A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture. Most think tanks are non-governmental organizations, but some are semi-autonomous agencies within government or are associated with particular political parties, military or businesses. Think-tank funding often includes a combination of millionaire donations and individual contributions, with many also accepting government grants.
Think tanks publish articles, studies or even draft legislation on particular matters of policy or society. This information is then readily used by governments, businesses, media organizations, social movements or other interest groups. Think tanks range from those associated with highly academic or scholarly activities to those that are overtly ideological and pushing for particular policy, with widely differing quality of research among them. Later generations of think tanks have tended to be more ideologically oriented.
Modern think tanks began as a phenomenon in the United States in the 19th and early 20th centuries, with most of the rest being established in other English-speaking countries. Prior to 1945, they tended to focus on the economic issues associated with industrialization and urbanization. During the Cold War, many more American and Western think tanks were established, which often guided governmental Cold War policy. Since 1991, more think tanks have been established in non-Western parts of the world. More than half of all think tanks that exist today were established after 1980.
This article lists global policy institutes according to continental categories and then sub-categories by country within those areas. These listings are not comprehensive, given that more than 7,500 think tanks exist worldwide.
According to historian Jacob Soll, the term "think tank" is modern, but "it can be traced to the humanist academies and scholarly networks of the 16th and 17th centuries." Soll notes that "in Europe, the origins of think tanks go back to the 800s when emperors and kings began arguing with the Catholic Church about taxes. A tradition of hiring teams of independent lawyers to advise monarchs about their financial and political prerogatives against the church spans from Charlemagne all the way to the 17th century, when the kings of France were still arguing about whether they had the right to appoint bishops and receive a cut of their income." He also writes, independent "research teams became common in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, when states often depended on independent scholars and their expertise."
Several major current think tanks were founded in the 19th century. For instance, the Royal United Services Institute was founded in 1831 in London, and the Fabian Society in 1884. The oldest American think tank, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, was founded in Washington, D.C., in 1910 by philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. Carnegie charged trustees to use the fund to "hasten the abolition of international war, the foulest blot upon our civilization." The Brookings Institution was founded shortly thereafter in 1916 by Robert S. Brookings and was conceived as a bipartisan "research center modeled on academic institutions and focused on addressing the questions of the federal government."
After 1945, the number of policy institutes increased, with many small new ones forming to express various issues and policy agendas. Until the 1940s, most think tanks were known only by the name of the institution. During the Second World War, think tanks were often referred to as "brain boxes" after the slang term for skull.
Before the 1950s, the phrase "think tank" did not refer to organizations. From its first appearances in the 1890s up to the 1950s, the phrase was most commonly used in American English to colloquially and pejoratively refer to the human brain itself when commenting on an individual's failings (in the sense that something was wrong with that person's "think tank"). Around 1958, the first organization to be regularly described in published writings as "the Think Tank" (note the capitalization and the use of the definite article) was the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. However, the Center does not count itself as and is not perceived to be a think tank in the contemporary sense. During the 1960s, the phrase "think tank" was attached more broadly to meetings of experts, electronic computers, and independent military planning organizations. The prototype and most prominent example of the third category was the RAND Corporation, which was founded in 1946 as an offshoot of Douglas Aircraft and became an independent corporation in 1948. In the 1970s, the phrase became more specifically defined in terms of RAND and its ilk. During the 1980s and 1990s, the phrase evolved again to arrive at its broader contemporary meaning of an independent public policy research institute.
For most of the 20th century, such institutes were found primarily in the United States, along with much smaller numbers in Canada, the UK, and Western Europe. Although think tanks had also existed in Japan for some time, they generally lacked independence, having close associations with government ministries or corporations. There has been a veritable proliferation of "think tanks" around the world that began during the 1980s as a result of globalization, the end of the Cold War, and the emergence of transnational problems. Two-thirds of all the think tanks that exist today were established after 1970 and more than half were established since 1980.
The effect of globalisation on the proliferation of think tanks is most evident in regions such as Africa, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and parts of Southeast Asia, where there was a concerted effort by other countries to assist in the creation of independent public policy research organizations. A survey performed by the Foreign Policy Research Institute's Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program underscores the significance of this effort and documents the fact that most of the think tanks in these regions have been established since 1992. As of 2002[update], there were more than 4,500 of these institutions worldwide. Many of the more established think tanks, having been created during the Cold War, are focused on international affairs, security studies, and foreign policy.
Think tanks vary by ideological perspectives, sources of funding, topical emphasis and prospective consumers. Funding may also represent who or what the institution wants to influence; in the United States, for example, "Some donors want to influence votes in Congress or shape public opinion, others want to position themselves or the experts they fund for future government jobs, while others want to push specific areas of research or education."
A new trend, resulting from globalization, is collaboration between policy institutes in different countries. For instance, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace operates offices in Washington, D.C., Beijing, Beirut, Brussels and Moscow.
The Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP) at the University of Pennsylvania, led by Dr. James McGann, annually rates policy institutes worldwide in a number of categories and presents its findings in the Global Go-To Think Tanks rating index. However, this method of the study and assessment of policy institutes has been criticized by researchers such as Enrique Mendizabal and Goran Buldioski, Director of the Think Tank Fund, assisted by the Open Society Institute.
Several authors have indicated a number of different methods of describing policy institutes in a way that takes into account regional and national variations. For example:
- Independent civil society think tanks established as non-profit organisations—ideologically identifiable or not;
- Policy research institutes affiliated with a university;
- Governmentally created or state sponsored think tanks;
- Corporate created or business affiliated think tanks;
- Political party think tanks and legacy or personal think tanks;
- Global (or regional) think tanks (with some of the above).
Alternatively, one could use some of the following criteria:
- Size and focus: e.g., large and diversified, large and specialized, small and specialized;
- Evolution of stage of development: e.g., first (small), second (small to large but more complex projects), and third (larger and policy influence) stages;
- Strategy, including: Funding sources (individuals, corporations, foundations, donors/governments, endowments, sales/events) and business model (independent research, contract work, advocacy); The balance between research, consultancy, and advocacy; The source of their arguments: Ideology, values or interests; applied, empirical or synthesis research; or theoretical or academic research (Stephen Yeo); The manner in which the research agenda is developed—by senior members of the think tank or by individual researchers, or by the think tank of their funders; Their influencing approaches and tactics (many researchers but an interesting one comes from Abelson) and the time horizon for their strategies: long term and short term mobilisation; Their various audiences of the think tanks (audiences as consumers and public -this merits another blog; soon) (again, many authors, but Zufeng provides a good framework for China); and Affiliation, which refers to the issue of independence (or autonomy) but also includes think tanks with formal and informal links to political parties, interest groups and other political players.
Advocacy by think tanks
In some cases, corporate interests, military interests and political groups have found it useful to create policy institutes, advocacy organizations, and think tanks. For example, The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition was formed in the mid-1990s to dispute research finding an association between second-hand smoke and cancer. Military contractors may spend a portion of their tender on funding pro-war think tanks. According to an internal memorandum from Philip Morris Companies referring to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), "The credibility of the EPA is defeatable, but not on the basis of ETS [environmental tobacco smoke] alone,... It must be part of a larger mosaic that concentrates all the EPA's enemies against it at one time."
According to the Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting, both left-wing and right-wing policy institutes are often quoted and rarely identified as such. The result is that think tank "experts" are sometimes depicted as neutral sources without any ideological predispositions when, in fact, they represent a particular perspective. In the United States, think tank publications on education are subjected to expert review by the National Education Policy Center's "Think Twice" think tank review project.
