Brazil (1985 film)
Theatrical release poster by Bill Garland
|Directed by||Terry Gilliam|
|Produced by||Arnon Milchan|
|Music by||Michael Kamen|
|Edited by||Julian Doyle|
|Distributed by||Warner Bros.|
20th Century Fox
(USA & Canada)
|Box office||$9.9 million (USA)[nb 1]|
Brazil is a 1985 dystopian satirical black comedy science fiction film directed by Terry Gilliam and written by Gilliam, Charles McKeown, and Tom Stoppard. The film stars Jonathan Pryce and features Robert De Niro, Kim Greist, Michael Palin, Katherine Helmond, Bob Hoskins, and Ian Holm.
The film centres on Sam Lowry, a low-ranking bureaucrat trying to find a woman who appears in his dreams while he is working in a mind-numbing job and living in a small apartment, set in a dystopian world in which there is an over-reliance on poorly maintained (and rather whimsical) machines. Brazil's satire of technocracy, bureaucracy, hyper-surveillance, corporatism and state capitalism is reminiscent of George Orwell's 1949 novel Nineteen Eighty-Four and has been called Kafkaesque and absurdist.
Sarah Street's British National Cinema (1997) describes the film as a "fantasy/satire on bureaucratic society", and John Scalzi's Rough Guide to Sci-Fi Movies (2005) describes it as a "dystopian satire". Jack Mathews, a film critic and the author of The Battle of Brazil (1987), described the film as "satirizing the bureaucratic, largely dysfunctional industrial world that had been driving Gilliam crazy all his life". Despite its title, the film is not about the country Brazil nor does it takes place there; it is named after the recurrent theme song, Ary Barroso's "Aquarela do Brasil", known simply as "Brazil" to British audiences, as performed by Geoff Muldaur.
Though a success in Europe, the film was unsuccessful in its initial North American release. It has since become a cult film. In 1999, the British Film Institute voted Brazil the 54th greatest British film of all time. In 2017, a poll of 150 actors, directors, writers, producers, and critics for Time Out magazine saw it ranked the 24th best British film ever.
In a dystopian, polluted, over-consumerist, hyper-bureaucratic totalitarian future somewhere in the 20th century, Sam Lowry is a low-level government employee who frequently daydreams of himself as a winged warrior saving a damsel in distress. One day shortly before Christmas a fly becomes jammed in a teleprinter, misprinting a copy of an arrest warrant it was receiving resulting in the arrest and accidental death during interrogation of cobbler Archibald Buttle instead of renegade heating engineer and suspected terrorist Archibald Tuttle.
Sam discovers the mistake when he discovers the wrong bank account had been debited for the arrest and visits Buttle's widow to give her the refund where he encounters the upstairs neighbour Jill Layton, and is astonished to discover that she resembles the woman from his dreams. Jill has been trying to help Mrs Buttle establish what happened to her husband, but her efforts have been obstructed by bureaucracy. Unbeknownst to her, she is now considered a terrorist accomplice of Tuttle for attempting to report the wrongful arrest of Buttle. Sam approaches Jill, but she avoids giving him full details, worried the government will track her down.
Sam reports a fault in his apartment's air conditioning. Central Services are uncooperative, but then Tuttle, who used to work for Central Services but left because of his dislike of the tedious and repetitive paperwork, unexpectedly comes to his assistance. Tuttle repairs Sam's air conditioning, but when two Central Services workers, Spoor and Dowser, arrive, Sam has to fob them off to let Tuttle escape. The workers later return to demolish Sam's ducts and seize his apartment under the pretence of fixing the system.
Sam discovers Jill's records have been classified and the only way to access them is to be promoted to Information Retrieval. He has previously turned down a promotion arranged by his mother, Ida, who is obsessed with the rejuvenating plastic surgery of cosmetic surgeon Dr Jaffe. Sam retracts his refusal by speaking with Deputy Minister Mr Helpmann at a party hosted by Ida. Having obtained Jill's records, Sam tracks her down before she can be arrested, then falsifies the records to indicate her death, allowing her to escape pursuit. The two share a romantic night together, but are apprehended by the government at gunpoint. Charged with treason for abusing his new position, Sam is restrained in a chair in a large, empty cylindrical room, to be tortured by his old friend, Jack Lint. Sam is told that Jill was killed while resisting arrest.
