Apoidea

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Apoidea
Bee PD foto explained1.jpg
Apis mellifera, the western honeybee
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Clade: Euarthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Suborder: Apocrita
Superfamily: Apoidea
Subgroups

Spheciformes

Anthophila

Incertae sedis

The superfamily Apoidea is a major group within the Hymenoptera, which includes two traditionally recognized lineages, the "sphecoid" wasps, and the bees. Molecular phylogeny demonstrates that the bees arose from within the Crabronidae, so that grouping is paraphyletic.

Nomenclature[edit]

Bees appear in recent classifications to be a specialized lineage of crabronid wasps that switched to the use of pollen and nectar as larval food, rather than insect prey; this makes the Crabronidae a paraphyletic group. Accordingly, bees and sphecoids are now all grouped together in a single superfamily, and the older available name is "Apoidea" rather than "Sphecoidea" (which, like Spheciformes, has been used in the past, but also defined a paraphyletic group and has been abandoned).

As bees (not including their wasp ancestors) are still considered a monophyletic group, they are given a grouping between superfamily and family to unify all bees, Anthophila.[1]

Phylogeny[edit]

Aculeata


Chrysidoidea


 

 


Vespidae



Rhopalosomatidae



 

 


Pompilidae



Tiphiidae



 


Vespoidea


 


Apoidea



Formicidae







Phylogenetic position of Apoidea in the Aculeata.[2]

This phylogenetic tree is based on Sann et al., 2018, which used phylogenomics to demonstrate that both the bees (Anthophila) and the Sphecidae arose from within the former "Crabronidae," which is therefore paraphyletic, and which they suggested should be split into several families; the former family Heterogynaidae nests within the Bembicidae, as here defined.[3] These findings differ in several details from studies published by two other sets of authors in 2017, though all three studies demonstrate a paraphyletic "Crabronidae."[4][5]

Apoidea


Ampulicidae (Cockroach wasps) Emerald Cockroach Wasp.JPG




Astatidae Astata boopsDSC05135.JPG





Bembicidae Bembix sp2.jpg




Sphecidae (sensu stricto) Sceliphron spirifex TZ edit1.jpg





Crabronidae (sensu stricto) Ectemnius.lapidarius.-.lindsey.jpg



Mellinidae Mellinus arvensis - Flickr - gailhampshire (1).jpg






(former "Pemphredoninae" and "Philanthinae")



Pemphredonidae Pemphredon ? (Crabronidae) - Zwerggrabwespe (11462528464).jpg



Philanthidae P. gibbosus57306787w.jpg





Psenidae Aphid Wasp - Flickr - treegrow (2).jpg





Ammoplanidae



Anthophila (bees) Abeille butineuse et son pollen.JPG









References[edit]

  1. ^ Engel, M.S. (2005). Family-group names for bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). American Museum Novitates 3476: 1–33.
  2. ^ Johnson, Brian R.; Borowiec, Marek L.; Chiu, Joanna C.; Lee, Ernest K.; Atallah, Joel; Ward, Philip S. (2013). "Phylogenomics resolves evolutionary relationships among ants, bees, and wasps". Current Biology. 23: 1–5. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2013.08.050. PMID 24094856. 
  3. ^ Manuela Sann, Oliver Niehuis, Ralph S. Peters, Christoph Mayer, Alexey Kozlov, Lars Podsiadlowski, Sarah Bank, Karen Meusemann, Bernhard Misof, Christoph Bleidorn and Michael Ohl (2018) Phylogenomic analysis of Apoidea sheds new light on the sister group of bees. BMC Evolutionary Biology 18:71. doi:10.1186/s12862-018-1155-8
  4. ^ Branstetter, Michael G.; Danforth, Bryan N.; Pitts, James P.; Faircloth, Brant C.; Ward, Philip S.; Buffington, Matthew L.; Gates, Michael W.; Kula, Robert R.; Brady, Seán G. (2017). "Phylogenomic Insights into the Evolution of Stinging Wasps and the Origins of Ants and Bees". Current Biology. 27 (7): 1019–1025. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.03.027. 
  5. ^ Peters, Ralph S.; Krogmann, Lars; Mayer, Christoph; Donath, Alexander; Gunkel, Simon; Meusemann, Karen; Kozlov, Alexey; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Petersen, Malte. "Evolutionary History of the Hymenoptera". Current Biology. 27 (7): 1013–1018. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.01.027. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]