Talk:Empowerment

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Note on changes[edit]

The orgininal flab was pretty good, but it seemed to focus too much on one version or description of empowerment. Not every case of the use of empowerment is applied to discriminated groups, in many cases (particulalry economic ones) it is used on multicultural and multiracial areas that have simply been underdeveloped for geographic or social reasons. I think the article is much improved now. Empowerment is also often used in the Federal program called the "Empowerment zone" program. Which uses tax and other business incentives to improve local communities. Arminius 00:27, 6 Sep 2004 (UTC)

This entry definitely needs to be expanded. Mookey 23:21, 19 September 2005 (UTC)

-- I have changed the entry to a more extensive description, drawing on translations from the German wikipedia article. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 192.76.8.34 (talk) 14:27, 17 September 2015 (UTC)

Added worker empowerment[edit]

Empowerment is now commonly used or perhaps misused as a managerial term to describe some forms of employee involvement.

I have added a note to cover this usage

MARKOC

Addition of marginalization section[edit]

This section seems out of place. Perhaps it belongs elsewhere?

It could also use a content edit.

Winky42 23:21, 04 December 2006 (UTC)

This section is obviously out of place and needs to be removed from here to elsewhere Rajankila 17.22 24 January 2008

I disagree, the Marginalization section gives great context to why empowerment is important. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 175.39.13.122 (talk) 19:45, 6 October 2012 (UTC)

NPOV[edit]

Parts of this article are written in a POV style: for example, "Those doing the empowering should help the group in any way possible..." -- The Anome 07:41, 8 June 2007 (UTC)

That group being women, and you know that feminists hate to be criticised. Trumpy (talk) 09:13, 5 January 2013 (UTC)

this needs tidying up[edit]

I have begun tidying this page. As noted above, it has a lot of NPOV, lack of citations, and an unusual imbalance of relevant sections. Any thoughts or suggestions on a relevant structure of sections, anybody? WotherspoonSmith 10:40, 24 July 2007 (UTC)


why is the yoga part in the personal para? sounds like a sudden switch to a quite specific wordview, and stands out of the rest of the article's more general approach. It doesnt seem to be citing an example, rather a blatant advertising of a particular religious view.
—Preceding unsigned comment added by 84.188.237.190 (talk) 21:13, 26 September 2008 (UTC)

Management paragraph[edit]

I think this article is overall quite good, but would like to see a bit more about the mis-use of the word "empowerment" or "empowered" as a management or consultant buzzword. This is alluded to in the article in various paragraphs, but not stated on its own. Maybe a paragraph title "Criticism" would be useful.....Empowerment and Empowered were buzzwords of the late 1980s to 90s corporate culture that got so watered down as to be almost meaningless (in my experience) and were really used to attempt to shift attitudes (as one para alludes to) rather than change how a Co operates. Or should this be addressed under the Wiki articles "Management Consulting" or "Jargon" ?
Its a legitimate concept, but like many others it may not work so well in practice. Engr105th 18:01, 11 October 2007 (UTC)

Traktung Rinpoche

-- 88.75.87.154 (talk) 13:02, 5 October 2009 (UTC)

Gender Empowerment[edit]

While the page touches on various aspects of empowerment, it fails to go in depth on any certain topic and neglects to mention the notion of gender empowerment. The empowerment of women can have indisputable effects on women around the world, particularly in the developing world. With many published works on the empowerment of women and a global/UN focus on the subject matter, I have attempted to add a section on the empowerment of women. Though its importance can be disputed, the fact that many reputable people and organizations place such a heavy importance on it is grounds for its explanation and addition. —Preceding unsigned comment added by Abolivar3 (talkcontribs) 17:40, 6 December 2010 (UTC)

I appreciate your attempt to add gender empowerment as a sub-section of empowerment, yet also believe this topic should be its own page on Wikipedia. Though the article mentions the process of empowerment, the process of gender empowerment in particular must be added to the section as general empowerment and gender empowerment by no means follow the same process. In addition, a working definition of gender empowerment as defined by scholars must be added to the section. Furthermore, it must be noted that much debate surrounds the definition and process of gender empowerment, and I believe this debate deserves attention in order to make the gender empowerment section well-founded. You section jumps into ways of empowering women without addressing the issue of what gender empowerment means. Surely women's empowerment means more that a high score on the GDI. FrancescaSchley (talk) 21:59, 19 September 2011 (UTC)
I concur that the Gender/Women empowerment needs a separate article (linked)...as it reads, the gender section (which is only one part of the article) dominates the whole. It throws the article out-of-balance.... By the way, the article needs a "Criticism" paragraph. Engr105th (talk) 23:18, 16 May 2012 (UTC)