As Jack is about to start the torture, Tuttle and other members of the resistance break into the Ministry, shooting Jack, rescuing Sam, and blowing up the Ministry building. Sam and Tuttle flee together, but Tuttle disappears amid a mass of scraps of paperwork from the destroyed building. Sam stumbles into the funeral of Ida's friend, who has died following excessive cosmetic surgery. Sam discovers that his mother now resembles Jill, and is too busy being fawned over by young men to care about her son's plight. Guards disrupt the funeral, and Sam falls into the open casket and through a black void. He lands in a street from his daydreams, and tries to escape police and monsters by climbing a pile of flex-ducts. Opening a door, he passes through it and is surprised to find himself in a truck driven by Jill. The two leave the city together. However, this "happy ending" is a delusion: in reality, he is still strapped to the chair. It is implied that he has been lobotomised by Jack. Realising that Sam has descended into blissful insanity, Jack and Mr Helpmann declare him a lost cause and leave the room. Sam remains in the chair, smiling and humming "Aquarela do Brasil" to himself.
- Jonathan Pryce as Sam Lowry. Pryce has described the role as the highlight of his career, along with that of Lytton Strachey in Carrington. Tom Cruise was also considered for the role.
- Kim Greist as Jill Layton. Gilliam's first choice for the part was Ellen Barkin; also considered were Jamie Lee Curtis, Rebecca De Mornay, Rae Dawn Chong, Joanna Pacuła, Rosanna Arquette, Kelly McGillis, and Madonna. Gilliam was reportedly dissatisfied with Greist's performance, and chose to cut or edit some of her scenes as a result.
- Robert De Niro as Archibald "Harry" Tuttle. De Niro still wanted a part in the film after being denied that of Jack Lint, so Gilliam offered him the smaller role of Tuttle.
- Katherine Helmond as Mrs Ida Lowry. According to Helmond, Gilliam called her and said, "I have a part for you, and I want you to come over and do it, but you're not going to look very nice in it." The make-up was applied by Gilliam's wife, Maggie. During production, Helmond spent ten hours a day with a mask glued to her face; her scenes had to be postponed due to the blisters this caused.
- Ian Holm as Mr Kurtzmann, Sam's boss
- Bob Hoskins as Spoor, a government-employed heating engineer who resents Harry Tuttle
- Michael Palin as Jack Lint. Robert De Niro read the script and expressed interest in the role, but Gilliam had already promised the part to Palin, a friend and regular collaborator. Palin described the character as "someone who was everything that Jonathan Pryce's character wasn't: he's stable, he had a family, he was settled, comfortable, hard-working, charming, sociable – and utterly and totally unscrupulous. That was the way we felt we could bring out the evil in Jack Lint."
- Ian Richardson as Mr Warrenn, Sam's new boss at Information Retrieval
- Peter Vaughan as Mr Eugene Helpmann, the Deputy Minister of Information
- Jim Broadbent as Dr Louis Jaffe
- Brian Miller as Mr Archibald Buttle
- Sheila Reid as Mrs Veronica Buttle
- Simon Nash as Boy Buttle
- Barbara Hicks as Mrs Terrain
- Kathryn Pogson as Shirley Terrain
- Bryan Pringle as Spiro
- Derrick O'Connor as Dowser
- Elizabeth Spender as Alison "Barbara" Lint
- Derek Deadman and Nigel Planer as Bill and Charlie
- Charles McKeown as Lime
- Ray Cooper as Technician
- Gorden Kaye as the M.O.I. porter
- John Pierce Jones as Basement guard
- Ann Way as Old lady with dog
- Myrtle Devenish as Jack's secretary
- Simon Jones as Arrest official
- Bill Wallis as Bespectacled lurker
- Don Henderson as Black Maria guard
- Howard Lew Lewis as Black Maria guard
- Oscar Quitak as Interview official
- Harold Innocent as Interview official
- John Grillo as Interview official
- Patrick Connor as guard
- Roger Ashton-Griffiths as the Priest
- Jack Purvis as Dr Chapman
- Andre Gregory as Luke
- Sue Hodge as performer
- Co-writer Charles McKeown as Harvey Lime, Sam's co-worker.
