Thynnidae

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Thynnidae
Male yellow flower wasp02.jpg
Male Agriomyia sp. feeding on nectar
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Superfamily: Thynnoidea
Family: Thynnidae
Subfamilies

Anthoboscinae
Diamminae
Methochinae
Myzininae
Thynninae

Thynnidae (also known as flower wasps) are a family of large solitary wasps whose larvae are almost universally parasitoids of various beetle larvae, especially those in the superfamily Scarabaeoidea. Until recently, the constituents of this family were classified in the family Tiphiidae, but multiple studies have independently confirmed that thynnids are a separate lineage.[1][2]

Most species are small, but they can be up to 30 mm long. The females of some subfamilies (all Diamminae, Methochinae, and Thynninae) are wingless, and hunt ground-dwelling (fossorial) beetle larvae, or (in one species) mole crickets. The prey is paralysed with the female's sting and an egg is laid on it so the wasp larva has a ready supply of food. In species where both sexes are winged, males are similar in size to the females, but are much more slender. The males of species with wingless females, however, are often much larger than the females and have wings, the adults mating in the air, with the female carried by the male's genitalia. Adults feed on nectar and are minor pollinators. As some of the ground-dwelling scarab species attacked by thynnids are pests, some of these wasps are considered beneficial as biological control agents.

A pair of mating flower wasps: The larger male is approximately 25 mm in length.
Myzinum quinquecinctum

Genera[edit]

These 34 genera belong to the family Thynnidae:[3][4][5]

Data sources: i = ITIS,[6] c = Catalogue of Life,[7] g = GBIF,[8] b = Bugguide.net[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pilgrim, E.; von Dohlen, C.; Pitts, J. (2008). "Molecular phylogenetics of Vespoidea indicate paraphyly of the superfamily and novel relationships of its component families and subfamilies". Zoologica Scripta. 37 (5): 539–560. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2008.00340.x.
  2. ^ Johnson, B.R.; et al. (2013). "Phylogenomics Resolves Evolutionary Relationships among Ants, Bees, and Wasps". Current Biology. 23 (20): 2058–2062. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2013.08.050. PMID 24094856.
  3. ^ "NCBI taxonomy browser, Thynnidae". Retrieved 2018-05-18.
  4. ^ Pilgrim, E.M.; von Dohlen, C.D.; Pitts, J.P. (2008). "Molecular phylogenetics of Vespoidea indicate paraphyly of the superfamily and novel relationships of its component families and subfamilies". Zoologica Scripta. 37 (5): 539–560. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2008.00340.x.
  5. ^ Debevec, Andrew H.; Cardinal, Sophie; Danforth, Bryan N. (2012). "Identifying the sister group to the bees: a molecular phylogeny of Aculeata with an emphasis on the superfamily Apoidea" (PDF). Zoologica Scripta. 41 (5): 527–535. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2012.00549.x.
  6. ^ "ITIS, Integrated Taxonomic Information System". Retrieved 2018-05-16.
  7. ^ "Catalogue of Life". Retrieved 2018-05-16.
  8. ^ "Thynnidae". GBIF. Retrieved 2018-05-16.
  9. ^ "Thynnidae Family Information". BugGuide.net. Retrieved 2018-05-16.

External links[edit]