A 2014 New York Times report asserted that foreign governments buy influence at many United States think tanks. According to the article: "More than a dozen prominent Washington research groups have received tens of millions of dollars from foreign governments in recent years while pushing United States government officials to adopt policies that often reflect the donors' priorities."
Global think tanks
African think tanks
Ghana's first president, Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, set up various state-supported think tanks in the 1960s. By the 1990s, a variety of policy research centers sprang up in Africa set up by academics who sought to influence public policy in Ghana.
One such think tank was The Institute of Economic Affairs, Ghana, which was founded in 1989 when the country was ruled by the Provisional National Defence Council. The IEA undertakes and publishes research on a range of economic and governance issues confronting Ghana and Sub-Saharan Africa. It has also been involved in bringing political parties together to engage in dialogue. In particular it has organised Presidential debates every election year since the Ghanaian presidential election, 1996.
Notable think tanks in Ghana include:
- AMAQUEN, founded in 2003, is a think tank in the field of education through its publications (rapports), international scientific journal The Journal of Quality in Education, and international events (CIMQUSEF). According to Marianne Republic, AMAQUEN is a leading think tank for education-related topics.
- Electoral Institute for Sustainable Democracy in Africa
- Free Market Foundation
- FW de Klerk Foundation
- Helen Suzman Foundation
- Institute for Democratic Alternatives in South Africa (IDASA)
- Institute for Justice and Reconciliation
- Institute for Security Studies
- South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA)
- South African Institute of Race Relations
Asian think tanks
Afghanistan has a number of think tanks that are in the form of governmental, non-governmental, and corporate organizations.
- Afghanistan Analysts Network
- Afghanistan Public Policy Research Organization
- Centre for Conflict and Peace Studies
According to the Global Go Think Tank Report 2012, there are 14 think tanks in Armenia, the majority of which are located in Yerevan. Notable think tanks in Armenia include the Economic Development and Research Center (EDRC) and International Center for Human Development (ICHD).
Bangladesh has a number of think tanks that are in the form of governmental, non-governmental, and corporate organizations.
- Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS)
- Bangladesh Institute of Law and International Affairs (BILIA)
- Bangladesh Institute of Peace and Security Studies (BIPSS)
- Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD)
- International Growth Centre (IGC)
- Making Our Economy Right (MOER)
- Bangladesh Institute of Labour Studies (BILS)
In the People's Republic of China a number of think tanks are sponsored by governmental agencies like Development Research Center of the State Council, but still retain sufficient non-official status to be able to propose and debate ideas more freely. In January 2012, the first non-official think-tank in China, South Non-Governmental Think-Tank, was established in the Guangdong province. In 2009 the China Center for International Economic Exchanges was founded.
In Hong Kong, early think tanks established in the late 1980s and early 1990s focused on political development, including the first direct Legislative Council members election in 1991 and the political framework of "One Country, Two Systems", manifested in the Sino-British Joint Declaration. After the transfer of sovereignty to China in 1997, more think tanks were established by various groups of intellectuals and professionals. They have various missions and objectives including promoting civic education; undertaking research on economic, social and political policies; and promoting "public understanding of and participation in the political, economic, and social development of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region".
Think tanks in Hong Kong include:
- Bauhinia Foundation Research Centre
- Business and Professionals Federation of Hong Kong
- Central Policy Unit
- Civic Exchange
- The Global Institute for Tomorrow
- Hong Kong Christian Industrial Committee
- Hong Kong Democratic Foundation
- Hong Kong People's Council on Housing Policy
- The Lion Rock Institute
- New Century Forum
- Our Hong Kong Foundation
- One Country Two Systems Research Institute
- Path of Democracy
- Policy Innovation and Co-ordination Unit
- Professional Commons
India has world's second-largest number of think tanks. Most are based in New Delhi, and a few are government-sponsored. A number of these work on foreign policy and security issues. There are few think tanks that promote environmentally responsible and climate resilient ideas like Centre for Science and Environment, Centre for Policy Research and World Resources Institute. There are other think tanks like Observer Research Foundation and Centre for Civil Society.
In Mumbai, Strategic Foresight Group is a global think tank that works on issues such as Water Diplomacy, Peace and Conflict and Foresight (futures studies). Think tanks with a development focus include those like the National Centre for Cold-chain Development ('NCCD'), which serve to bring an inclusive policy change by supporting the Planning Commission and related government bodies with industry-specific inputs – in this case, set up at the behest of the government to direct cold chain development. Some think tanks have a fixed set of focus areas and they work towards finding out policy solutions to social problems in the respective areas.
Initiatives such as National e-Governance Plan (to automate administrative processes) and National Knowledge Network (NKN) (for data and resource sharing amongst education and research institutions), if implemented properly, should help improve the quality of work done by think tanks.
There are over 50 recently emerged think tanks in Iraq, particularly in the Kurdistan Region. Iraq's leading think tank is the Middle East Research Institute (MERI), based in Erbil. MERI is an independent non-governmental policy research organization, established in 2014 and publishes in English, Kurdish, and Arabic. It was listed in the global ranking by the USA's Lauder Institute of the University of Pennsylvania as 46th in the Middle East.
- Shaharit - Creating Common Cause
- Jerusalem Institute for Market Studies (JIMS)
- Reut Institute
- Israel Council on Foreign Relations
- The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs
- Adva Center
- Israel Democracy Institute
- Jerusalem Institute for Policy Research
- Myers-JDC-Brookdale Institute
- Floersheimer Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
- Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
- International Institute for Counter-Terrorism – IDC Herziliya
- Israel Center for Third Sector Research, Ben Gurion University of the Negev
- IPCRI – Israel/Palestine Center for Research and Information
- The Milken Institute
- Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, Tel Aviv University
- The Begin-Sadat Center – Bar Ilan University
- The Center for the Study of Philanthropy in Israel at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
- The Institute for Advanced Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
- The Jewish Arab Center (JAC), University of Haifa
- The Jewish People Policy Institute (JPPI)
- The Shalem Center
- Institute for National Security Studies, affiliated with Tel Aviv University.
Japan has over 100 think tanks, most of which cover not only policy research but also economy, technology and so on. Some are government related, but most of the think tanks are sponsored by the private sector.
- Institute of World Economics and Politics (IWEP) at the Foundation of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan was created in 2003. IWEP activities aimed at research problems of the world economy, international relations, geopolitics, security, integration and Eurasia, as well as the study of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan and its contribution to the establishment and strengthening of Kazakhstan as an independent state, the development of international cooperation and the promotion of peace and stability.
- The Kazakhstan Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of the RK (KazISS) was established by the Decree of the President of RK on 16 June 1993. Since its foundation the main mission of the Kazakhstan Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, as a national think tank, is to maintain analytical and research support for the President of Kazakhstan.
Most Malaysian think tanks are related either to the government or a political party. Historically they focused on defense, politics and policy. However, in recent years, think tanks that focus on international trade, economics, and social sciences have also been founded.
Notable think tanks in Malaysia include:
- Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM)
- Institute for Democracy and Economic Affairs (IDEAS)
- Institute for Pioneering of Education and Economic Excellence (INSPIRE)
- Jauhar Academy of Social Sciences (JASS)
- Jeffrey Cheah Institute on Southeast Asia (JCI)
- Malaysian Industry-Government Group for High Technology (MIGHT)
- Third World Network (TWN)
- Islamic Renaissance Front (IRF)
Pakistan's think tanks mainly revolve around social policy, internal politics, foreign security issues, and regional geo-politics. Most of these are centered on the capital, Islamabad. One notable think tank is the Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI), which focuses on policy advocacy and research particularly in the area of environment and social development. Another notable policy research institute based in Islamabad is the Institute of Social and Policy Sciences (I-SAPS) which works in the fields of education, health, disaster risk reduction, governance, conflict and stabilization.
