Pteromalidae

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Pteromalidae
Female Catolaccus grandis wasp.jpg
Catolaccus grandis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Suborder: Apocrita
Superfamily: Chalcidoidea
Family: Pteromalidae
Dalman, 1820
Subfamilies

many (see text)

Diversity
15–28 subfamilies
c. 640 genera
c. 3450 species

The Pteromalidae are a very large family of parasitoid wasps, with some 3,450 described species in about 640 genera (the number was greater, but many species and genera have been reduced to synonymy in recent years). The subfamily-level divisions of the family are highly contentious and unstable, and the family unquestionably is completely artificial, composed of numerous, distantly related groups (polyphyletic). Accordingly, details of their life histories range over nearly the entire range possible within the Chalcidoidea, though the majority are (as with most chalcidoids) parasitoids of other insects. They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats, and many are important as biological control agents.

In essence, a "pteromalid" is any member of the Chalcidoidea that has five-segmented tarsi and does not have the defining features of any of the remaining families with five-segmented tarsi. Unquestionably, this family will be divided into several families in the near future.[1]

Description[edit]

Usually metallic Chalcidoids of varying body size (from 1-48 mm long) and built (slender to quite robust), with the tarsi of the fore and hind legs consisting of five segments, which carry antennae consisting of eight to thirteen segments (including up to 3 annelli), and that in fully winged forms have in the fore wing a marginal vein that is at least several times longer than broad, very often with well-developed postmarginal and stigmal veins, although these are rarely quite short, and nearly always a distinct speculum.[2]

Ecology[edit]

The life strategies of the species in this family vary greatly. There are both solitary and gregarious species, living outside (ectoparasitoid) or inside their prey (endoparasitoid), koinobionts and idiobionts, primary parasitoids and hyperparasitoids and even predators that kill and consume the prey immediately.[2]

Subfamilies (32)[edit]

Asaphinae - Austrosystasinae - Austroterobiinae - Ceinae - Cerocephalinae - Chromeurytominae - Cleonyminae - Coelocybinae - Colotrechninae - Cratominae - Diparinae - Ditropinotellinae - Elatoidinae - Erotolepsiinae - Eunotinae - Eutrichosomatinae - Herbertiinae - Keiraninae - Leptofoeninae - Louriciinae - Macromesinae - Miscogasterinae - Nefoeninae - Neodiparinae - Ormocerinae - Panstenoninae - Parasaphodinae - Pireninae - Pteromalinae - Spalangiinae - Storeyinae - Sycoecinae

Overview of genera (591 + 1†)[edit]