Women empowerment[edit]

Empowerment of women, also called gender empowerment, has become a significant topic of discussion in regards to development and economics. Entire nations, businesses, communities, and groups can benefit from the implementation of programs and policies that adopt the notion of women empowerment.[1] Empowerment is one of the main procedural concerns when addressing human rights and development. The Human Development and Capabilities Approach, The Millennium Development Goals, and other credible approaches/goals point to empowerment and participation as a necessary step if a country is to overcome the obstacles associated with poverty and development.[2]

Measuring gender empowerment[edit]

Gender empowerment can be measured through the Gender Empowerment Measure, or the GEM. The GEM shows women’s participation in a given nation, both politically and economically. Gem is calculated by tracking “the share of seats in parliament held by women; of female legislators, senior officials and managers; and of female profession and technical workers; and the gender disparity in earned income, reflecting economic independence.” [3] It then ranks countries given this information. Other measures that take into account the importance of female participation and equality include: the Gender Parity Index and the Gender-related Development Index (GDI).[4]

Ways to empower women[edit]

One way to deploy the empowerment of women is through land rights. Land rights offer a key way to economically empower women, giving them the confidence they need to tackle gender inequalities. Often, women in developing nations are legally restricted from their land on the sole basis of gender. Having a right to their land gives women a sort of bargaining power that they wouldn’t normally have, in turn; they gain the ability to assert themselves in various aspects of their life, both in and outside of the home.[5] Another way to provide women empowerment is to allocate responsibilities to them that normally belong to men. When women have economic empowerment, it is a way for others to see them as equal members of society. Through this, they achieve more self-respect and confidence by their contributions to their communities. Simply including women as a part of a community can have sweeping positive effects. In a study conducted by Bina Agarwal, women were given a place in a forest conservation group. Not only did this drive up the efficiency of the group, but the women gained incredible self-esteem while others, including men, viewed them with more respect.[6] Participation, which can be seen and gained in a variety of ways, has been argued to be the most beneficial form of gender empowerment. Political participation, be it the ability to vote and voice opinions, or the ability to run for office with a fair chance of being elected, plays a huge role in the empowerment of peoples.[7] However, participation is not limited to the realm of politics. It can include participation in the household, in schools, and the ability to make choices for oneself. It can be said that these latter participations need to be achieved before one can move onto broader political participation.[8] When women have the agency to do what she wants, a higher equality between men and women is established. It is argued that Microcredit also offers a way to provide empowerment for women.[9] Governments, organizations, and individuals have caught hold of the lure of microfinance. They hope that lending money and credit allows women to function in business and society, which in turn empowers them to do more in their communities. One of the primary goals in the foundation of microfinance was women empowerment. Loans with low interest rates are given to women in developing communities in hopes that they can start a small business and provide for her family.[10] It should be said, however, that the success and efficiency of microcredit and microloans is controversial and constantly debated.[11]

Economic benefits of women empowerment[edit]

Most women across the globe rely on the informal work sector for an income.[12] If women were empowered to do more and be more, the possibility for economic growth becomes apparent. Eliminating a significant part of a nation’s work force on the sole basis of gender can have detrimental effects on the economy of that nation.[13] In addition, female participation in counsels, groups, and businesses is seen to increase efficiency.[14] For a general idea on how an empowered women can impact a situation monetarily, a study found that of fortune 500 companies, “those with more women board directors had significantly higher financial returns, including 53 percent higher returns on equity, 24 percent higher returns on sales and 67 percent higher returns on invested capital (OECD, 2008).” [15] This study shows the impact women can have on the overall economic benefits of a company. If implemented on a global scale, the inclusion of women in the formal workforce (like a fortune 500 company) can increase the economic output of a nation.