- Director Terry Gilliam as the smoking man at Shang-ri La Towers.
Gilliam developed the story and wrote the first draft of the screenplay with Charles Alverson, who was paid for his work but was ultimately uncredited in the final film. For nearly 20 years, Gilliam denied that Alverson had made any material contribution to the script. When the first draft was published and original in-progress documents emerged from Alverson's files, however, Gilliam begrudgingly changed his story. This was too late for either credit on the film or a listing on the failed Oscar nomination for Alverson; he has said that he would not have minded the Oscar nomination, even though he didn't think much of the script or the finished film. Gilliam, McKeown, and Stoppard collaborated on further drafts. Brazil was developed under the titles The Ministry and 1984 ½, the latter a nod not only to Orwell's original Nineteen Eighty-Four but also to 8½ directed by Federico Fellini; Gilliam often cites Fellini as one of the defining influences on his visual style. During the film's production, other working titles floated about, including The Ministry of Torture, How I Learned to Live with the System—So Far, and So That's Why the Bourgeoisie Sucks, before settling with Brazil, relating to the name of its escapist signature tune.
In an interview with Salman Rushdie, Gilliam stated:
Brazil came specifically from the time, from the approaching of 1984. It was looming. In fact, the original title of Brazil was 1984 ½. Fellini was one of my great gods and it was 1984, so let’s put them together. Unfortunately, that bastard Michael Radford did a version of 1984 and he called it 1984, so I was blown.
Gilliam sometimes refers to this film as the second in his "Trilogy of Imagination" films, starting with Time Bandits (1981) and ending with The Adventures of Baron Munchausen (1988). All are about the "craziness of our awkwardly ordered society and the desire to escape it through whatever means possible." All three movies focus on these struggles and attempts to escape them through imagination—Time Bandits, through the eyes of a child, Brazil, through the eyes of a man in his thirties, and Munchausen, through the eyes of an elderly man. In 2013, Gilliam also called Brazil the first instalment of a dystopian satire trilogy it forms with 1995's 12 Monkeys and 2013's The Zero Theorem (though he later denied having said this).
Gilliam has stated that Brazil was inspired by George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four—which he has admitted never having read—but is written from a contemporary perspective rather than looking to the future as Orwell did. In Gilliam's words, his film was "the Nineteen Eighty-Four for 1984." Critics and analysts have pointed out many similarities and differences between the two, an example being that contrary to Winston Smith, Sam Lowry's spirit did not capitulate as he sank into complete catatonia. The film's ending bears a strong similarity to the short story "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge" by Ambrose Bierce. The tragicomic tone and philosophy of the film bear many resemblances to absurdist drama, a genre for which Brazil co-writer Tom Stoppard is widely acclaimed.
Michael Atkinson of The Village Voice wrote, "Gilliam understood that all futuristic films end up quaintly evoking the naïve past in which they were made, and turned the principle into a coherent comic aesthetic." In the second version of the script, Gilliam and Alverson described the film's setting like this: "It is neither future nor past, and yet a bit of each. It is neither East nor West, but could be Belgrade or Scunthorpe on a drizzly day in February. Or Cicero, Illinois, seen through the bottom of a beer bottle." In the 1988 documentary The Birth of Brazil, Gilliam said that he always explained the film as taking place "everywhere in the 20th century, whatever that means, on the Los Angeles/Belfast border, whatever that means". Pneumatic tubes are a frequent sight throughout the film.