Ablaxia - Abomalus - Acaenacis - Acerocephala - Acoelocyba - Acroclisella - Acroclisis - Acroclisissa - Acroclisoides - Acroclypa - Acrocormus - Aditrochus - Aeschylia - Afropsilocera - Agamerion - Aggelma - Agiommatus - Agrilocida - Aiemea - Allocricellius - Alloderma - Alticornis - Alyxiaphagus - Amandia - Amazonisca - Amblyharma - Amblypachus - Ambogaster - Amerostenus - Ammeia - Amoturella - Amphidocius - Andersena - Angulifrons - Anisopteromalus - Ankaratrella - Anogmoides - Anogmus - Anorbanus - Apelioma - Aphobetus - Apsilocera - Apycnetron - Arachnopteromalus - Ardilea - Arriva - Arthrolytus - Asaphes - Asaphoideus - Asparagobius - Atrichomalus - Ausasaphes - Australeunotus - Australicesa - Australolaelaps - Australurios - Austrosystasis - Austroterobia - Bairamlia - Balrogia - Baridobius - Blascoa - Bofuria - Boharticus - Bohpa - Bomburia - Bonitoa - Boucekina - Boucekius - Brachycaudonia - Brachyscelidiphaga - Bruesisca - Bubekia - Bubekiana - Bugacia - Bulolosa - Bupronotum - Caenacis - Caenocrepis - Callicarolynia - Callimerismus - Callimomoides - Calliprymna - Callitula - Callocleonymus - Calolelaps - Cameronella - Canada - Canberrana - Capellia - Catolaccus - Cavitas - Cea - Cecidellis - Cecidolampa - Cecidostiba - Cecidoxenus - Cephaleta - Ceratetra - Cerocephala - Cerodipara - Chadwickia - Chalcedectus - Chalcidiscelis - Cheiropachus - Chimaerolelaps - Chlorocytus - Choetospilisca - Chromeurytoma - Chrysoglyphe - Cleonymus - Coelocyba - Coelocyboides - Coelopisthia - Collentis - Collessina - Colotrechnus - Conigastrus - Conodipara - Conomorium - Conophorisca - Cooloolana - Coruna - Cratomus - Cryptoprymna - Cybopella - Cyclogastrella - Cyrtogaster - Cyrtophagoides - Cyrtoptyx - Dasycleonymus - Dasyneurophaga - Delisleia - Delucchia - Desantisiana - Dibrachoides - Dibrachys - Diconocara - Diglochis - Dimachus - Dinarmoides - Dinarmolaelaps - Dinarmus - Dineuticida - Dinotiscus - Dinotoides - Diourbelia - Dipachystigma - Dipara - Dirhicnus - Ditropinotella - Divna - Doddifoenus - Doganlaria - Dorcatomophaga - Dozodipara - Drailea - Dudichilla - Dvalinia - Ecrizotes - Ecrizotomorpha - Elachertodomyia - Elachertoidea - Elatoides - Elderia - Encyrtocephalus - Endomychobius - Enoggera - Eopteromalites - Epanogmus - Epelatus - Epicatolaccus - Epicopterus - Epipteromalus - Epistenia - Epiterobia - Erdoesia - Erdoesina - Erixestus - Erotolepsia - Erotolepsiella - Errolia - Erythromalus - Espinosa - Eucoelocybomyia - Eulonchetron - Eumacepolus - Euneura - Eunotomyiia - Eunotopsia - Eunotus - Eupelmophotismus - Eurydinota - Eurydinoteloides - Eurydinotomorpha - Eurytomomma - Eutelisca - Euteloida - Eutrichosoma - Ezgia - Fanamokala - Fedelia - Ferrierelus - Ficicola - Fijita - Frena - Fusiterga - Gahanisca - Gastracanthus - Gastrancistrus - Gbelcia - Genangula - Globimesosoma - Globonila - Glorimontana - Glyphognathus - Glyphotoma - Gnathophorisca - Goidanichium - Golovissima - Grissellium - Grooca - Guancheria - Gugolzia - Guinea - Guolina - Gyrinophagus - Habritella - Habritys - Habromalina - Hadroepistenia - Haliplogeton - Halomalus - Halticoptera - Halticopterella - Halticopterina - Halticopteroides - Hansonita - Harrizia - Hedqvistia - Hedqvistina - Helocasis - Hemadas - Hemitrichus - Herbertia - Heteroprymna - Heteroschema - Hetreulophus - Heydenia - Heydeniopsis - Hillerita - Hirtonila - Hlavka - Hobbya - Holcaeus - Homoporus - Hubena - Huberina - Hyperimerus - Hypopteromalus - Idioporus - Indoclava - Inkaka - Ischyroptyx - Ismaya - Isocyrtella - Isocyrtus - Isoplatoides - Jaliscoa - Janssoniella - Kaleva - Kazina - Keesia - Keirana - Kerya - Klabonosa - Kneva - Kratinka - Kratka - Krivena - Ksenoplata - Kukua - Kumarella - Laesthiola - Lampoterma - Lamprotatus - Lanthanomyia - Lariophagus - Lasallea - Laticlypa - Lelaps - Lelapsomorpha - Lenka - Leodamus - Leptofoenus - Leptogasterites - Leptomeraporus - Licteria - Liepara - Lincolna - Lisseurytoma - Lomonosoffiella - Lonchetron - Longinucha - Lycisca - Lyrcus - Lysirina - Lyubana - Macroglenes - Macromesus - Makaronesa - Manineura - Maorita - Marxiana - Mauleus - Mayrellus - Mazinawa - Megadicylus - Megamelanosoma - Melancistrus - Merallus - Meraporus - Merismoclea - Merismomorpha - Merismus - Merisus - Mesamotura - Mesolelaps - Mesolelaps - Mesopeltita - Mesopolobus - Metacolus - Metastenus - Meximalus - Micradelus - Mimencyrtus - Mirekia - Miristhma - Miscogaster - Miscogasteriella - Mnoonema - Mokrzeckia - Monazosa - Monoksa - Moranila - Morodora - Muesebeckisia - Muscidifurax - Myrmicolelaps - Nadelaia - Nambouria - Narendrella - Nasonia - Nazgulia - Neanica - Neapterolelaps - Neboissia - Nedinotus - Nefoenus - Neocalosoter - Neocatolaccus - Neochalcissia - Neocylus - Neodipara - Neoepistenia - Neolelaps - Neolyubana - Neoperilampus - Neopolycystus - Neosciatheras - Neoskeloceras - Neotoxeumorpha - Nephelomalus - Nepistenia - Nerotolepsia - Netomocera - Nikolskayana - Nodisoplata - Norbanus - Nosodipara - Notanisus - Notoglyptus - Notoprymna - Novitzkyanus - Nuchata - Oaxa - Obalana - Ogloblinisca - Omphalodipara - Oniticellobia - Oodera - Oomara - Ophelosia - Oricoruna - Ormocerus - Ormyromorpha - Ottaria - Ottawita - Oxyglypta - Oxyharma - Oxysychus - Pachycrepoideus - Pachyneuron - Pachyneuronella - Pandelus - Panstenon - Papuopsia - Parabruchobius - Paracarotomus - Paracerocephala - Paracroclisis - Paradinarmus - Paraiemea - Paralaesthia - Paralamprotatus - Paralycisca - Parasaphodes - Paratomicobia - Parepistenia - Paroxyharma - Patiyana - Peckianus - Pegopus - Peridesmia - Perilampella - Perilampidea - Perilampomyia - Perniphora - Pestra - Petipirene - Pezilepsis - Phaenocytus - Plastobelyta - Platecrizotes - Platneptis - Platygerrhus - Platypteromalus - Playaspalangia - Ploskana - Plutothrix - Podivna - Polstonia - Premiscogaster - Procallitula - Proglochin - Promerisus - Promuscidea - Propicroscytus - Propodeia - Proshizonotus - Protoepistenia - Pseudanogmus - Pseudetroxys - Pseudocatolaccus - Pseudoceraphron - Psilocera - Psilonotus - Psychophagoides - Psychophagus - Pterapicus - Pterisemoppa - Pteromalinites - Pteromalus - Pterosemigastra - Pterosemopsis - Ptinocida - Pycnetron - Pyramidophoriella - Queenslandia - Quercanus - Rakosina - Raspela - Rhaphitelus - Rhicnocoelia - Rhopalicus - Riekisura - Rivasia - Rohatina - Romanisca - Roptrocerus - Scaphepistenia - Sceptrothelys - Schimitschekia - Schizonotus - Sciatherellus - Scutellista - Sedma - Seladerma - Selimnus - Semiotellus - Sennia - Shedoepistenia - Sigynia - Sirovena - Sisyridivora - Solenura - Sorosina - Spalangia - Spalangiopelta - Spaniopus - Spathopus - Sphaeripalpus - Sphegigaster - Sphegigastrella - Sphegipterosema - Sphegipterosemella - Spilomalus - Spinancistrus - Spintherus - Spodophagus - Staurothyreus - Stenetra - Stenomalina - Stenophrus - Stenoselma - Stichocrepis - Stictolelaps - Stictomischus - Stinoplus - Storeya - Strejcekia - Striatacanthus - Sympotomus - Synedrus - Syntomopus - Systasis - Systellogaster - Systolomorpha - Szelenyinus - Tanina - Tanzanicesa - Teasienna - Telepsogina - Termolampa - Terobiella - Thaumasura - Thektogaster - Theocolax - Thinodytes - Thureonella - Tomicobia - Tomicobiella - Tomicobomorpha - Tomicobomorphella - Tomocerodes - Toxeuma - Toxeumella - Toxeumelloides - Toxeumorpha - Trichargyrus - Trichilogaster - Trichokaleva - Trichomalopsis - Trichomalus - Tricolas - Tricyclomischus - Trigonoderopsis - Trigonoderus - Trigonogastrella - Trinotiscus - Tripteromalus - Tritneptis - Trjapitzinia - Trychnosoma - Tsela - Tumor - Uniclypea - Uriellopteromalus - Urolepis - Urolycisca - Usubaia - Uzka - Velepirene - Veltrusia - Vespita - Vrestovia - Watshamia - Westra - Westwoodiana - Wubina - Xantheurytoma - Xestomnaster - Xiphydriophagus - Yanchepia - Yosemitea - Yrka - Yusufia - Zdenekiana - Zeala - Zebe - Zolotarewskya †- Dominocephala[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Beatriz Moisset. "Pteromalidae". BugGuide. 
  2. ^ a b B.R. Pitkin. "Pteromalidae". Universal Chalcidoidea Database. 
  3. ^ "Pteromalidae". Nederlands soortenregister. 

External links[edit]