|Written by||Tom Stoppard|
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
|Date premiered||10 June 1974|
|Place premiered||Aldwych Theatre|
|Subject||An extravaganza of political history, literary pastiche, and Wildean parody, introducing Dadaist Tristan Tzara and Lenin his wife|
|Setting||Zürich, Switzerland, 1917|
Travesties is a 1974 play by Tom Stoppard. The play centres on the figure of Henry Carr, an elderly man who reminisces about Zürich in 1917 during the First World War, and his interactions with James Joyce when he was writing Ulysses, Tristan Tzara during the rise of Dada, and Lenin leading up to the Russian Revolution, all of whom were living in Zürich at that time.
The play is primarily set in Zürich, Switzerland during the First World War. At that time, three important personalities were living in Zürich: the modernist author James Joyce, the communist revolutionary Lenin, and Dada founder Tristan Tzara. The play centres on the less notable Henry Carr, a British consular official (also mentioned in Joyce's novel Ulysses), as he recalls his perceptions and experiences with these influential figures. As he reminisces, Carr's memory becomes prone to distraction, and instead of predictable historical biography, these characters are interpreted through the maze of his mind.
Carr's memories are couched in a Zürich production of Oscar Wilde's play The Importance of Being Earnest in which he had a starring role. Stoppard uses this production and Carr's mixed feelings surrounding it as a framework to explore art, the war and revolution. Situations from Earnest feature prominently within the action. The characters in Travesties also include versions of two characters from Earnest, Gwendolen and Cecily, and the comedic situations of many of the other roles are shared by other characters. Stoppard uses many linguistic devices within the play, including puns, limericks, and an extended parody of the vaudeville song "Mister Gallagher and Mister Shean".
The real Carr did play Algernon with a group of actors called The English Players, for whom the real James Joyce was the business manager. Carr and Joyce had an angry disagreement after the play, which led to legal action and accusations of slander by Joyce. The dispute was settled with the judge deciding in favour of both disputants on different counts. Joyce later parodied Carr, and the English Consul General in Zürich at that time, A. Percy Bennett, as two minor characters in Ulysses, with Carr being portrayed as a drunken, obscene soldier in the "Circe" episode.
After the first performance of Travesties Stoppard received a letter from Henry Carr's widow, expressing her surprise that her late husband had been included as a character in Stoppard's play.
Travesties was first produced at the Aldwych Theatre, London, on 10 June 1974, by the Royal Shakespeare Company. The production was directed by Peter Wood and designed by Carl Toms, with lighting by Robert Ornbo. It closed on 13 March 1976 after 156 performances at the Aldwych and the Albery Theatres in London, and the Ethel Barrymore Theater in New York City.
- Henry Carr – John Wood
- Tristan Tzara – John Hurt
- James Joyce – Tom Bell
- Vladimir Lenin – Frank Windsor
- Bennett – John Bott
- Gwendolen – Maria Aitken
- Cecily – Beth Morris
- Nadya – Barbara Leigh-Hunt
- Cast changes
- Tristan Tzara: Robert Powell; Tim Curry
- James Joyce: John Quentin; James Booth
- Vladimir Lenin: Harry Towb
- Gwendolen: Meg Wynn Owen
- Nadya: Frances Cuka
1978 German TV film
A revival of the play, with a revised text which abbreviated Cecily's lecture on Lenin in Act II by moving much of it to the interval, was given by the Royal Shakespeare Company at its theatre in the Barbican Arts Centre in September 1993, directed by Adrian Noble. The production was transferred to the Savoy Theatre in March 1994 and ran there until June 1994. A reading was given at the British Library in February 2008, featuring John Hurt.
- Henry Carr – Antony Sher
- Tristan Tzara – David Westhead
- James Joyce – Lloyd Hutchinson
- Vladimir Lenin – Geoffrey Freshwater
- Bennett – Trevor Martin
- Gwendolen Carr – Rebecca Saire
- Cecily Carruthers – Amanda Harris
- Nadya – Darlene Johnson
A new revival, directed by Patrick Marber, was performed at the Menier Chocolate Factory from September until November 2016. The production "broke box office records at the Menier Chocolate Factory, becoming the first play in the company’s history to sell out ahead of its first preview". In February 2017 the play, and company, transferred to the Apollo Theatre in London, where the run continued until April 2017.
- Henry Carr – Tom Hollander
- Gwendolen Carr – Amy Morgan
- Tristan Tzara – Freddie Fox
- Cecily Carruthers – Clare Foster
- Vladimir Lenin – Forbes Masson
- James Joyce – Peter McDonald
- Nadya – Sarah Quist
- Bennett – Tim Wallers
The production's designer was Tim Hatley, the lighting designer Neil Austin, and Adam Cork was the sound designer and composer of original music.
Patrick Marber's revival transferred to Broadway in Spring 2018, with Tom Hollander reprising his role as Henry Carr and Peter McDonald reprising his as James Joyce. Travesties opened on 24 April 2018 at the Roundabout Theatre Company's American Airlines Theater in New York.