Think tanks in the Philippines could be generally categorized in terms of their linkages with the national government. Several were set up by the Philippine government for the specific purpose of providing research input into the policy-making process.
Sri Lanka has a number of think tanks that are in the form of governmental, non-governmental and corporate organizations.
- The Lakshman Kadirgamar Institute of International Relations and Strategic Studies is a policy-studies institute that is often referred to as a think tank.
- LIRNEasia is a think-tank working across the Asia-Pacific on regulatory and policy issues. Their main focus is the ICT sector, although they do work in other sectors, such as agriculture and health, which can benefit from ICT.
- Verité Research is an interdisciplinary think tank in Colombo.
There are several think tanks in Singapore that advise the government on various policies and as well as private ones for corporations within the region. Many of them are hosted within the local public educational institutions.
Taiwanese think tanks in alphabetical order:
- Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research
- Institute for National Defense and Security Research
- Prospect Foundation
- Taiwan Asia Exchange Foundation
- Taiwan Competitiveness Forum
- Taiwan Foundation for Democracy
- Taiwan Institute of Economic Research
United Arab Emirates
The UAE has been a center for political oriented think tanks which concentrate on both regional and global policy. Notable think tank have emerged in the global debate on terrorism, education & economical policies in the MENA region. Think tanks include:
- Al Mesbar Studies and Research Centre
- Dubai Economic Council
- Gulf Research Center
- Orient Research Centre
- CED – Center for Economic Development (Центр Содействия Экономическому Развитию) is a think-tank whose major tasks are: analytic support in economic reforming and development in Uzbekistan; improving knowledge and skills of the subjects of economic development; assistance in productive dialogue between the government, civil society and private sectors on the economic development matters.
Key projects: Preparation of the National human development report for Uzbekistan, Sociological "portrait" of the Uzbek businessman, Preparation of an analytical report on export procedures optimization in Uzbekistan, various industry and marketing researches in Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.
Oceanian think tanks
Private sources fund about 20 to 30 "independent" Australian think tanks. The best-known of these think tanks play a much more limited role in Australian public and business policy-making than do their equivalents in the United States. However, in the past decade[which?] the number of think tanks has increased substantially. Prominent Australian conservative think tanks include the Centre for Independent Studies, the Sydney Institute and the Institute of Public Affairs. Prominent leftist Australian think tanks include the McKell Institute, Per Capita, the Australia Institute, the Lowy Institute and the Centre for Policy Development. In recent years[when?] regionally-based independent and non-partisan think tanks have emerged. Some, such as the Illawarra's i-eat-drink-think, engage in discussion, research and advocacy within a broader civics framework. Commercial think-tanks like the Gartner Group, Access Economics, the Helmsman Institute, and others provide additional insight which complements not-for-profit organisations such as CEDA, the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, and the Australian Institute of Company Directors to provide more targeted policy in defence, program governance, corporate governance and similar.
Listed in alphabetical order, think tanks based in Australia include:
- Air Power Australia
- Asia Education Foundation
- The Australia Institute
- Australian Fabian Society
- Australian Institute of International Affairs
- Australian Institute of Policy & Science
- Australian Strategic Policy Institute
- The Brisbane Institute
- Centre for Independent Studies
- Centre for Policy Development
- Chifley Research Centre
- Committee for Economic Development of Australia
- Consumer Policy Research Centre (CPRC)
- Crowther Centre for Learning and Innovation
- Development Policy Centre
- Doctors Reform Society of Australia
- Evatt Foundation
- Grattan Institute
- H. R. Nicholls Society
- Infrastructure Partnerships Australia
- Institute for Economics and Peace
- Institute of Public Affairs
- International Energy Centre
- International WaterCentre
- Issues Deliberation Australia/America
- Laboratory for Visionary Architecture
- Lowy Institute for International Policy
- Mannkal Economic Education Foundation
- The Green Institute
- The McKell Institute
- The Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research
- Menzies Research Centre
- National Civic Council
- New South Wales Institute for Educational Research
- Per Capita
- Samuel Griffith Society
- Strategic and Defence Studies Centre
- Sydney Institute
- Transport and Logistics Centre
- United States Studies Centre
- Western Australia Policy Forum
Think tanks based in New Zealand include:
European think tanks
Brussels hosts most of the European Institutions, hence a large number of international think tanks are based there. Notable think tanks are Bruegel, the Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), Centre for the New Europe (CNE), the European Centre of International Political Economy (ECIPE), the European Policy Centre (EPC), the Friends of Europe, the Global Governance Institute (GGI), Liberales, and Sport and Citizenship, among others.
Bulgaria has a number of think tanks providing expertise and shaping policies, including Institute of Modern Politics.
- CEPOS is a classical liberal/free-market conservative think-tank in Denmark.
Finland has several small think tanks that provide expertise in very specific fields. Notable think tanks include:
- Åland Islands Peace Institute
- Demos Helsinki
- European Centre of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats (Hybrid CoE)
- Crisis Management Initiative (CMI)
- Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (Etla)
- Finnish Institute of International Affairs
In addition to specific independent think tanks, the largest political parties have their own think tank organizations. This is mainly due to support granted by state for such activity. The corporate world has focused their efforts to central representative organization Confederation of Finnish Industries, which acts as think tank in addition to negotiating salaries with workers unions. Furthermore, there is the Finnish Business and Policy Forum (Elinkeinoelämän valtuuskunta, EVA). Agricultural and regional interests, associated with The Central Union of Agricultural Producers and Forest Owners (Maa- ja metsätaloustuottajain Keskusliitto, MTK) and the Centre Party, are researched by Pellervo Economic Research (Pellervon taloustutkimus, PTT). The Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions (Suomen Ammattiliittojen Keskusjärjestö, SAK) and the Social Democratic Party are associated with the Labour Institute for Economic Research (Palkansaajien tutkimuslaitos, PT). The Finns Party established its own think tank, Suomen Perusta, in 2012. Each of these organizations often release forecasts concerning the national economy.
The French Institute of International Relations (IFRI) was founded in 1979 and is the third oldest think tank of western Europe, after Chatham House (UK, 1920) and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (Sweden, 1960). The primary goals of IFRI are to develop applied research in the field of public policy related to international issues, and foster interactive and constructive dialogue between researchers, professionals, and opinion leaders. France also hosts the European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS), a Paris-based agency of the European Union and think tank researching security issues of relevance for the EU. There are also a number of pro-business think tanks, notably the Paris-based Fondation Concorde. The foundation focuses on increasing the competitiveness of French SME's and aims to revive entrepreneurship in France.
On the left, the main think tanks in France are the Fondation Jean Jaures, which is organizationally linked to the French Socialist Party, and Terra Nova. Terra Nova is an independent left-leaning think tank, although it is nevertheless considered to be close to the Socialists. It works on producing reports and analyses of current public policy issues from a progressive point of view, and contributing to the intellectual renewal of social democracy.
Only French Think Tank mentioned in the list "Think Tank to watch" of the 2014 2014 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report GenerationLibre is a French think-tank created by Gaspard Koenig in 2013, independent from all political parties, which aims at promoting freedoms in France, in terms of fundamental rights, economics and societal issues. GenerationLibre is described as being able to connect to the right on pro business freedom and regulations issues but also to the left on issues such as basic income, gay marriage and the legalization of marijuana.