The result is an anachronistic technology, "a view of what the 1980s might have looked like as viewed from the perspective of a 1940s filmmaker" which has been dubbed "retro-futurism" by fellow filmmakers Jean-Pierre Jeunet and Marc Caro. It is a mixture of styles and production designs derived from Fritz Lang's films (particularly Metropolis and M) or film noir pictures starring Humphrey Bogart: "On the other hand, Sam's reality has a '40s noir feel. Some sequences are shot to recall images of Humphrey Bogart on the hunt and one character (Harvey Lime) may be named as an homage to The Third Man's Harry Lime." A number of reviewers also saw a distinct influence of German Expressionism, as the 1920s seminal, more nightmarish, predecessor to 1940s film noir, in general in how Gilliam made use of lighting and set designs. A brief sequence towards the end, in which resistance fighters flee from government soldiers on the steps of the Ministry, pays homage to the Odessa Steps sequence in Sergei Eisenstein's Battleship Potemkin (1925). Strong references exist to the overcomplicated humoristic machinery of British illustrator W. Heath Robinson, published between 1915 and 1942. The grotesque sets were based on George Grosz's paintings of 1920s Berlin.
The lighting and set design was coupled with Gilliam's trademark obsession for very wide lenses and tilted camera angles; going unusually wide for an audience used to mainstream Hollywood productions, Gilliam made the film's wide-angle shots with 14mm (Zeiss), 11mm, and 9.8mm (Kinoptik) lenses, the latter being a recent technological innovation at the time as one of the first lenses of that short a focal length that did not fish-eye. In fact, over the years, the 14mm lens has become informally known as "The Gilliam" among filmmakers due to the director's frequent use of it since Brazil.
The numbering of form 27B/6, without which no work can be done by repairmen of the Department of Public Works, is an allusion to George Orwell's flat at 27B Canonbury Square, London (up six half-flights of stairs), where he lived while writing parts of Nineteen Eighty-Four.
Geoff Muldaur performed a version of Ary Barroso's most famous 1939 song "Aquarela do Brasil" ("Watercolor of Brazil", often simply called "Brazil" in English). The song is a musical ode to the Brazilian motherland. Geoff Muldaur uses the song as a leitmotif in the film, although other background music is also used. Michael Kamen's arrangement and orchestration of Barroso's song for Terry Gilliam's Brazil (1984) made it more pliable to late 20th century tastes to the extent that film trailer composers often use it in contexts that have little to do with Brazil and more to do with Gilliam's dystopian vision. Kamen, who scored the film, originally recorded "Brazil" with vocals by Kate Bush. This recording was not included in the actual film or the original soundtrack release; however, it has been subsequently released on re-pressings of the soundtrack. Gilliam recalls drawing the inspiration to use the song as follows:
This place was a métallurgie city, where everything was covered by a gray metallic dust... Even the beach was completely covered by dust, it was really dusky. The sun was going down and was very beautiful. The contrast was extraordinary. I had this image of a man sitting there in this sordid beach with a portable radio, tuned in those strange escapist Latin songs like Brazil. The music took him away somehow and made the world seem less blue to him.
Sylvia Albertazzi in her article "Salman Rushdie's 'The location of Brazil'. The Imaginary homelands of the Fantastic Literature", stresses even further the importance that the soundtrack had upon the movie's plot and meaning. She suggests "... the opening question 'where is Gilliam's Brazil?', may be answered, quite literally, 'in a song'; just as it is in a song that there is to be found that world where 'all fall down' in children's games".
Battle for final cut
The film was produced by Arnon Milchan's company Embassy International Pictures. Gilliam's original cut of the film is 142 minutes long and ends on a dark note. This version was released in Europe and internationally by 20th Century Fox without issue; however, US distribution was handled by Universal, whose executives felt the ending tested poorly. Universal chairman Sid Sheinberg insisted on a dramatic re-edit of the film to give it a happy ending, and suggested testing both versions to see which scored higher. At one point, there were two editing teams working on the film, one without Gilliam's knowledge. As with the science fiction film Blade Runner (1982), which had been released three years earlier, a version of Brazil was created by the studio with a more consumer-friendly ending.