Barriers of women empowerment[edit]

Many of the barriers to women empowerment and equity lie ingrained into the cultures of certain nations and societies. Many women feel these pressures, while others have become accustomed to being treated inferior to men.[16] Even if men, legislators, NGOs, etc. are aware of the benefits women empowerment and participation can have, many are scared of disrupting the status quo and continue to let societal norms get in the way of development.[17]

Edit[edit]

I've removed the above section, "Women Empowerment," because I agree with FrancescaSchley's comment. Women Empowerment is certainly an important topic, but I believe it requires its own Wikipedia page or perhaps a separate page under the title, "Gender Empowerment." It doesn't seem to fit under the broader title of "Empowerment." Austincm (talk) 13:17, 26 March 2012 (UTC)

Did someone revert it back? Engr105th (talk) 07:31, 18 May 2012 (UTC)

downsides[edit]

shouldnt there also be a part about the downsides about empowering women? i dont believe that everybody is of the opinion that its good to empower women. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 90.230.141.37 (talk) 11:36, 28 June 2012 (UTC)

Male Empowerment?[edit]

This article is one sided, it screams of fist-punching feminism, I'd like to see it deleted. Either it gets a more neutral bias to it or it's for the chopping block. Trumpy (talk) 12:22, 4 January 2013 (UTC)

@Trumpy: LOL I was thinking the same thing. Actually, WP:BRIMSTONE may really be in order here. Mr. Guye (talk) 03:45, 25 July 2014 (UTC)

Tagging[edit]

This article is problematic in several regards, including

  1. Being poorly written in its entirety.
  2. Describing empowerment in a manner that seems to indicate an ideological POV. Further, the compatibility with http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/empowerment is not as high as it should be.
  3. The section on women is largely speculative and/or (pro-feminist) POV and/or of dubious encyclopedical relevance. Some parts or sources may be of no true relevance to the topic, e.g. a discussion of medical patients with links to a breast-cancer site.
  4. If this type of angle on the subject is taken (power to the powerless) then there are other groups than women that should be included. This usually with a greater right, e.g. inner-city black kids of poor or single parents.
  5. The section on business is incoherent and undescriptive, understates the importance of the concept (be it as a buzzword or as a legitimate concept), and could have problems with too narrow sources or even promotional inclusion.

Correspondingly, I have added the tags POV and cleanup-rewrite. 80.226.24.9 (talk) 00:52, 13 October 2013 (UTC)


PS: For the fun of it, I had a look at the oldest version on the 500-listing in the history tab (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Empowerment&oldid=37497821 ) and found it to be vastly superior to the current version/ — Preceding unsigned comment added by 80.226.24.9 (talk) 01:01, 13 October 2013 (UTC)

Totally agree re: oldest version is vastly superior. Wouldn't mind reverting to that version and adding in a section about gender equality instead of trying to mould this odd and badly written page into something manageable.Cfoo (talk) 02:49, 18 November 2013 (UTC)


Time for some brimstone and fire?[edit]

This page has received HEAPS of scrutiny regarding its blatant feminist bias. I think that it is time for WP:BRIMSTONE to take effect here. This article as it is is beyond saving. Mr. Guye (talk) 03:54, 25 July 2014 (UTC)


The number of issues with this article is hysterical[edit]

No less than 4 different flags on the top of the page stating how the article is flawed in various ways.

  • "this article may need to be *rewritten entirely* to comply with quality standards"
  • "the neutrality of this article is disputed"
  • "this article needs additional citations"

And of course the best for last:

  • "This article is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay that states the Wikipedia editor's particular feelings about a topic, rather than the opinions of experts."

This really just highlights so many problems with feminism and social justice. 68.105.80.165 (talk) 08:14, 20 October 2014 (UTC)

Legal empowerment[edit]

At this juncture I am really not sure whether a separate section in article for Legal empowerment is enough or it will justify a separate article and a synopsis added to this article. In any case I will start building resources at this talk page section as of now.

Mahitgar (talk) 08:05, 22 November 2014 (UTC)

according to opensocietyfoundations "Legal empowerment is about strengthening the capacity of all people to exercise their rights, either as individuals or as members of a community. It’s about grassroots justice—about ensuring that law is not confined to books or courtrooms, but rather is available and meaningful to ordinary people. [18]
Lorenzo Cotula in his book Legal Empowerment for Local Resource Control outlines the fact that legal tools for securing local resource rights are enshrined in legal system, does not necessarily mean that local resource users are in possition to use them and benefit from them. The state legal system is contrained by a range of different factors - from lack of resources to cultural issues. Among these factors economic, geographic, linguistic and other constraints on access to courts,lack of legal awareness as well as legal assistance tend to be recurrent problems.[19]
In many context, marginalised groups do not trust the legal system owing to the widespread manipulation that it has historically been subjected to by the more powerful. To what extent one knows the law and make it work for themselves with para legal tools is legal empowerment; assisted utilizing innovative approaches like legal literacy and awareness training, broadcasting legal information, conducting participatory legal discourses, supporting local resource user in negotiating with other agencies and stake holders and to strategies combining use of legal processes with advocacy along with media engagement, and socio legal mobilisation.[19]

