|Gonatopus alpinus female|
Dryinidae comes from the Grek (Dryinus = Oak). Latreille named this family because the first species was collectede in an Oak plant in Spain. Dryinidae (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea) is a family of wasps cosmopolita and solitary. The larvae are parasitoids of nymphs and adults of Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera). Comprises approximately 1800 described species, distributed in 15 subfamilies and 50 genera. The adult wasp can measure from 0.9 to 5.0 mm in length and in some cases can reach 13 mm. Its species have a marked sexual dimorphism where males are totally different from the females in the size and shape of body and beyond the absence of wings in some females genera of the subfamily Gonatopodinae. Species are usually sexually dimorphic; males have wings while females are often wingless and resemble worker ants. Females may also have front legs modified with a pinching apparatus which they use to restrain the hosts for their larvae during oviposition. The body of the adult wasp has a 'waist' where it is constricted in the middle. The rear legs have spurs which may be used for grooming. The antennae have 10 segments. The ovipositor is retractable and not visible when retracted. The larvae are legless or have only vestigial legs.The female injects an egg into the host insect with her ovipositor. The larva feeds on the internal structures of the host, and as it grows larger it begins to protrude from the body. It develops a hardened sac around its body for protection. The host is eventually killed and the larva leaves the dead body and spins a cocoon.
Dryinid wasp larvae are parasitoids on various species of hemipterans, The female injects an egg into the host insect with her ovipositor. The larva feeds on the internal structures of the host, and as it grows larger it begins to protrude from the body. It develops a hardened sac around its body for protection. The host is eventually killed and the larva leaves the dead body and spins a cocoon.
Issus coleoptratus nymph with dryinid larva under right wing
- "Olmi M.; Virla, E.G. 2014. Dryinidae of the Neotropical region (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea). ootaxa 3792 (1): 001–534.". Zootaxa. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3792.2.1.
- "Olmi, M.; ZXu, Z. 2015. Dryinidae of the Eastern Palaearctic region (Hymenoera: Chrysidoidea). Zootaxa 3996 (1): 001–253". Zootaxa. doi:10.11646/zooatxa.3996.1.1.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- "Martins, A.L; Lara, R.I.R.; Perioto, N. W.; Olmi, M. 2015. Two new species of Dryinidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) from areas of Atlantic Rainforest at São Paulo State, Brazil.Brazilian Journal of Biology. vol.75 no.2, p.455-459.". doi:10.1590/1519-6984.19613.
- OLMI, M.; VIRLA, E.G. Família Dryinidae. In: FERNÁNDEZ, F.; SHARKEY, M. J. Introducción a los Hymenoptera de La Región Neotropical. Bogotá: Sociedad Colombiana de Entomoloia y Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2006. cap. 35, p. 401-418.
- "Olmi M.; Virla, E.G. 2014. Dryinidae of the Neotropical region (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea). Zootaxa 3792 (1): 001–534.". doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3792.1.1.
- Olmi M. 1994. The Dryinidae and Embolemidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 30: 1–100.
- "Guglielmino, A.; Olmi, M.; Bückle, C. 2013. An updated host-parasite catalogue of world Dryinidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea). Zootaxa, 3740 (1): 001-113.". doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3740.1.1.
- Dryinidae. Identification of Principal Groups of Insects. Discoveries in Natural History & Exploration. UC Riverside.
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