After a lengthy delay with no sign of the film being released, Gilliam took out a full-page ad in the trade magazine Variety urging Sheinberg to release Brazil in its intended version. Sheinberg spoke publicly of his dispute with Gilliam in interviews and ran his own advertisement in Daily Variety offering to sell the film. Gilliam conducted private screenings of Brazil (without the studio's approval) for film schools and local critics. On the same night Universal's award contender Out of Africa premiered in New York, Brazil was awarded the Los Angeles Film Critics Association awards for "Best Picture", "Best Screenplay", and "Best Director". This prompted Universal to finally agree to release a modified 132-minute version supervised by Gilliam, in 1985.
On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a 98% rating based on 47 reviews with an average rating of 8.7/10. The site's critical consensus reads "Brazil, Terry Gilliam's visionary Orwellian fantasy, is an audacious dark comedy, filled with strange, imaginative visuals." On Metacritic, it has a score of 84 out of 100 based on 18 reviews, indicating "universal acclaim".
Los Angeles Times critic Kenneth Turan described the film as "the most potent piece of satiric political cinema since Dr. Strangelove". Janet Maslin of The New York Times was very positive towards the film upon its release, stating "Terry Gilliam's Brazil, a jaunty, wittily observed vision of an extremely bleak future, is a superb example of the power of comedy to underscore serious ideas, even solemn ones."
Roger Ebert was less enthusiastic in the Chicago Sun-Times, giving the film two out of four stars and claiming that it was "hard to follow". He felt the film lacked a confident grasp on its characters' roles in a story "awash in elaborate special effects, sensational sets, apocalyptic scenes of destruction and a general lack of discipline". Ebert wrote positively of certain scenes, especially one in which "Sam moves into half an office and finds himself engaged in a tug-of-war over his desk with the man through the wall. I was reminded of a Chaplin film, Modern Times, and reminded, too, that in Chaplin economy and simplicity were virtues, not the enemy."
In 2004, Total Film named Brazil the 20th-greatest British movie of all time. In 2005, Time film reviewers Richard Corliss and Richard Schickel included Brazil in an unordered list of the 100 best films of all time. In 2006, Channel 4 voted Brazil one of the "50 Films to See Before You Die", shortly before its broadcast on FilmFour. The film also ranks at number 83 in Empire magazine's list of the 500 Greatest Films of All Time.
Wired ranked Brazil number 5 in its list of the top 20 sci-fi movies. Entertainment Weekly listed Brazil as the sixth-best science-fiction piece of media released since 1982. The magazine also ranked the film No. 13 on their list of "The Top 50 Cult Films".
Brazil has been released four times by The Criterion Collection, as a five-disc LaserDisc box set in 1996, a three-disc DVD box set in 1999 and 2006, a single-disc DVD in 2006, and a two-disc Blu-ray set in 2012. The packaging for the 1999 and 2006 three-disc box sets is identical in appearance, but the latter release is compatible with widescreen televisions.
Except the single-disc version, all versions have the same special features: a 142-minute cut of the film (referred to by Gilliam as the "fifth and final cut"), Sheinberg's 94-minute "Love Conquers All" cut for syndicated television, and various galleries and featurettes.
Other films which have drawn inspiration from Brazil's cinematography, art design, and overall atmosphere include Jean-Pierre Jeunet's and Marc Caro's films Delicatessen (1991) and The City of Lost Children (1995), Rocky Morton and Annabel Jankel's Super Mario Bros. (1993), the Coen brothers' The Hudsucker Proxy (1994), and Alex Proyas' Dark City (1998).
"The original ending for Brazil was a massive inspiration for the original ending of The Descent – the idea that someone can go insane on the outside, but inside they've found happiness."