In Germany all of the major parties are loosely associated with research foundations that play some role in shaping policy, but generally from the more disinterested role of providing research to support policymakers than explicitly proposing policy. These include the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung (Christian Democratic Union-aligned), the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (Social Democratic Party-aligned), the Hanns-Seidel-Stiftung (Christian Social Union-aligned), the Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung (aligned with the Greens), Friedrich Naumann Foundation (Free Democratic Party-aligned) and the Rosa Luxemburg Foundation (aligned with Die Linke).
The German Institute for International and Security Affairs is a foreign policy think tank. Atlantic Community is an independent, non-partisan and non-profit organization set up as a joint project of Atlantische Initiative e.V. and Atlantic Initiative United States. The Institute for Media and Communication Policy deals with media-related issues. Transparency International is a think tank on the role of corporate and political corruption in international development.
In Greece there are many think tanks, also called research organisations or institutes.
- The Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) is an independent research institute in Dublin, Ireland. Its research focuses on Ireland's economic and social development to inform policy-making and societal understanding.
- The Institute of International and European Affairs (IIEA) focuses on European and International affairs.
- The Iona Institute is a conservative, Catholic think tank.
- TASC (Think tank for Action on Social Change) is an Irish left-wing think tank.
- Transhuman Corporation is a research think tank that focuses on cyber and technology development.
- Bruno Leoni Institute
- Future Italy
- ISPI – Italian Institute for International Political Studies
- Istituto Affari Internazionali
- Trinità dei Monti
While think tanks are not widespread in Latvia, as opposed to single issue advocacy organizations, there are several noticeable institutions in the Latvian think tank landscape:
- The oldest think tank in Latvia is the Latvian Institute of International Affairs. LIIA is a non governmental and non partisan foundation, established in 1992, and their research and advocacy mainly focuses on Latvian foreign policy; Transatlantic relations; European Union policies, including its neighborhood policy and Eastern Partnership; and multilateral and bilateral relations with Russia.
- Centre for Public policy PROVIDUS is a non governmental and non partisan association, established in 2002. Providus focuses their work (both research and advocacy) on topics especially relevant in transition and post-transition environments and Latvia in particular: good governance; criminal justice policy; tolerance and inclusive public policy and European policy.
There are several think tanks that are established and operate under the auspices of Universities, such as:
- Centre for European and transition studies is a think tank working under the auspices of the University of Latvia, the largest public university in the country. CETS was established in 2000.
- or Defense research centre in 1992 under the auspices of the National Academy of Defense.
Vilnius Institute for Policy Analysis (VIPA) is an independent non-governmental, non-profit, non-partisan policy think tank in Lithuania whose mission is to stand for the principles of open society, liberal democracy, rule of law and human rights. VIPA acts via advocacy for strong and safe European Union, analyzing and advocating for anti-authoritarian, transparent, and open governance ideas in Central and Eastern Europe, is an opinion leader offering an alternative opinion to the public versus populism, radicalism, and authoritarian trends, reinforcing active citizens‘ participation in decision making, analyzing fake news, disinformation, and offering media literacy initiatives, putting forward solutions to improve the accountability, transparency, and openness of Lithuania's public sector, building a network of open society values oriented experts, civil activists and NGO's.
All major political parties in the Netherlands have state-sponsored research foundations that play a role in shaping policy. The Dutch government also has its own think tank: the Scientific Council for Government Policy. The Netherlands furthermore hosts the Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael, or Clingendael Institute, an independent think tank and diplomatic academy which studies various aspects of international relations.
There is a large pool of think-tanks in Poland on a wide variety of subjects. The oldest state-sponsored think tank is The Western Institute in Poznań (Polish: Instytut Zachodni). The second oldest is the Polish Institute of International Affairs (PISM) established in 1947. Another notable state-sponsored think tank is the Centre for Eastern Studies (OSW), which specializes in the countries neighboring Poland and in the Baltic Sea region, the Balkans, Turkey, the Caucasus and Central Asia. Among the private think tanks notable organizations include the Institute for Structural Research (IBS) on economic policy, The Casimir Pulaski Foundation on foreign policy, the Institute of Public Affairs (ISP) on social policy, and the Sobieski Institute.
Founded in 1970, the SEDES is one of the oldest Portuguese civic associations and think tanks. Contraditório think tank was founded in 2008. Contraditório is a non-profit, independent and non-partisan think tank.
The Romanian Academic Society (SAR), founded in 1996, is a Romanian think tank for policy research.
Besides the international think tanks present in the surrounding countries as well (with Open Society Foundations being the most notable one) Slovakia has a host of its own think tanks as well. Some of the think tanks in Slovakia focus on public policy issues, such as Institute of Public Affairs (Inštitút pre verejné otázky or IVO in Slovak) or Central European Labour Studies Institute (Stredoeurópsky inštitút pre výskum práce or CELSI in Slovak). Others specialize on human rights issues such as minority protection, for example Forum Minority Research Institute (Fórum Kisebbségkutató Intézet or Fórum Intézet in Hungarian and Fórum inštitút pre výskum menšín or Fórum inštitút in Slovak). Since some of the Slovak think tanks are perceived to be associated with right-wing and liberal parties of Slovakia (with the perception being particularly strong among Slovak nationalists), findings and proposals made by these organizations are generally resented or ignored by left-wing supporters and nationalists.
The Elcano Royal Institute was created in 2001 following the example of the Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House) in the UK, although it is closely linked to (and receives funding from) the government in power.
More independent but clearly to the left of the political spectrum are the Centro de Investigaciones de Relaciones Internacionales y Desarrollo (CIDOB) founded in 1973; and the Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior (FRIDE) established in 1999 by Diego Hidalgo and main driving force behind projects such as the Club de Madrid, a group of democratic former heads of state and government, the Foreign Policy Spanish Edition and DARA.
Former Prime Minister José Maria Aznar presides over the Fundación para el Analisis y los Estudios Sociales (FAES), a policy institute that is associated with the conservative Popular Party (PP). Also linked to the PP is the Grupo de Estudios Estratégicos (GEES), which is known for its defense- and security-related research and analysis. For its part, the Fundación Alternativas is independent but close to left-wing ideas. The Socialist Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE) created Fundación Ideas in 2009 and dissolved it in January 2014. Also in 2009, the centrist Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD) created Fundación Progreso y Democracia (FPyD).
Think tanks based within Switzerland include:
- Avenir Suisse, founded in 1999 by fifteen of the largest Swiss companies. It is supported by over 130 companies to date.
- DCAF, the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces, founded in 2000 to research security sector governance and reform.
- Gottlieb Duttweiler Institute (GDI), conceived by the Migros-founder Gottlieb Duttweiler in 1946.
- Horasis, which hosts the annual Horasis Global Meeting
- Liberal Institute, founded in 1979.
There are more than 100 registered think tanks in Ukraine. For example:
- Centre of Policy and Legal Reform (CPLR)
- Razumkov Centre is a non-governmental think tank founded in 1994. It carries out research of public policy in the following spheres: domestic policy; state administration; economic policy; energy; land relations; foreign policy; social policy; international and regional security; national security and defense.
In Britain, think tanks play a similar role to the United States, attempting to shape policy, and indeed there is some cooperation between British and American think tanks. For example, the London-based think tank Chatham House and the Council on Foreign Relations were both conceived at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 and have remained sister organisations.