Hi Mahitgar. Thank you for your contribution to the article. Although there a few typos and grammar errors, it does seem like a useful addition. In terms of your above question, I do think that in the long term a separate article will be warranted. And yes, your plan of contributing in the present article, as well as here, sounds like a good one to me. The other option would be to draft something in your sandbox. Cheers Andrew (talk) 10:05, 28 November 2014 (UTC)

Categories[edit]

Categories in the aricle do not seem to be appropriate for the article and need to be revisited.

Mahitgar (talk) 07:51, 25 November 2014 (UTC)

Refences on this talk page[edit]

See also: John Friedmann?[edit]

Hi all. Mirrormundo recently added John Friedmann to the 'see also' list, which I reverted giving the reason "too niche". Mirrormundo has since questioned my rational over on my talk page, saying...

Why you undid my edit to Empowerment 'see also' section? I added John Friedmann, writer of an important book on the subject, called Empowerment - The Politics of Alternative Development

To elaborate a little further on my reasoning then, my feeling is that giving focus to individual authors in this article will quickly bloat the article with promotional tangents and distract from other, more central, messages. Unless, of course, the author has been particularly critical to the history of the field, which has not been demonstrated in the case of Mr Friedmann. Mirrormundo, does that resonate with you? And do other editors have any thoughts? Cheers Andrew (talk) 08:01, 6 May 2015 (UTC)

Empowerment refers to giving power to a de-powered group of a society. The 'power' is of three dimensions. In other words, Empowerment contains three basic elements namely 1. Freedom - The weaker sections or de powered group must be freed from the traditional barriers meted to them with subjugation, deprivation and oppression perpetuated for ages through institutionalized methods. Social and Religious institutions are so evolved that facilitate the rest of the society to inflict subjugation, deprivation and oppression. Till the institutionalized methods are legitimized, the weaker sections cannot be empowered. 2. Enabling - The de-powered group require enabling i.e. instilling abilities in them to play roles in social domain. They must be made able to take part in decision making at the family, social and governmental levels. 3. Control - Now the most important pre-requisite to empowerment is enjoying control over the resources and ideology. Despite they are freed and enabled, they cannot control the ideas i.e. value system of the given society. Thus the task of empowerment must encompass these three elements. In case of women's empowerment these elements have significant place. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 115.250.47.57 (talk) 11:53, 15 August 2015 (UTC)

Balancing subtopics[edit]

I have removed the 'Women' section, as have others before, for the same reasons quoted below. I will store the version I removed here, so that a separate page on 'Female empowerment' can be contructed from it.

I put the suggestions for 'gender empowerment' in place. LobsterJameson (talk) 15:25, 17 September 2015 (UTC)

Female empowerment[edit]

The Internet as a tool of empowerment[edit]

The growing access of the web in the late 20th century, has allowed women to empower themselves by using various tools on the Internet. With the introduction of the World Wide Web, women have begun to use social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter to start online activism.[20] Through online activism, women are able to empower themselves by organizing campaigns and voicing their opinions for equality rights without feeling oppressed by members of society.[21] For example, on May 29, 2013, an online campaign started by 100 female advocates forced the leading social networking website, Facebook, to take down various pages that spread hatred about women.[22]

In recent years, blogging has also become a powerful tool for the educational empowerment of women. According to a study done by the University of California, Los Angeles, medical patients who read and write about their disease are often in a much happier mood and more knowledgeable than those who do not.[23] By reading others' experiences, patients can better educate themselves and apply strategies that their fellow bloggers suggest.[23]

With the easy accessibility and affordability of e-learning (electronic learning), women can now study from the comfort of their home anywhere, anytime.[24] By empowering themselves educationally through new technologies like e-learning, women are also learning new skills that will come in handy in today's advancing globalized world.