- Henry Carr – Tom Hollander
- James Joyce – Peter McDonald
- Tristan Tzara – Seth Numrich
- Lenin – Dan Butler
- Gwendolen – Scarlett Strallen
- Cecily – Sara Topham
- Nadya – Opal Alladin
- Bennett – Patrick Kerr
The Roundabout Theatre Company's education team have produced an 'Upstage' guide to Travesties which puts the play's themes in historical context and contains interviews with the director, cast, and crew. The revival has been praised by critics with Ben Brantley of The New York Times commenting that he "...would venture that this latest incarnation is the clearest and surely one of the liveliest on record. It should prove ridiculously entertaining for anyone with even a passing knowledge of its central characters, and a stroll through the groves of Wikipedia should offer adequate preparation for anyone else."
2019 Australian production
- Henry Carr – Dion Mills
- James Joyce – Johnathan Peck
- Tristan Tzara – Matthew Connell
- Lenin – Syd Brisbane
- Gwendolen – Joanna Halliday
- Cecily – Gabrielle Sing
- Nadya – Milliana Cancur
- Bennett – Tref Gare
Awards and nominations
- 1976 Broadway Production
- 1976 New York Drama Critics' Circle Award for Best Play
- 1976 Tony Award for Best Play
- 1976 Evening Standard Award for Best Comedy
- 1976 Tony Award for Best Actor in a Play – John Wood
- 2017 West End Production
- Laurence Olivier Award for Best Revival
- Laurence Olivier Award for Best Actor – Tom Hollander
- Laurence Olivier Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role – Freddie Fox
- Laurence Olivier Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role – Claire Foster
- Laurence Olivier Award for Best Sound Design – Adam Cork
- WhatsOnStage Award for Best Play Revival
- WhatsOnStage Award for Best Supporting Actor in a Play – Freddie Fox
- 2018 Broadway Revival
- Tony Award for Best Revival of a Play
- Tony Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role in a Play – Tom Hollander
- Tony Award for Best Sound Design of a Play – Adam Cork
- Tony Award for Best Direction of a Play – Patrick Marber
- Drama Desk Award for Best Revival of a Play
- Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Actor in a Play – Tom Hollander
- Outer Critics Circle Award for Outstanding Revival of a Play (Broadway or Off-Broadway)
- Outer Critics Circle Award for Outstanding Actor in a Play – Tom Hollander
- Outer Critics Circle Award for Outstanding Director of a Play – Patrick Marber
- Drama League Award for Outstanding Revival of a Broadway or Off-Broadway Play
- Distinguished Performance Award – Tom Hollander and Seth Numrich
- Playbill, April 2018, p. 23.
- Schreiber, Pawel (2008). "Tom Stoppard's Travesties: the old man and history", in Friendly Metaphors: Essays on Linguistics, Literature and Culture in Honour of Aleksander Szwedek, edited by Ewa Wełnic and Jacek Fisiak. Peter Lang. p. 129. ISBN 978-3631579695. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- Stoppard's correspondence with Mrs. Carr is now in the Stoppard Archive at the Harry Ransom Center. "Summary of the Stoppard papers". University of Texas at Austin.
- Jessop, Rachel (28 October 2016). "Menier's Travesties transfers to the West End". Official London Theatre. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
- "Amy Morgan and Freddie Fox Join Tom Hollander in TRAVESTIES at Menier Chocolate Factory". Broadway World. 23 June 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- "Travesties: Cast & Creative". London Theatreland. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
- Marber, P (1 July 2016). "@AmyMogs @clarefossie @sarahquistmusic @forbesmasson @pdlmcd @timwallers #Freddie Fox #Tom Hollander See you in Zurich next month X". Twitter. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
- "Patrick Marber to direct Tom Hollander in Menier Chocolate Factory revival of Tom Stoppard's 'Travesties'". The Arts Shelf. 22 June 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
- "London Success 'Travesties' to Play Broadway". Variety. 16 August 2017. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
- "Tom Stoppard's 'Travesties' Will Return to Broadway". New York Times. 16 August 2017. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
- "'Upstage' guide to Travesties" (PDF). res.cloudinary.com.
- Brantley, B (24 April 2018). "Review: Screwball Eggheads Tear Up the Library in 'Travesties'". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
- "2019 Travesties | Bloomsday in Melbourne". Bloomsday Melbourne.
- "2018 Tony Award Nominations: SpongeBob SquarePants and Mean Girls Lead the Pack | Playbill". Playbill. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
- "Olivier Awards 2017: Winners in full". BBC News. 9 April 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
- "Shortlist for the 17th Annual WhatsOnStage Awards announced | WhatsOnStage". www.whatsonstage.com. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
- BWW News Desk. "Breaking: CAROUSEL, SPONGEBOB SQUAREPANTS Lead the Pack with Drama Desk Awards Nominations; The Full List!". BroadwayWorld.com. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
- "2018 Outer Critics Circle Nominations Announced". Retrieved 1 May 2018.
- "Drama League". dramaleague.org. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
- Berry, Michael (9 November 1997). "Travesties". Michael Berry's Web Pages. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 19 June 2008.
- Beckett, Sam (8 January 2007). "Travesties at Seattle Public Theater". Seattle Public Theater. Retrieved 19 June 2008.