The highly technological aesthetics of Brazil inspired the set design of Max Cohen's apartment in the film Pi. Brazil also served as an inspiration for the film Sucker Punch (2011), and has been recognised as an inspiration for writers and artists of the steampunk subculture.
- BFI Top 100 British films
- List of films featuring surveillance
- List of films cut over the director's opposition
- This is USA only box office from the Universal release, and does not include the 20th Century Fox release in the rest of the world.
- McAuley, Paul (2004). Brazil. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1844577953.
- Pym, John (1985). "Brazil". Monthly Film Bulletin. British Film Institute. 52 (612): 107–108.
dist— 20th Century Fox. p.c.— Brazil Productions.
- Hunter, I.Q. (2002). British Science Fiction Cinema. Routledge. p. 182. ISBN 1134702779.
pc production company (distributors not given).
- Hunter, I.Q. (2002). British Science Fiction Cinema. Routledge. p. 206. ISBN 1134702779.
pc Brazil Productions.
- "Brazil". British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- "Brazil (1985)". London: British Film Institute. Archived from the original on 11 July 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- "BFI Screenonline: Brazil (1985)". Screenonline. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- "Brazil (1985)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- "Dystopia and Science Fiction: Blade Runner, Brazil and Beyond". Santa Barbara: University of California Press. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- Anders, Charlie Jane (19 October 2015). "50 Brilliant Science Fiction Movies That Everyone Should See At Least Once". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- Rogers, Richard A. (5 June 2009). "1984 to Brazil: From the Pessimism of Reality to the Hope of Dreams" (PDF). Text and Performance Quarterly. London, England: Taylor & Francis. 10 (1): 34–46. doi:10.1080/10462939009365953. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
- Bartz, Rob. Dystopia: A Look at Utopian Societies in Literature (Thesis). Fargo, North Dakota: North Dakota State University. Archived from the original (DOC) on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
- Podgorski, Daniel (7 January 2016). "1984 with a Sense of Humor: The Surreal, Wonderful, and Haunting Humor of Terry Gilliam's Absurdist Masterpiece, Brazil". The Gemsbok. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
- Puddicombe, Stephen (4 July 2017). "Brazil: five films that may have influenced Terry Gilliam's dystopian masterpiece". British Film Institute. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
- Matthews, Jack (1996). "Dreaming Brazil". Brazil (Media notes). Gilliam, Terry (director). Criterion Collection.
- Kinnear, Simon (8 March 2014). "Re-Viewed: Terry Gilliam's Prescient Sci-Fi Brazil". Digital Spy. London, England: Bauer Media Group. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
- Calhoun, Dave; Huddleston, Tom; Jenkins, David; Adams, Derek; Andrew, Geoff; Davies, Adam Lee; Fairclough, Paul; Hammond, Wally (17 February 2017). "The 100 best British films". Time Out. London: Time Out Group Ltd. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
- Rodgers, Richard A. (1990). "1984 to Brazil: From the Pessimism of Reality to the Hope of Dreams" (PDF). Text and Performance Quarterly. Abingdon, England: Taylor & Francis. 10 (10): 34–46. doi:10.1080/10462939009365953.
- Paddock, Terri (17 May 2004). "20 Questions With…Jonathan Pryce". whatsonstage.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- Kinnear, Simon (8 March 2014). "Re-Viewed: Terry Gilliam's prescient sci-fi Brazil". Digital Spy. London, England: Bauer Media Group. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
- "Brazil – The Facts". sciflicks.com. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- Gilliam, Terry (Director) (1985). "Audio commentary". Brazil. The Criterion Collection.
- "Katherine Helmond". Television Academy Foundation. The Interviews. 8 December 2010. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- Morgan, David. "Michel Palin on BRAZIL". wideanglecloseup.com. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- McCabe, Bob, ed. (2001). Brazil (The Evolution of the 54th Best British Film Ever Made). London, England: Orion Books Ltd. ISBN 0-7528-3792-3.