Economic benefits of female empowerment[edit]

Most women across the globe rely on the informal work sector for an income.[25] If women were empowered to do more and be more, the possibility for economic growth becomes apparent. Empowering women in developing countries is essential to reduce global poverty since women represent most of the world’s poor population.[26] Eliminating a significant part of a nation’s work force on the sole basis of gender can have detrimental effects on the economy of that nation.[27] In addition, female participation in counsels, groups, and businesses is seen to increase efficiency.[28] For a general idea on how an empowered women can impact a situation monetarily, a study found that of Fortune 500 companies, "those with more women board directors had significantly higher financial returns, including 53 percent higher returns on equity, 24 percent higher returns on sales and 67 percent higher returns on invested capital (OECD, 2008)."[29] This study shows the impact women can have on the overall economic benefits of a company. If implemented on a global scale, the inclusion of women in the formal workforce (like a Fortune 500 company) can increase the economic output of a nation. Therefore, women can also help businesses grow and economies prosper if they have, and if they are able to use, the right knowledge and skills in their employment.

Barriers to the empowerment of women[edit]

Many of the barriers to women's empowerment and equity lie ingrained in cultural norms. Many women feel these pressures, while others have become accustomed to being treated inferior to men.[30] Even if men, legislators, NGOs, etc. are aware of the benefits women's empowerment and participation can have, many are scared of disrupting the status quo and continue to let societal norms get in the way of development.[31]

Research shows that the increasing access to the internet can also result in an increased exploitation of women.[20] Releasing personal information on websites has put some women's personal safety at risk. In 2010, Working to Halt Online Abuse stated that 73% of women were victimized through such sites.[32] Types of victimization include cyber stalking, harassment, online pornography, and flaming.[33]

Recent studies also show that women face more barriers in the workplace than do men. Gender-related barriers involve sexual harassment, unfair hiring practices, career progression, and unequal pay where women are paid less than men are for performing the same job.[34] Such barriers make it difficult for women to advance in their workplace or receive fair compensation for the work they provide.

Empowerment in international development[edit]

The UK's Department for International Development are working to address constraints to the empowerment of adolescent girls in developing countries. Researchers mapped organisations that competitively seek innovative ideas from both the private and non-profit sectors potentially to reach girls, youth and/or women in developing country contexts and provides support in the forms of finance and technical assistance to bring their ideas to market.[35]

LobsterJameson (talk) 15:00, 17 September 2015 (UTC)

Removal of flags?[edit]

I think most issues that were flagged are now cleaned up. LobsterJameson (talk) 16:06, 17 September 2015 (UTC)