The Bow Group, founded in 1951, is the oldest centre-right think tank and many of its members have gone on to serve as Members of Parliament or Members of the European Parliament. Past chairmen have included Conservative Party leader Michael Howard, Margaret Thatcher's longest-serving Cabinet Minister Geoffrey Howe, Chancellor of the Exchequer Norman Lamont and former British Telecom chairman Christopher Bland.
Transcontinental countries (Asia-Europe)
According to research done by the University of Pennsylvania, there are a total of 12 think tanks in Azerbaijan.
The Center for Economic and Social Development, or CESD; in Azeri, Azerbaijan, İqtisadi və Sosial İnkişaf Mərkəzi (İSİM) is an Azeri think tank, non-profit organization, NGO based in Baku, Azerbaijan. The center was established in 2005. CESD focuses on policy advocacy and reform, and is involved with policy research and capacity building.
The Economic Research Center (ERC) is a policy-research oriented non-profit think tank established in 1999 with a mission to facilitate sustainable economic development and good governance in the new public management system of Azerbaijan. It seeks to do this by building favorable interactions between the public, private and civil society and working with different networks both in local (EITI NGO Coalition, National Budget Group, Public Coalition Against Poverty, etc.) and international levels (PWYP, IBP, ENTO, ALDA, PASOS, WTO NGO Network etc.).
The Center for Strategic Studies under the President of Azerbaijan is a governmental, non-profit think tank founded in 2007. It focusses on domestic and foreign policy.
According to the Foreign Policy Research Institute, Russia has 112 think tanks, while Russian think tanks claimed four of the top ten spots in 2011's "Top Thirty Think Tanks in Central and Eastern Europe".
Notable Russian think tanks include:
- Analytical Center for the Government of the Russian Federation
- Carnegie Moscow Center
- Institute for US and Canadian Studies
- Institute of World Economy and International Relations
- Moscow State Institute of International Relations
Turkish think tanks are relatively new. There are at least 20 think tanks in the country, both independent and supported by government. Many of them are sister organizations of political parties, universities or companies some are independent and others are supported by government. Most Turkish think tanks provide research and ideas, yet they play less important roles in policy making than American think tanks. Turksam, Tasam and the Journal of Turkish Weekly are the leading information sources.
The oldest and most influential think tank in Turkey is ESAM (The Center for Economic and Social Research; Turkish: Ekonomik ve Sosyal Araştırmalar Merkezi) which was established in 1969 and has headquarters in Ankara. There are also branch offices of ESAM in Istanbul, Bursa, Konya and elsewhere. ESAM has strong international relationships, especially with Muslim countries and societies. Ideologically it performs policies, produces ideas and manages projects in parallel to Milli Görüş and also influences political parties and international strategies. The founder and leader of Milli Görüş, Necmettin Erbakan, was very concerned with the activities and brainstorming events of ESAM. In The Republic of Turkey, two presidents, four prime ministers, various ministers, many members of the parliament, and numerous mayors and bureaucrats have been members of ESAM. Currently the General Chairman of ESAM is Recai Kutan (former minister for two different ministries, former main opposition party leader, and founder and General Chairman of the Saadet Party).
The Turkish Economic and Social Studies Foundation (TESEV) is another leading think-thank. Established in 1994, TESEV is an independent non-governmental think-tank, analyzing social, political and economic policy issues facing Turkey. TESEV has raised issues about Islam and democracy, combating corruption, state reform, and transparency and accountability. TESEV serve as a bridge between academic research and policy-making. Its core program areas are democratization, good governance, and foreign policy.
Other notable Turkish think tanks are the International Strategic Research Organisation (USAK), the Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research (SETA), and the Wise Men Center for Strategic Studies (BİLGESAM).
North American think tanks
Canada has many notable think tanks (listed in alphabetical order). Each has specific areas of interest with some overlaps.
- Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada
- Atlantic Institute for Market Studies
- Broadbent Institute
- C.D. Howe Institute
- Caledon Institute of Social Policy
- Canada West Foundation
- Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives
- Canadian Global Affairs Institute
- Canadian Institute for Advanced Research
- Canadian International Council
- Canadian Policy Research Networks (disbanded)
- Canadian Tax Foundation
- Centre for International Governance Innovation
- Conference Board of Canada
- Council of Canadians
- Fraser Institute
- Frontier Centre for Public Policy
- Institute for Quantum Computing
- Institute for Research on Public Policy
- Institute on Governance
- International Institute for Sustainable Development
- International Policy Forum
- Montreal Economic Institute
- Mowat Centre for Policy Innovation
- National Citizens Coalition
- North-South Institute
- Parkland Institute
- Pembina Institute
- Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
- Public Policy Forum
- CIDAC – The Center of Research for Development (Centro de Investigación para el Desarrollo, Asociación Civil) is a not-for-profit think tank that undertakes research and proposes viable policy options for Mexico's economic and democratic development. The organization seeks to promote open, pluralistic debate pursuing: the Rule of Law & Democracy, market economics, social development, and strengthening Mexico-United States relations.
- CIDE – The Center of Research and Economics Teaching (Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas) is a think tank institute focussing on "public policies", "public choice", "democracy", and "economy".
- COMEXI – The Mexican Council of International Affairs (Consejo Mexicano de Asuntos Internacionales).
As the classification is most often used today, the oldest American think tank is the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, founded in 1910. The Institute for Government Research, which later merged with two organizations to form the Brookings Institution, was formed in 1916. Other early twentieth century organizations now classified as think tanks include the Hoover Institution (1919), The Twentieth Century Fund (1919, and now known as the Century Foundation), the National Bureau of Economic Research (1920), the Council on Foreign Relations (1921), and the Social Science Research Council (1923). The Great Depression and its aftermath spawned several economic policy organizations, such as the National Planning Association (1934), the Tax Foundation (1937), and the Committee for Economic Development (1943).
In collaboration with the Douglas Aircraft Company, the Air Force set up the RAND Corporation in 1946 to develop weapons technology and strategic defense analysis.
More recently, progressive and liberal think tanks have been established, most notably the Center for American Progress and the Center for Research on Educational Access and Leadership (CREAL). The organization has close ties to former United States President Barack Obama and other prominent Democrats.
Think tanks help shape both foreign and domestic policy. They receive funding from private donors, and members of private organizations. By 2013, the largest 21 think tanks in the US spent more than $1 billion per year. Think tanks may feel more free to propose and debate controversial ideas than people within government. The progressive media watchgroup Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR) has identified the top 25 think tanks by media citations, noting that from 2006 to 2007 the number of citations declined 17%. The FAIR report reveals the ideological breakdown of the citations: 37% conservative, 47% centrist, and 16% liberal. Their data show that the most-cited think tank was the Brookings Institution, followed by the Council on Foreign Relations, the American Enterprise Institute, The Heritage Foundation, and the Center for Strategic and International Studies.
Recently in response to scrutiny about think tanks appearing to have a "conflict of interest" or lack transparency, executive vice president, Martin S. Indyk of Brookings Institution – the "most prestigious think tank in the world" – admitted that they had "decided to prohibit corporations or corporate-backed foundations from making anonymous contributions." In August 2016, the New York Times published a series on think tanks that blur the line. One of the cases the journalists cited was Brookings, where scholars paid by a seemingly independent think tank "push donors' agendas amplifying a culture of corporate influence in Washington." For example, in exchange for hundreds of thousands of dollars the Brookings Institution provided the publicly-traded company Lennar Corporation – one of the United States' largest home builders – with a significant advantage in pursuing their US$8 billion revitalization project in Hunters Point, San Francisco. In 2014 Lennar's then-regional vice president in charge of the San Francisco revitalization, Kofi Bonner in 2014, was named as a Brookings senior fellow – a position as 'trusted adviser' that carries some distinction. Bruce Katz, a Brookings vice president, also offered to help Lennar Corporation "engage with national media to develop stories that highlight Lennar's innovative approach."