- Taylor, Rumsey (December 2003). "Terry Gilliam". Senses of Cinema. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- Dirks, Tim. "Brazil (1985)". AMC Filmsite.org.
- Morris, Wesley (30 April 1999). "Brazil: Paranoia with a dash of Python". San Francisco Examiner. San Francisco, California: Black Press Group.
- "Salman Rushdie talks with Terry Gilliam". The Believer. Las Vegas, Nevada: University of Nevada, Las Vegas. 1 (1). March 2003. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
- Pulver, Andrew (2 September 2013). "Terry Gilliam blames internet for the breakdown in 'real relationships'". The Guardian. London, England: guardian Media Group. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
Calling it the third part of a trilogy formed by earlier dystopian satires Brazil and 12 Monkeys, Gilliam says ...
- Suskind, Alex (17 September 2014). "Interview: Terry Gilliam On 'The Zero Theorem,' Avoiding Facebook, 'Don Quixote' And His Upcoming Autobiography". IndieWire. Los Angeles, California: Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
Well, it's funny, this trilogy was never something I ever said, but it's been repeated so often it's clearly true [laughs]. I don't know who started it but once it started it never stopped ...
- Redmond, Sean (2004). Liquid metal: the science fiction film reader. Wallflower Press. pp. 66–69. ISBN 1-903364-87-6.
- "When the Dead Dream: Films Inspired by 'An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge'". Cineleet. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- Atkinson, Michael (1 September 1998). "Bravo New Worlds". The Village Voice. New York City: Voice Media Group.
- Morgan, David (2012). "The Evolution of Brazil". www.criterion.com. The Criterion Collection.
- "Terry Gilliam and THE BIRTH OF BRAZIL (BBC, 1988)". Retrieved 2 May 2018.
- Matthew B. Gilmore (5 January 2020). "Pneumatic tubes: technological innovation and politics in Shepherd-era Washington DC". The InTowner.
- Berardinelli, James. "Brazil". reelviews.net.
- Kuttner, C. Jerry (Spring 1994). "Beyond the Golden Age: Film Noir Since the '50s". Bright Lights Film Journal. Oakland, California: Studio Hyperset, Inc. (12).
- Blair, Andrew (13 December 2011). "Looking back at Terry Gilliam's Brazil". Den of Geek. New York City: Dennis Publishing. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
- Sheehan, Henry (Fall 2006). "Welcome to Brazil". DGA Quarterly: Craft Journal of the Directors Guild of America. II (3). Retrieved 31 October 2009.
- Stubbs, Phil. "Terry Gilliam talks Tideland". dreams.
- Orwell, George; Orwell, Sonia; Angus, Ian (2000). The Collected Essays, Journalism, & Letters, George Orwell: As I please, 1943–1945. 3. David R. Godine. p. 400.
27b Canonbury Square, Islington, London N1, 18 August 1945 [as return address in correspondence]
- Jura, Jackie (14 July 2003). "Canonbury Photos". Orwell Today. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
- Goldschmitt, Kariann. "From Disney to Gilliam and beyond: orchestrating 'Brazil' for a U.S. audience". New College of Florida. S2CID 31598986. Cite journal requires
- Vugman, Fernando Simão. "From master narratives to simulacra: analysis of Orwell's 1984 and Terry Gillmam's Brazil". repositorio.ufsc.br. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
- Albertazzi, Silvia (16 December 2014). "Salman Rushdie's "The location of Brazil": the imaginary homelands of fantastic literature". Acta Neophilologica. 47 (1–2): 25–30. doi:10.4312/an.47.1-2.25-30. ISSN 2350-417X.
- Jack Mathews, The Battle of Brazil (1987), ISBN 0-517-56538-2.
- Haley, Guy (2014). Sci-Fi Chronicles: A Visual History of the Galaxy's Greatest Science Fiction. London: Aurum Press. p. 402. ISBN 978-1781313596.