  1. ^ Deneulin, Séverine, with Lila Shahani. 2009. An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach: Freedom and Agency. Sterling, VA: Earthscan.
  2. ^ U.N. General Assembly, 55th Session. “United Nations Millennium Declaration.” (A/55/L.2). 8 September 2000. (Online) Available: www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.pdf (accessed January 2, 2008)
  3. ^ Deneulin, Séverine, with Lila Shahani. 2009. An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach: Freedom and Agency. Sterling, VA: Earthscan.
  4. ^ Deneulin, Séverine, with Lila Shahani. 2009. An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach: Freedom and Agency. Sterling, VA: Earthscan.
  5. ^ Agarwal, Bina. 1994. “Land Rights for Women: Making the Case,” in A Field of One’s Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia, pp. 1-50. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
  6. ^ Argawal, Bina. 2010. “Gender and Green Governance: The Political Economy of Women’s Presence Within and Beyond Community Forestry.” New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  7. ^ Deneulin, Séverine, with Lila Shahani. 2009. An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach: Freedom and Agency. Sterling, VA: Earthscan.
  8. ^ Nussbaum, Martha C. 2000. “Introduction,” in Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach, pp. 1–33. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  9. ^ World Survey on the Role of Women In Development. 2009. Women’s Control over Economic Resources and Access to Financial Resources, including Microfinance. New York: United Nations
  10. ^ Bateman, Milford. 2010. Why Doesn’t Microfinance Work?: The Destructive Rise of Local Neoliberalism, New York: Zed Books.
  11. ^ Parmar, A. 2003. “Microcredit, Empowerment, and Agency: Re-evaluating the Discourse.” Canadian Journal of Development Studies 24 (3): 461-76.
  12. ^ United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. 2010. Combating Poverty and Inequality: Structural Change, Social Policy and Politics. Geneva: UNRISD “Gender Inequalities at Home and in the Market.” Chapter 4, pp. 5–33
  13. ^ UNICEF. 2007. “Equality in Employment,” in The State of the World’s Children. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund.
  14. ^ Argawal, Bina. 2010. “Gender and Green Governance: The Political Economy of Women’s Presence Within and Beyond Community Forestry.” New York, NY: Oxford University Press
  15. ^ World Survey on the Role of Women In Development. 2009. Women’s Control over Economic Resources and Access to Financial Resources, including Microfinance. New York: United Nations.
  16. ^ Nussbaum, Martha C. 1995. “Introduction,” in Martha C. Nussbaum and Jonathan Glover, eds. Women, Culture, and Development: A Study of Human Capabilities, pp. 1–15. Oxford: Clarendon Press
  17. ^ World Survey on the Role of Women In Development. 2009. Women’s Control over Economic Resources and Access to Financial Resources, including Microfinance. New York: United Nations
  18. ^ http://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/projects/legal-empowerment. Retrieved 22 November 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  19. ^ a b Cotula, Lorenzo (01-Jan-2007). Legal Empowerment for Local Resource Control: Securing Local Resource Rights Within Foreign Investment Projects in Africa. IIED, 2007. p. 48. ISBN 1843696673, 9781843696674 Check |isbn= value: invalid character (help). Retrieved 24 November 2014.  More than one of |author1= and |last1= specified (help); More than one of |pages= and |page= specified (help); Check date values in: |date= (help)
  20. ^ a b Sutton, J., & Pollock, S. (2000). Online Activism for Women's Rights. Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 3(5),699-706.
  21. ^ Churchyard , N.(2009). The Question of Empowerment: Women’s Perspective on Their Internet Use. Gender, Technology and Development, 13(3), 341-363
  22. ^ McVeigh.T (2013, June 6). Online Feminist activists of the digital age. Taipei Times. Retrieved from http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2013/06/06/2003564076
  23. ^ a b Stephan,P. (2013, August 13). Breast cancer patients blog their blues away. Retrieved from http://breastcancer.about.com/b/2013/08/13/blog-the-blues-away.htm
  24. ^ Radovic-Markovic, M., Nelson-Porter, B., & Omolaja, M.(2012). The new alternative women's entrepreneurship education: E-learning and virtual universities. International Women Online Journal of Distance Education, 1(2), 46-54. Retrieved from http://wojde.org/FileUpload/bs295854/File/06a.markovic.pdf
  25. ^ United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. 2010. Combating Poverty and Inequality: Structural Change, Social Policy and Politics. Geneva: UNRISD "Gender Inequalities at Home and in the Market." Chapter 4, pp. 5–33
  26. ^ (2012, ). Intel . Women and the Web. Retrieved fromhttp://www.intel.com/content/dam/www/public/us/en/documents/pdf/women-and-theweb.pdf
  27. ^ UNICEF. 2007. "Equality in Employment," in The State of the World’s Children. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund.
  28. ^ Argawal,uijh Bina. 2010. "Gender and Green Governance: The Political Economy of Women’s Presence Within and Beyond Community Forestry." New York, NY: Oxford University Press
  29. ^ World Survey on the Role of Women In Development. 2009. Women’s Control over Economic Resources and Access to Financial Resources, including Microfinance. New York: United Nations.
  30. ^ Nussbaum, Martha C. 1995. "Introduction," in Martha C. Nussbaum and Jonathan Glover, eds. Women, Culture, and Development: A Study of Human Capabilities, pp. 1–15. Oxford: Clarendon Press
  31. ^ World Survey on the Role of Women In Development. 2009. Women’s Control over Economic Resources and Access to Financial Resources, including Microfinance. New York: United Nations
  32. ^ Debarati, H., & Jaishankar, K. (2012). Cyber Crime and the Victimization of Women: Laws,Rights and Regulations. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference
  33. ^ Morahan-Martin,J. (2000). Women and the Internet: Promise and Perils. Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 3 (5), 683-691.
  34. ^ Stein, A.I. (2009). Women Lawyers Blog for Workplace Equality: Blogging as a Feminist Legal Method. Yale Journal of Law and Feminism, 20 (2), 357-408
  35. ^ Mapping potential implementing organisations for girls' economic empowerment programme, Economics and Private Sector Professional Evidence and Applied Knowledge Services (EPS PEAKS) https://partnerplatform.org/?5smw2p44