U.S. Government think tanks
Government think tanks are also important in the United States, particularly in the security and defense field. These include the Center for Technology and National Security Policy at the National Defense University, the Center for Naval Warfare Studies at the Naval War College, and the Strategic Studies Institute at the U.S. Army War College.
The government funds, wholly or in part, activities at approximately 30 Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs). FFRDCs, are unique independent nonprofit entities sponsored and funded by the United States government to meet specific long-term technical needs that cannot be met by any other single organization. FFRDCs typically assist government agencies with scientific research and analysis, systems development, and systems acquisition. They bring together the expertise and outlook of government, industry, and academia to solve complex technical problems. These FFRDCs include the RAND Corporation, the MITRE Corporation, the Institute for Defense Analyses, the Aerospace Corporation, the MIT Lincoln Laboratory, and other organizations supporting various departments within the United States Government.
Similar to the above quasi-governmental organizations are Federal Advisory Committees. These groups, sometimes referred to as commissions, are a form of think tank dedicated to advising the US Presidents or the Executive branch of government. They typically focus on a specific issue and as such, might be considered similar to special interest groups. However, unlike special interest groups these committees have come under some oversight regulation and are required to make formal records available to the public. Approximately 1,000 these advisory committees are described in the FACA searchable database.
South American think tanks
Research done by Enrique Mendizabal shows that South American think tanks play various roles depending on their origins, historical development and relations to other policy actors. In this study, Orazio Bellettini from Grupo FARO suggests that they:
- Seek political support for policies.
- Legitimize policies – This has been clearer in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru. New governments in Ecuador and Peru have approached policy institutes for support for already defined policies. In Bolivia, the government of Evo Morales has been working with Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) and other research institutes to do the same. However, in Chile, many think tanks during the 1990s seemed to endorse and maintain the legitimacy of policies implemented during the previous decade by the military dictatorship headed by Pinochet.
- Spaces of debate – In this case think tanks serve as sounding boards for new policies. In Chile, during the Pinochet dictatorship, many left wing intellectuals and researchers found ‘asylum’ in think tanks. In Ecuador, think tanks are seen as spaces where politicians can test the soundness of their policies and government plans.
- Financial channels for political parties or other interest groups – In Ecuador and Bolivia, German foundations have been able to provide funds to think tanks that work with certain political parties. This method has provided support to the system as a whole rather than individual CSOs.
- Expert cadres of policy-makers and politicians – In Peru after the end of the Fujimori regime, and in Chile after the fall of Pinochet, think tank staff left to form part of the new governments. In the United States, the role of major think tanks is precisely that: host scholars for a few months or years and then lose them to government employ.
How a policy institute addresses these largely depends on how they work, their ideology vs. evidence credentials, and the context in which they operate including funding opportunities, the degree and type of competition they have and their staff.
This functional method addresses the inherit challenge of defining a think tank. As Simon James said in 1998, "Discussion of think tanks...has a tendency to get bogged down in the vexed question of defining what we mean by ‘think tank’—an exercise that often degenerates into futile semantics." It is better (as in the Network Functions Approach) to describe what the organisation should do. Then the shape of the organisation should follow to allow this to happen. The following framework (based on Stephen Yeo's description of think tanks’ mode of work) is described in Enrique Mendizabal's blog "onthinktanks":
First, policy institutes may work in or base their funding on one or more of:
- Independent research: this would be work done with core or flexible funding that allows the researchers the liberty to choose their research questions and method. It may be long term and could emphasize ‘big ideas’ without direct policy relevance. However, it could emphasize a major policy problem that requires a thorough research and action investment.
- Consultancy: this would be work done by commission with specific clients and addressing one or two major questions. Consultancies often respond to an existing agenda.
- Influencing/advocacy: this would be work done by communications, capacity development, networking, campaigns, lobbying, etc. It is likely to be based on research based evidence emerging from independent research or consultancies.
Second, policy institutes may base their work or arguments on:
- Ideology, values or interests
- Applied, empirical or synthesis research
- Theoretical or academic research
According to the National Institute for Research Advancement, a Japanese policy institute, think tanks are "one of the main policy actors in democratic societies ..., assuring a pluralistic, open and accountable process of policy analysis, research, decision-making and evaluation". A study in early 2009 found a total of 5,465 think tanks worldwide. Of that number, 1,777 were based in the United States and approximately 350 in Washington, DC, alone.
Working on public policies, Brazil hosts, for example, Instituto Liberdade, a University-based Center at Tecnopuc inside the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, located in the South Region of the country, in the city of Porto Alegre. Instituto Liberdade is among the Top 40 think tanks in Latin America and the Caribbean, according to the 2009 Global Go To Think Tanks Index a report from the University of Pennsylvania's Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP).
Fundação Getulio Vargas (Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV)) is a Brazilian higher education institution. Its original goal was to train people for the country's public- and private-sector management. Today it hosts faculties (Law, Business, Economics, Social Sciences and Mathematics), libraries, and also research centers in Rio, São Paulo and Brasilia. It is considered by Foreign Policy magazine to be a top-5 "policymaker think-tank" worldwide.
- Collective intelligence
- Internet think tanks
- List of think tanks
- Mass collaboration
- Mass communication
- Overton window
- Strategic studies
- TED (conference)
- Fang, Lee (15 September 2021). "Intelligence Contract Funneled to Pro-War Think Tank Establishment". The Intercept. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
- McGann, James G.; Weaver, Robert Kent (1 January 2002). Think Tanks and Civil Societies: Catalysts for Ideas and Action. Transaction Publishers. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-4128-3989-1.
- Fischer, Frank; Miller, Gerald J. (21 December 2006). "Public Policy Analysis and Think Tanks, by Diane Stone". Handbook of Public Policy Analysis: Theory, Politics, and Methods. CRC Press. pp. 149–157. ISBN 978-1-4200-1700-7.
- Selee, Andrew Dan (31 July 2013). What Should Think Tanks Do?: A Strategic Guide to Policy Impact. Stanford University Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-8047-8929-5.
- McGann, James. "Think Tanks and the Transnationalization of Foreign Policy". Foreign Policy Research Institute. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011.
- Roberts, Priscilla (1 December 2015). "A century of international affairs think tanks in historical perspective". International Journal. 70 (4): 535–555. doi:10.1177/0020702015590591. hdl:10722/210910. ISSN 0020-7020. S2CID 155138921.
- "THINK TANKS AND CIVIL SOCIETIES PROGRAM : Copy of Record will be issued on 1/30/14" (PDF). Gtothinktank.com. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- James G. McGann (31 January 2018). "2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Speech". University of Pennsylvania.
- "How Think Tanks Became Engines of Royal Propaganda". Tablet Magazine. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
- Edmund Jan Osmanczyk and Anthony Mango, Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements. London: Routledge, 2004.
- Tevi Troy (May–June 2012). "No More Thinking With Think Tanks". Utne. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- Stone, Diane (2013). Capturing the Political Imagination: Think Tanks and the Policy Process. Routledge. p. 9. ISBN 978-1136309045.
