Three Seas Initiative

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Three Seas Initiative
The European Union and the twelve member states of the Three Seas Initiative
The European Union and the twelve member states of the Three Seas Initiative
• Total
1,218,975 km2 (470,649 sq mi)
• Estimate
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$2.139 trillion

The Three Seas Initiative (3SI, TSI, I3M), also known as the Baltic, Adriatic, Black Sea (BABS) Initiative, is a forum of twelve states in the European Union, located in Central and Eastern Europe. The combined area connects the Adriatic Sea, Baltic Sea, and Black Sea. The initiative aims to create a regional dialogue on a variety of questions affecting the member states. The twelve members met for their first summit in 2016, in Dubrovnik.


The Three Seas Initiative has twelve member states along a north-south axis from the Baltic Sea to the Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea:[1] Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. All, except Austria, are formerly communist countries.[2] With the exception of two Nordic states (Sweden and Finland) and the Mediterranean island states (Cyprus and Malta) it includes all states that have joined the European Union since 1986.


The initiative held its first summit in Dubrovnik on 25–26 August 2016. The two-day event ended with a declaration of co-operation in economic matters, particularly in the field of energy as well as transport and communications infrastructure.[1] Polish President Andrzej Duda called the initiative "a new concept to promote Europe's unity and cohesion, it is an idea of cooperation among 12 countries located between the Adriatic, Baltic and Black Seas, the three seas of Central Europe."[3] Guest speakers included Chinese Ministerial Assistant for Foreign Affairs Liu Haixing, who talked about the interconnectedness with the Chinese government's Belt and Road Initiative, and former US National Security Advisor, General James L. Jones, who stressed the initiative's role in European development and security.[4][5]

The initiative's second summit was held 6–7 July 2017 in Warsaw. US President Donald Trump attended the summit.[6][7] The participating countries unanimously agreed to set up a Three Seas Business Forum.[8][9]

The initiative's third summit took place 17-18 September 2018 in Bucharest. Participants approved a list of priority interconnection projects in the three key areas – transport, energy and digital.[10] President of the European Commission Jean-Claude Juncker, German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas and US Secretary of Energy Rick Perry attended the summit as guests. The first edition of the Business Forum was organised at this time. 3SI Network of Chambers of Commerce was created and Letter of Intent in relation to the establishment of the Three Seas Investment Fund was signed here.[11][12]


Date Location Hosting leader Notes
1st 25–26 August 2016 Croatia Dubrovnik, Croatia Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović
2nd 6–7 July 2017 Poland Warsaw, Poland Andrzej Duda U.S. President Donald Trump attended
3rd 17–18 September 2018 Romania Bucharest, Romania Klaus Iohannis E.U. Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker attended
4th 4-5 June 2019[13] Slovenia Slovenia Borut Pahor


The initiative is closely related to two major infrastructure projects in the region:[14]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Dubrovnik Forum adopts declaration called "The Three Seas Initiative"". EBL News. 2016-08-25. Retrieved 2017-07-04.
  2. ^ "The Baltic-Adriatic-Black Seas Region - Visegrad Plus". Visegrad Plus - Forum for Visegrad+ studies. Retrieved 2017-07-04.
  3. ^ "President of the Republic of Poland / News / Minister Szczerski: Three Seas initiative to boost European unity". Retrieved 2017-07-04.
  4. ^ "The Three Seas Initiative: Central and Eastern Europe takes charge of its own destiny | Visegrád Post". Retrieved 2017-07-04.
  5. ^ Ansley, Rachel. "Making the Three Seas Initiative a Priority for Trump". Atlantic Council. Retrieved 2017-07-04.
  6. ^ "Trump trip to Poland forces 3 Seas summit change". Fox News. 2017-06-13. Retrieved 2017-07-04.
  7. ^ CNBC (2017-07-04). "FACTBOX-Three Seas Initiative summit in Warsaw". Retrieved 2017-07-04.
  8. ^ "President Rumen Radev in Warsaw: the Joint Projects and Investments of the Central and Eastern European Countries will Make the European Union Stronger". Retrieved 11 July 2017.
  9. ^ "2018 Summit – Three Seas Initiative". Archived from the original on 2018-09-06. Retrieved 2018-09-06.
  10. ^ "The Three Seas Initiative-Priority Interconnection Projects" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-10-06. Retrieved 2018-10-06.
  11. ^ "Press releases". Three Seas Initiative. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  12. ^ "Croatian President at Third Three Seas Initiative Summit". Croatia Week. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  13. ^ "Czech and Croatian Presidents Advocate Stronger Central Europe". Total Croatia News. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  14. ^ "Poland hopes to tap Trump's business acumen at regional summit". Business Insider. Retrieved 2017-07-04.

External links[edit]