- Carmentay, Rudolph (1989–1990). "Terry Gilliam's Brazil: A Film Director's Quest for Artistic Integrity in a Moral Rights Vacuum". Columbia-VLA Journal of Law & the Arts (vol .14): 91. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
- "Terry Gilliam's battle to release Brazil in US". BBC. 1 December 2011.
- Matthews, Jack (1987). The Battle of Brazil. ISBN 0-517-56538-2.
- "Brazil (1985)". rottentomatoes.com. Fandango Media. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
- "Brazil Reviews". metacritic.com. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
- Maslin, Janet (18 December 1985). "The Screen: 'Brazil', From Terry Gilliam". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 November 2010.
- Ebert, Roger (17 January 1986). "Brazil". Chicago Sun-Times.
- "The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time". Empire. Bauer Media Group. Archived from the original on 14 August 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- "The Wired Sci-Fi Top 20". Wired. 10 (6). June 2002.
- Wolk, Josh (7 May 2007). "The Sci-Fi 25: The Genre's Best Since 1982". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on 8 May 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2007.
- "The Top 50 Cult Films". Entertainment Weekly. 23 May 2003.
- "Brazil (1985)". NY Times. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
- "clivejames.com". Talking in the Library Series 3 - Terry Gilliam. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- "Brazil Blu-ray Announced". Blu-ray.com. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
- Ximena Gallardo C.; C. Jason Smith (2006). Alien Woman: The Making of Lt. Ellen Ripley. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-8264-1910-1.
- Ronald Bergan (2000). The Coen Brothers. New York City: Thunder's Mouth Press. pp. 148–162. ISBN 1-56025-254-5.
- Hicks, Adrienne. "DARK CITY (1998): Critical Review and Bibliography". Archived from the original on 19 March 2015.
- Dunne, Susan (23 February 2006). "Welcome To Dystopia At Trinity's Cinestudio". Hartford Courant.
- Kehr, Dave (23 June 1989). "Effects Make Batman A Stylized, Dark Adventure". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
- Jones, Alan (November 1989). "Batman in Production". Cinefantastique.
- Anders, Charlie Jane. "Neil Marshall Explains What He Learned From The Films Of Terry Gilliam". io9. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- Adams, Sam (23 July 1998). "Pi Brain". Philadelphia City Paper.
- Boucher, Geoff. "'Sucker Punch': Zack Snyder says 'big, crazy fairy tale' influenced by 'Brazil'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 17 January 2011.
- La Ferla, Ruth (8 May 2008). "Steampunk Moves Between 2 Worlds". The New York Times.
- Bebergal, Peter (26 August 2007). "The age of steampunk Nostalgia meets the future, joined carefully with brass screws". Boston Globe.
- Braiker, Brian (30 October 2007). "Steampunks Twist on Tech". Newsweek.
- Hatfield, Daemon. We Happy Few Gameplay Showcase - IGN Live: E3 2016. IGN. Retrieved 29 June 2016 – via YouTube.
- Davis, Ben (24 April 2016). "We Happy Few is a roller coaster of creepy vibes and eccentric humor". Destructoid. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- Bruce Krajewski, "Postmodernism, Allegory, and Hermeneutics in Brazil, in Traveling with Hermes: Hermeneutics and Rhetoric (1992), ISBN 0-87023-815-9.
- Jack Mathews, The Battle of Brazil (1987), ISBN 0-517-56538-2.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Brazil (1985 film)|
- Brazil on IMDb
- Brazil at the TCM Movie Database
- Brazil at AllMovie
- Brazil at Box Office Mojo
- Wide Angle Closeup: The Terry Gilliam Files – Interviews and production stories on Brazil
- Brazil Screenplay, Terry Gilliam, Tom Stoppard & Charles McKeown, Daily Script website
- DGA magazine interview with Gilliam
- Hamel, James Keith. Modernity and Mise-en-scene: Terry Gilliam and Brazil, from Images: Journal of Film and Popular Culture
- Brazil: A Great Place to Visit, Wouldn’t Want to Live There an essay by David Sterritt at the Criterion Collection