- Medvetz, Thomas (2012). Think Tanks in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 25. ISBN 9780226517292. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
- Medvetz, Thomas (2012). Think Tanks in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 26. ISBN 9780226517292. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
- Medvetz, Thomas (2012). Think Tanks in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 27. ISBN 9780226517292. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
- Medvetz, Thomas (2012). Think Tanks in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 70. ISBN 9780226517292. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
- Fetherling, George (12 May 2008). "In the Tank". The Walrus. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
- Medvetz, Thomas (2012). Think Tanks in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 28. ISBN 9780226517292. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
- Singer, Peter. "Washington's Think Tanks: Factories to Call Our Own". the Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 21 August 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
- McGann, James. "The Global "Go-To Think Tanks"" (PDF). the Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program.
- Mendizabal, Enrique. "Another year, another ranking of think tanks (and surprise surprise, Brookings is still the best)". On Think Tanks. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
- Buldioski, Goran. "Mirror, mirror on the wall... tell me who is the best think tank in the world?". Goran's Musings. Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
- "Think Tanks: Definitions, Development and Diversification". 6 February 2007. Archived from the original on 6 February 2007. Retrieved 19 February 2018.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- Braml, J. (2004). Think tanks versus "Denkfabriken"? U.S. and German Policy Research Institutes' Coping with and Influencing Their Environments. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellshaft.
- Struyk, R. J. (2006). Managing Think Tanks: Paractical Guidance for Maturing Organizations (2 ed.). Budapest: OSI/LGI, Thes Urban Institute.
- Weidenbaum, M. (2009). The Competition of Ideas: the world of the washington think tanks. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.
- Abelson, D. E. (2006). A capitol idea: think tanks and US foreign policy. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
- Belletini, O. (2007). El papel de los centros de investigacion de politica publica en las reformas publicas implementadas en America Latina. In Think Tanks y politicas publics en Latinoamerica: Dinamicas globales y realidades regionales. Buenos Aires: IDRC/Konrad Adenauer Stiftung/Prometeo libros.
- Ricci, D. M. (1993). The Transformation of American Politics: The new Washington and the rise of think Tanks. New Haven: Yale University Press.
- Rich, A. (2006). Think tanks, Public policy and the Politics of Expertise. New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Weaver, R. K. (1989). The Changing World of Think Tanks. PS: Political Science and Politics, 22 (3), 563-578.
- Braml, J. (2004). Think tanks versus "Denkfabriken"? U.S. and German Policy Research Institutes' Coping with and Influencing Their Environments. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellshaft
- Abelson, D. E. (2009). Do Think Tanks Matter? Assessing the impact of public policy institutes. Quebec City: McGill-Queen's University Press.
- Zufeng, Z. (2009). The Influence of Think Tanks in the Chinese Policy Process: Different W. Asian Survey, 49 (2), 333-357.
- Snowdon, P. (2010). Back from the Brink: The Extraordinary Fall and Rise of the Conservative Party. London: Harper Press.
- "Researchers or Corporate Allies? Think Tanks Blur the Line; Think tanks are seen as independent, but their scholars often push donors' agendas, amplifying a culture of corporate influence in Washington". Retrieved 7 August 2016.
- Ong, Elisa K.; Glantz, Stanton A. (2001). "Constructing "Sound Science" and "Good Epidemiology": Tobacco, Lawyers, and Public Relations Firms" (PDF). American Journal of Public Health. 91 (11): 1749–1757. doi:10.2105/AJPH.91.11.1749. PMC 1446868. PMID 11684593. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 April 2003. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
- Sheldon Rampton and John Stauber "How Big Tobacco Helped Create 'the Junkman'", Vol. 7, No. 3, PR Watch, Third Quarter 2000, PRWatch.com
- "What's in a Label?". FAIR. 22 February 1999. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "The Incredible Shrinking Think Tank". FAIR. 22 February 1999. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "Think Tank Review Project | National Education Policy Center". Nepc.colorado.edu. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- Eric Lipton; Brooke Williams; Nicholas Confessore (6 September 2014). "Foreign Powers Buy Influence at Think Tanks". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- "The Think Tank of Quality Education - AMAQUEN Higher Education". AMAQUEN. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
- Naji, Abdennasser (1 December 2010). "Rapport sur la qualité du système d'éducation et de formation au Maroc". Researchgate. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
- "The Journal of Quality in Education". journal.amaquen.org. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
- Naji, Abdennasser. "THE MAIN DETERMINANTS OF IMPROVING LEARNING OUTCOMES: Analysis of PISA, TIMSS and PIRLS data". Cimqusef. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
- "Think tank : Marianne République". Mariannerepublique.hautetfort.com. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- McGann, James G (2012). "2012 Global Go To Think Tanks Index Report". University of Pennsylvania ScholarlyCommons.
- Linping, He (18 January 2012). "Nongovernmental think-tank inaugurated in Guangdong". People's Daily Online. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- "2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report". Think Tanks and Civil Societies Programs Univ. of Pennsylvania. Lauder Institute, University of Pennsylvania. 31 January 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
- "CPR retains spot as leading India climate think tank for third year in a row | Centre for Policy Research".
- "About WRI India".
- "NeGP overview" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- "Why think tanks struggle in India". 21 May 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- "MERI - Middle East Research Institute". www.meri-k.org.
- "Think Tanks in Israel | Jewish Federations of North America". Jewishfederations.org. Archived from the original on 3 February 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- "Об ИМЭП | Институт мировой экономики и политики". Iwep.kz (in Russian). 17 September 2014. Archived from the original on 13 May 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "King and People are Inseparable: Proactive Constitutional Monarch in Parliamentary System". 24 November 2020.
- "NIRA Review Winter 1999: A Look at Think Tanks in the Philippines by Herman Joseph S. Kraft". Nira.or.jp. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- "Singapore Institute of International Affairs top local think tank: Ranking". Channel NewsAsia. 2 February 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- McGann, James G. "2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report". upenn.edu. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
- "Taiwan-Asia Exchange Foundation launched". Ministry of Foreign Affairs Republic of China (Taiwan). Retrieved 27 September 2018.
- "Центр содействия экономическому развитию в Узбекистане". Ced.uz. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- Cisar, Ondrej. "Think Tank and Policy Discourses in the Czech Republic". Academia.
- "Activities". Åland Islands Peace Institute - Ålands fredsinstitut. Retrieved 22 February 2018.[permanent dead link]
- "Demos Helsinki". onthinktanks.org. On Think Tanks. Retrieved 4 September 2021.
- Standish, Reid (18 January 2018). "Inside a European Center to Combat Russia's Hybrid Warfare". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
Located in an unassuming office building filled with boardrooms, lecture halls, and projectors in the Finnish capital, a new entity under the joint auspices of the European Union and NATO was founded with a herculean mission. [...] In this vein, the hybrid center is more of an in-house think tank than a task force dedicated to debunking propaganda or tracking hackers in cyberspace.
- "Crisis Management Initiative (CMI)". Institute for NGO Research. 23 January 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
- "Activities in a nutshell: Research, forecasting and policy assessment". Etla. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
- "Introduction". FIIA – The Finnish Institute of International Affairs. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
The Finnish Institute of International Affairs is a research institute whose mission is to produce high quality, topical information on international relations and the EU.
- "Perussuomalaiset aloitti jättiselvityksen".
