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Written by Tom Stoppard
Characters James Joyce
Nadezhda Krupskaya
Tristan Tzara
Cecily Carruthers
Gwendolen Carr
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
Henry Carr
Date premiered 10 June 1974
Place premiered Aldwych Theatre
London, England
Original language English
Subject An extravaganza of political history, literary pastiche, and Wildean parody, introducing Dadaist Tristan Tzara and Lenin his wife
Genre Comedy
Setting Zürich, Switzerland, 1917

Travesties is a 1974 play by Tom Stoppard. The play centres on the figure of Henry Carr, an elderly man who reminisces about Zürich in 1917 during the First World War, and his interactions with James Joyce when he was writing Ulysses, Tristan Tzara during the rise of Dada, and Lenin leading up to the Russian Revolution, all of whom were living in Zürich at that time.


The play's setting is primarily Zürich, Switzerland during the First World War. Three important personalities were living in Zürich at that time: the modernist author James Joyce, the communist revolutionary Lenin, and the founder of Dada, Tristan Tzara. In the play the less notable English consular official Henry Carr, who is likewise a real person and was similarly in Zürich, recalls his perceptions and his experiences with these influential figures. As he reminisces Carr's memory becomes prone to distraction, and instead of predictable historical biography these characters are interpreted through the maze of his mind.

Carr's memories are couched in a Zürich production of Oscar Wilde's play The Importance of Being Earnest in which he had a starring role. Stoppard uses this production and Carr's mixed feelings surrounding it as a framework to explore art, the war and revolution. Situations from Earnest feature prominently within the action. The characters in Travesties also include versions of two characters from Earnest, Gwendolen and Cecily, and the comedic situations of many of the other roles are shared by other characters. Stoppard uses many theatrical devices within the play, including puns, limericks, and an extended parody of the vaudeville song "Mister Gallagher and Mister Shean".

The real Carr did play Algernon with a group of actors called The English Players, for whom the real James Joyce was the business manager. Carr and Joyce had an angry disagreement after the play, which led to legal action and accusations of slander by Joyce. The dispute was settled with the judge deciding in favour of both disputants on different counts. Joyce later parodied Carr, and the English Consul General in Zürich at that time, A. Percy Bennett, as two minor characters in Ulysses, with Carr being portrayed as a drunken, obscene soldier in the "Circe" episode.[1]

After the first performance of Travesties Stoppard received a letter from Henry Carr's widow, expressing her surprise that her late husband had been included as a character in Stoppard's play.[2]

Production history[edit]

Original production[edit]

Travesties was first produced at the Aldwych Theatre, London, on 10 June 1974, by the Royal Shakespeare Company. The production was directed by Peter Wood and designed by Carl Toms, with lighting by Robert Ornbo. It closed on 13 March 1976 after 156 performances at the Aldwych, the Albery Theatres in London and the Ethel Barrymore Theater in New York City.

Cast changes

1978 German TV film[edit]

A German version was directed for TV by Hans Lietzau, and de:Hans W. Reichel in 1978 with Martin Benrath, Nikolaus Paryla, and de:Klaus Guth.

1993 production[edit]

A revival of the play, with a revised text which abbreviated Cecily's lecture on Lenin in Act II by moving much of it to the interval, was given by the Royal Shakespeare Company at its theatre in the Barbican Arts Centre in September 1993, directed by Adrian Noble. The production was transferred to the Savoy Theatre in March 1994 and ran there until June 1994. A reading was given at the British Library in February 2008, featuring John Hurt.

2016-2017 production[edit]

A new revival, directed by Patrick Marber, was performed at the Menier Chocolate Factory from September until November 2016.[3] The production "broke box office records at the Menier Chocolate Factory, becoming the first play in the company’s history to sell out ahead of its first preview".[4] In February 2017 the play, and company, transferred to the Apollo Theatre in London, where the run continued until April 2017.[5]

The production's designer was Tim Hatley, the lighting designer Neil Austin, and Adam Cork was the sound designer and composer of original music.[9]

2018 production[edit]

Patrick Marber's revival will transfer to Broadway in 2018, with Tom Hollander reprising his role as Henry Carr. Travesties will open on 24 April 2018 (previews 29 March) at the Roundabout Theatre Company's American Airlines Theater in New York[10][11].

Awards and nominations[edit]



  1. ^ Schreiber, Pawel (2008). "Tom Stoppard's Travesties: the old man and history", in Friendly Metaphors: Essays on Linguistics, Literature and Culture in Honour of Aleksander Szwedek, edited by Ewa Wełnic and Jacek Fisiak. Peter Lang. p. 129. ISBN 3631579691. Retrieved 25 January 2015. 
  2. ^ Stoppard's correspondence with Mrs. Carr is now in the Stoppard Archive at the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas, Austin. See summary of the Stoppard papers at:
  3. ^ Bamigboye, B (17 June 2016). "BAZ BAMIGBOYE: It's Royal Spice! Dame Judi is back as Queen Victoria in new film about monarch's friendship with young Indian". After Le Carre, it's a Stoppard revival for Rev's Tom. Daily Mail. Retrieved 17 June 2016. 
  4. ^ Jessop, Rachel (28 October 2016). "Menier’s Travesties transfers to the West End". Official London Theatre. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 
  5. ^ Jessop, Rachel (28 October 2016). "Menier’s Travesties transfers to the West End". Official London Theatre. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 
  6. ^ "Amy Morgan and Freddie Fox Join Tom Hollander in TRAVESTIES at Menier Chocolate Factory". Broadway World. 23 June 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016. 
  7. ^ "Travesties: Cast & Creative". London Theatreland. Retrieved 4 July 2016. 
  8. ^ Marber, P (1 July 2016). "@AmyMogs @clarefossie @sarahquistmusic @forbesmasson @pdlmcd @timwallers #Freddie Fox #Tom Hollander See you in Zurich next month X". Twitter. Retrieved 4 July 2016. 
  9. ^ "Patrick Marber to direct Tom Hollander in Menier Chocolate Factory revival of Tom Stoppard’s ‘Travesties’". The Arts Shelf. 22 June 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2016. 
  10. ^ "London Success ‘Travesties’ to Play Broadway". Variety. 16 August 2017. Retrieved 2 September 2017. 
  11. ^ "Tom Stoppard’s ‘Travesties’ Will Return to Broadway". New York Times. 16 August 2017. Retrieved 2 September 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Stoppard, Tom (1974). Travesties (First ed.). London: Faber and Faber. OCLC 1331575. 

External links[edit]