Central and Eastern Europe

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European subregions according to EuroVoc:
  Central and Eastern Europe
The pre-1989 "Eastern Bloc" (orange) superimposed on current borders.

Central and Eastern Europe is a term encompassing the countries in the Baltics, Central Europe, Eastern Europe and Southeast Europe (mostly the Balkans), usually meaning former communist states from the Eastern Bloc and Warsaw Pact in Europe. Scholarly literature often uses the abbreviations CEE or CEEC for this term.[1][2][3] The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) also uses the term "Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs)" for a group comprising some of these countries. This term is sometimes used for "Eastern Europe" instead for more neutral grouping.[4][5][6][7][8]

Definitions[edit]

The term CEE includes the Eastern Bloc (Warsaw Pact) countries west of the post-World War II border with the former Soviet Union; the independent states in former Yugoslavia (which were not considered part of the Eastern bloc); and the three Baltic statesEstonia, Latvia, Lithuania (which chose not to join the CIS with the other 12 former republics of the USSR).

The CEE countries are further subdivided by their accession status to the European Union (EU): the eight first-wave accession countries that joined the EU on 1 May 2004 (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, and Slovenia), the two second-wave accession countries that joined on 1 January 2007 (Romania and Bulgaria) and the third-wave accession country that joined on 1 July 2013 (Croatia). According to the World Bank 2008 analysis, the transition to advanced market economies is over for all 10 countries that joined the EU in 2004 and 2007.[9]

The CEE countries include the former socialist states, which extend east of Austria, Germany (western part), and Italy; north of Greece and Turkey (European part); south of Finland and Sweden; and west of Belarus, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine:

Country  European Union  NATO Notes
 Albania Candidate negotiating Member state
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Candidate Membership Action Plan
 Bulgaria Member state Member state [10][11]
 Croatia Member state Member state [10][11]
 Czech Republic Member state Member state [10][11]
 Estonia Member state Member state [10][11]
 Hungary Member state Member state [10][11]
 Kosovo Applicant Partially recognized state[12]
 Latvia Member state Member state [10][11]
 Lithuania Member state Member state [10][11]
 Montenegro Candidate negotiating Member state
 North Macedonia Candidate negotiating Member state [10][11]
 Poland Member state Member state [10][11]
 Romania Member state Member state [10][11]
 Serbia Candidate negotiating Individual Partnership Action Plan
 Slovakia Member state Member state [10][11]
 Slovenia Member state Member state [10][11]
 Abkhazia Partially recognized state[13]
 Armenia Individual Partnership Action Plan Member state of CIS and CSTO
 Artsakh Partially recognized state
 Azerbaijan Individual Partnership Action Plan Member state of CIS
 Belarus Member state of CIS and CSTO
 Georgia Applicant Intensified Dialogue
 Moldova Candidate Individual Partnership Action Plan Member state of CIS
 Russia Member state of CIS and CSTO
 South Ossetia Partially recognized state[14]
 Transnistria Partially recognized state[15]
 Ukraine Candidate Intensified Dialogue

According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, "Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) is an OECD term for the group of countries comprising Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, and the three Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania."[11]

The term Central and Eastern Europe (abbreviated CEE) has displaced the alternative term East-Central Europe in the context of transition countries, mainly because the abbreviation ECE is ambiguous: it commonly stands for Economic Commission for Europe, rather than East-Central Europe.[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Inotai, András (Autumn 2009). "BUDAPEST—Ghost of Second-Class Status Haunts Central and Eastern Europe". Europe's World. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2012-09-04.
  2. ^ Z. Lerman, C. Csaki, and G. Feder, Agriculture in Transition: Land Policies and Evolving Farm Structures in Post-Soviet Countries, Lexington Books, Lanham, MD (2004), see, e.g., Table 1.1, p. 4.
  3. ^ J. Swinnen, ed., Political Economy of Agrarian Reform in Central and Eastern Europe, Ashgate, Aldershot (1997).
  4. ^ Mälksoo, Maria (2019-05-04). "The normative threat of subtle subversion: the return of 'Eastern Europe' as an ontological insecurity trope". Cambridge Review of International Affairs. 32 (3): 365–383. doi:10.1080/09557571.2019.1590314. ISSN 0955-7571. S2CID 159184190.
  5. ^ Twardzisz, Piotr (2018-04-25). Defining 'Eastern Europe': A Semantic Inquiry into Political Terminology. Springer. p. 18. ISBN 978-3-319-77374-2.
  6. ^ Hall, Derek (July 1999). "Destination branding, niche marketing and national image projection in Central and Eastern Europe". Journal of Vacation Marketing. 5 (3): 227–237. doi:10.1177/135676679900500303. ISSN 1356-7667. S2CID 154698941.
  7. ^ Zarycki, Tomasz (2014). Ideologies of Eastness in Central and Eastern Europe. doi:10.4324/9781315819006. ISBN 9781317818571. S2CID 129401740.
  8. ^ "Eastern promise and Western pretension – DW – 09/07/2018". dw.com. Retrieved 2022-11-16.
  9. ^ Unleashing Prosperity: Productivity Growth in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union, World Bank, Washington (2008), p. 42
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "CEE countries". 9 August 2011.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Directorate, OECD Statistics. "OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms - Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) Definition". stats.oecd.org.
  12. ^ The political status of Kosovo is disputed. Having unilaterally declared independence from Serbia in 2008, Kosovo is formally recognised as an independent state by 101 UN member states (with another 13 states recognising it at some point but then withdrawing their recognition) and 92 states not recognizing it, while Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own territory.
  13. ^ The political status of Abkhazia is disputed. Having unilaterally declared independence from Georgia in 1992, Abkhazia is formally recognised as an independent state by 5 UN member states (two other states recognised it but then withdrew their recognition), while Georgia continues to claim it as part of its own territory, designating it as Russian-occupied territory.
  14. ^ South Ossetia's status is disputed. It considers itself to be an independent state, but this is recognised by only a few other countries. The Georgian government and most of the world's other states consider South Ossetia de jure a part of Georgia's territory.
  15. ^ Transnistria's political status is disputed. It considers itself to be an independent state, but this is not recognised by any UN member state. The Moldovan government and the international community consider Transnistria a part of Moldova's territory.
  16. ^ "UNECE Homepage". www.unece.org.