- "Fondation Concorde". Fondation Concorde. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- James G. McGann. "2014 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report" (PDF). Repository.upenn.edu. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "Home". Liia.lv. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "providus.lv". providus.lv. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "Centre for European and Transition Studies – University of Latvia". Lu.lv. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "Latvijas Nacionālā aizsardzības akadēmija". 5 November 2013. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
- "vilniusinstitute.lt". vilniusinstitute.lt. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
- Pavel Kapusta (November 2008). "Res publica" (in Slovak). Extra Plus. Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- Ľudovít Števko (August 2011). "Mesežnikovov barometer" (in Slovak). Extra Plus. Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- "About Chatham House". Chatham House. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
- "avenir suisse | think tank for economic and social issues". Avenir-suisse.ch. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- McGann, James (2017). "2016 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report". TTCSP Global Go to Think Tank Index Reports. TTCSP Global Go To Think Tank Index Reports. 12. University of Pennsylvania.
- "GDI – Geschichte". Gdi.ch. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "twitter". Libinst.ch. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- (PDF). 24 March 2012 https://web.archive.org/web/20120324070825/http://www.fpri.org/research/thinktanks/GlobalGoToThinkTanks2011.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2018. Missing or empty
- "TESEV Türkiye Ekonomik ve Sosyal Etüdler Vakfı". 25 April 2001. Archived from the original on 25 April 2001. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
- "AIMS - Atlantic Institute for Market Studies". 7 August 2010. Archived from the original on 7 August 2010. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
- "Canada West Foundation |". Cwf.ca. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "Cardus". Cardus.ca. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "Frontier Centre for Public Policy".
- "Institute on Governance – Leading Expertise". Institute on Governance. Archived from the original on 11 September 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "Parkland Institute :: Research and Education for the Common Good :: Edmonton, Alberta". Parklandinstitute.ca. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Thomas Medvetz, "'Think Tanks in America" (2012) Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
- "About Us". Tax Foundation. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
- Wallstein, Peter (19 January 2012). "Center for American Progress, group tied to Obama, under fire from Israel advocates". The Washington Post. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- Cohen, Rick (12 December 2014). "The Inner Workings of Think Tanks: Transparify Gives Us a Good Look". Nonprofit Quarterly. Retrieved 21 December 2014.
- "The Incredible Shrinking Think Tank". FAIR. 1 March 2008. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
- Lipton, Eric; Williams, Brooke (7 August 2016). "Researchers or Corporate Allies? Think Tanks Blur the Line". New York Times. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
- "Search Page". 18 November 2002. Archived from the original on 18 November 2002. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
- Mendizabal Enrique (2009). "Think tanks and political parties in Latin America, Background Paper" (PDF). Odi.org.uk. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Mendizabal, Enrique y Kristen Sample (eds) (2009) Dime a quien escuchas... Think Tanks y Partidos Politicos en America Latina, ODI/IDEA: Lima
- ""Think Tanks as an Emergent Field" — Publication — Social Science Research Council". Ssrc.org. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- "on the business model and how this affects what think tanks do « on think tanks". Onthinktanks.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- "NIRA's World Directory of Think Tanks 2002: Introduction". 2 May 2006. Archived from the original on 2 May 2006. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
- "Foreign Policy, January/February, 2009". Foreignpolicy.com. Archived from the original on 7 January 2010. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- "Argentina, quinto país en el mundo en centros de estudio". Clarin.com. 25 January 2009. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- McGann, James. "The Global "Go-To Think Tanks"" (PDF). the Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2011.
- Abelson, Donald E. Do Think Tanks Matter? Assessing the Impact of Public Policy Institutes. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2002.
- Arin, Kubilay Yado: Think Tanks, the Brain Trusts of US Foreign Policy. Wiesbaden: VS Springer 2013.
- Boucher, Stephen, et al., Europe and its think tanks; a promise to be fulfilled. An analysis of think tanks specialised in European policy issues in the enlarged European Union, Studies and Research No 35, October, Paris, Notre Europe, 2004 PDF
- Cockett, Richard, Thinking the unthinkable: think tanks and the economic counter revolution; 1931–1983, London: Fontana, 1995.
- Cotton, James (2016). "Chatham House and Africa c1920–1960: The Limitations of the Curtis Vision". South African Historical Journal. 68 (2): 147–162. doi:10.1080/02582473.2016.1182206. S2CID 164140516.
- Dickson, Paul. "Think Tanks". New York: Ballantine Books, 1972. 397 pages.
- Goodman, John C. "What is a Think Tank?" National Center for Policy Analysis, 2005.
- Fan, Maureen. "Capital Brain Trust Puts Stamp on the World", Washington Post (16 May 2005): B01.
- Patrick Dixon. Futurewise – Six Faces of Global Change – issues covered by Think Tanks and methodology for reviewing trends, impact on policy 2003): Profile Books
- Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl (2016): The Politics of Think Tanks in Europe. Abingdon & New York: Routledge.
- Lakoff, George. Moral Politics: What Conservatives Know That Liberals Don't. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
- Ladi, Stella. Globalisation, Policy Transfer And Policy Research Institutes, Edward Elgar, 2005.
- McGann, James (2006) Comparative Think Tanks, Politics And Public Policy, Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing
- Mendizabal, Enrique and Kristen Sample (2009) "Dime a quien escuchas... Think Tanks y Partidos Politicos en America Latina", ODI/IDEA: Lima
- Medvetz, Thomas (2012) "Think Tanks in America", Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
- Phelps, Richard P. (2015). The Gauntlet: Think Tanks and Federal Research Centers Misrepresent and Suppress Other Education Research New Educational Foundations, 4.
- Ranquet, Robert. Think Tanks and the National Security Strategy Formulation Process: A Comparison of Current American and French Patterns, 1997. PDF
- Roberts, Priscilla (2015). "A century of international affairs think tanks in historical perspective". International Journal: Canada's Journal of Global Policy Analysis. 70 (4): 535–555. doi:10.1177/0020702015590591. hdl:10722/210910. S2CID 155138921.
- Smith, James. A. The Idea Brokers: Think Tanks and the Rise of the New Policy Elite, New York: The Free Press, 1991.
- Snider, J.H. "Strengthen Think Tank Accountability", Politico (3 February 2009).
- Stone, Diane. Knowledge actors and transnational governance: The private-public policy nexus in the global agora. Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
- Stone, Diane (2009). "Rapid knowledge: 'Bridging research and policy' at the Overseas Development Institute". Public Administration and Development. 29 (4): 303–315. doi:10.1002/pad.540.
- Stone, Diane. Capturing the Political Imagination: Think Tanks and the Policy Process, London: Frank Cass, 1996
- Stone, Diane (2007). "Garbage Cans, Recycling Bins or Think Tanks? Three Myths about Policy Institutes" (PDF). Public Administration. 85 (2): 259–278. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9299.2007.00649.x.
- Stone, Diane, and Andrew Denham, eds. Think Tank Traditions: Policy Research and the Politics of Ideas. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004.
- Struyk, Raymond J. Managing Think Tanks: Practical Guidance for Maturing Organizations, Budapest, Local Government and Public Service Reform Initiative Washington DC., Urban Institute 2002
- UNDP – United Nations Development Program. Thinking the Unthinkable, Bratislava, UNDP Regional Bureau for Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, 2003
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Think tanks.|
- The Economist Magazine and NPR's Marketplace report: "Under the Influence: Think Tanks and The Money That Fuels Them"
- Foreign Policy Research Institute, Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program directory of over 5000 think tanks and research on the role and impact of think tanks.
- PBS: Think Tank with Ben Wattenberg: "Thinking About Think Tanks" – interview with Christopher DeMuth, President of AEI, 13 October 2005
- Enrique Mendizabal (Former head of programme at the Overseas Development Institute on the definition of think tanks: towards a more useful discussion -a new way of studying think tanks that focuses on their functions rather than form.
- 2008–2016 Global Think Tank Rating