au(s) + 4 Br +0.85
Hg2+ + 2e Hg(l) +0.85
[IrCl6]2− + e [IrCl6]3− +0.87 [4]
MnO4 + H+ + e HMnO4 +0.90
2 Hg2+ + 2e Hg22+ +0.91 [10]
Pd2+ + 2e Pd(s) +0.915 [11]
[AuCl4] + 3e Au(s) + 4 Cl +0.93
MnO2(s) + 4H+ + e Mn3+ + 2H
2
O
+0.95
NO3(aq) + 4H+ + 3e NO(g) + 2H
2
O
(l)
+0.958 [5]
[AuBr2] + e Au(s) + 2 Br +0.96
Fe3O4(s) + 8H+ + 2e 3Fe2+ + 4H
2
O
+0.98 [13]:p.100
[HXeO6]3− + 2H
2
O
+ 2e
[HXeO4] + 4 OH +0.99 [16]
[VO2]+(aq) + 2H+ + e [VO]2+(aq) + H
2
O
+1.0 [17]
H6TeO6(aq) + 2H+ + 2e TeO2(s) + 4H
2
O
+1.02 [17]
Br2(l) + 2e 2 Br +1.066 [7]
Br2(aq) + 2e 2 Br +1.0873 [7]
IO3 + 5H+ + 4e HIO(aq) + 2H
2
O
+1.13
[AuCl2] + e Au(s) + 2 Cl +1.15
HSeO4 + 3H+ + 2e H2SeO3(aq) + H
2
O
+1.15
Ag2O(s) + 2H+ + 2e 2 Ag(s) + H
2
O
+1.17
ClO3 + 2H+ + e ClO2(g) + H
2
O
+1.18
[HXeO6]3− + 5H
2
O
+ 8 e
Xe(g) + 11OH +1.18 [16]
Pt2+ + 2e Pt(s) +1.188 [11]
ClO2(g) + H+ + e HClO2(aq) +1.19
2 IO3 + 12H+ + 10e I2(s) + 6H
2
O
+1.20
ClO4 + 2H+ + 2e ClO3 + H
2
O
+1.20
O2(g) + 4H+ + 4e 2H
2
O
+1.229 [5]
MnO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e Mn2+ + 2H
2
O
+1.23
[HXeO4] + 3H
2
O
+ 6 e
Xe(g) + 7OH +1.24 [16]
Tl3+ + 2e Tl+ +1.25
Cr2O72− + 14H+ + 6e 2 Cr3+ + 7H
2
O
+1.33
Cl2(g) + 2e 2 Cl +1.36 [5]
CoO2(s) + 4H+ + e Co3+ + 2H
2
O
+1.42
2 NH3OH+ + H+ + 2e N2H5+ + 2H
2
O
+1.42 [2]
2 HIO(aq) + 2H+ + 2e I2(s) + 2H
2
O
+1.44
BrO3 + 5H+ + 4e HBrO(aq) + 2H
2
O
+1.45
β-PbO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e Pb2+ + 2H
2
O
+1.460 [10]
α-PbO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e Pb2+ + 2H
2
O
+1.468 [10]
2 BrO3 + 12H+ + 10e Br2(l) + 6H
2
O
+1.48
2ClO3 + 12H+ + 10e Cl2(g) + 6H
2
O
+1.49
HClO(aq) + H+ + 2e Cl(aq) + H
2
O
+1.49 [1]
MnO4 + 8H+ + 5e Mn2+ + 4H
2
O
+1.51
HO2 + H+ + e H2O2(aq) +1.51
Au3+ + 3e Au(s) +1.52
NiO2(s) + 2H+ + 2e Ni2+ + 2OH +1.59
Ce4+ + e Ce3+ +1.61
2 HClO(aq) + 2H+ + 2e Cl2(g) + 2H
2
O
+1.63
Ag2O3(s) + 6H+ + 4e 2 Ag+ + 3H
2
O
+1.67
HClO2(aq) + 2H+ + 2e HClO(aq) + H
2
O
+1.67
Pb4+ + 2e Pb2+ +1.69 [10]
MnO4 + 4H+ + 3e MnO2(s) + 2H
2
O
+1.70
AgO(s) + 2H+ + e Ag+ + H
2
O
+1.77
H2O2(aq) + 2H+ + 2e 2H
2
O
+1.78
Co3+ + e Co2+ +1.82
Au+ + e Au(s) +1.83 [10]
BrO4 + 2H+ + 2e BrO3 + H
2
O
+1.85
Ag2+ + e Ag+ +1.98 [10]
S2O82− + 2e 2 SO42− +2.010 [7]
O3(g) + 2H+ + 2e O2(g) + H
2
O
+2.075 [11]
HMnO4 + 3H+ + 2e MnO2(s) + 2H
2
O
+2.09
XeO3(aq) + 6H+ + 6 e Xe(g) + 3H
2
O
+2.12 [16]
H4XeO6(aq) + 8H+ + 8 e Xe(g) + 6 H
2
O
+2.18 [16]
FeO42− + 3e + 8H+ Fe3+ + 4H
2
O
+2.20 [18]
XeF2(aq) + 2H+ + 2e Xe(g) + 2HF(aq) +2.32 [16]
H4XeO6(aq) + 2H+ + 2e XeO3(aq) + 3H
2
O
+2.42 [16]
F2(g) + 2e 2 F +2.87 [4][5][10]
F2(g) + 2H+ + 2e 2 HF(aq) +3.05 [10]
KrF2(aq) + 2e  Kr(g) + 2 F(aq) +3.27 [19]
1. ^ a b Not specified in the indicated reference, but assumed due to the difference between the value −0.454 and that computed by (2×(−0.499) + (−0.508))/3 = −0.502, exactly matching the difference between the values for white (−0.063) and red (−0.111) phosphorus in equilibrium with PH3.

## References

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