UEFA European Championship qualifying

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UEFA European Championship qualifying
UEFA Euro 2016 qualifying.png
Founded1958
RegionEurope (UEFA)
Number of teams55 (currently)
56 (overall)
Related competitionsUEFA European Championship
WebsiteOfficial website
UEFA Euro 2020 qualifying

This page is a summary of the UEFA European Championship qualifying, the process that UEFA-affiliated national association football teams go through in order to qualify for the UEFA European Championship.

Since 1960, European Championship final tournaments have been contested in June or July of every fourth year. The qualifying procedure for each final tournament has usually included qualifying matches held during the two years preceding that year (for example, the Euro 2016 qualifying spanned from September 2014 to November 2015). In this article, the years correspond to the final tournaments of the European Championship, and not to the actual dates when the qualification matches were played.

Format evolution[edit]

Number of teams entering qualification
France
1960
Spain
1964
Italy
1968
Belgium
1972
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
1976
Italy
1980
France
1984
West Germany
1988
Sweden
1992
England
1996
Belgium
Netherlands
2000
Portugal
2004
Austria
Switzerland
2008
Poland
Ukraine
2012
France
2016
Europe
2020
Germany
2024
total entrants[a] 17 29 31 32 32 31 32 32 34 47 49 50 50 51 53 55 54
played at least one match[a] 28 33
qualified through qualification 4 4 4 4 4 7 7 7 7 15 14 15 14 14 23 24 23
qualified automatically 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 0 1
total finalists 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 16 16 16 16 16 24 24 24
  1. ^ a b Data is about qualifications only (automatic qualifiers are not counted).

The 1960 and 1964 qualifications consisted of a knock-out tournament only. The four quarter-final-winning teams would qualify for the final stages, and one of them would be chosen to host the tournament.

The 1968, 1972, and 1976 qualifying tournaments included a group stage of eight groups. The eight group winners would advance to a quarter-final stage, which was still part of the qualifying. The four quarter-final winners would progress to the finals. Again, the host nation would be chosen among the four finalists.

From 1980 onwards, the hosting rights would be assigned in advance to one or two countries, and the host teams would be guaranteed an automatic spot in the finals and would not have to go through qualification. Also, the format was expanded to feature 8 teams. The 1980, 1984, 1988, and 1992 qualifications included seven qualifying groups, and the seven group winners would progress to the finals joining the host team.[Note 1992]

From 1996, the 16-team format was employed. The 1996 qualifying consisted of eight groups; the eight group winners and the six best runners-up would qualify directly, while the two worst runners-up would meet in a play-off to determine the last team to earn a spot in the finals, joining the host country.

In 2000, the winners of the nine qualifying groups would qualify for the finals, and so would the best runner-up. The remaining eight runners-up would enter a play-off round, where they would be paired off against each other; the winners of each pairing would qualify too. For the first time, there were two host countries; they both received automatic berths in the finals.

In 2004, along with the host team, the ten qualifying group winners would qualify, as would the winners of each of the five play-off ties which would be contested by the ten runners-up.

In 2008, the top two teams from each of the seven qualifying groups would join the two host teams to bring the number of finalists to 16.

The 2012 qualification used a format similar to that of 2000: spots would be given to nine group winners and the best runner-up, and the remaining eight runners-up would enter play-offs to determine the remaining four finalists, with automatic berths being guaranteed to the two host countries.

From 2016, the finals format was expanded again, now featuring 24 teams. The 2016 qualifying included nine groups; the winners, the runners-up, and the best third-placed team would qualify, while the remaining eight third-placed teams would form four play-off pairings to determine the last four finalists. The host nation would still qualify automatically.

For the 2020 finals, hosted by multiple cities across Europe, there would be no automatic qualifying berths. 20 of the 24 qualifying places would go to the winners and runners-up of the ten groups of the 2020 qualifying, while the remaining four would be determined via play-offs. Participation in those play-offs would be determined based on the teams' performances in the newly formed UEFA Nations League and not in the qualifying itself. From each of the four divisions of the 2018–19 Nations League, the four best-placed teams not yet qualified for Euro 2020 (the group winners, unless already qualified) would advance to a four-team play-off for that division using a knock-out system of semi-finals and a final. The four final winners would qualify for the Euro main tournament.

Participating teams[edit]

All national teams that are members of UEFA are eligible to enter the qualification for the European Championship. A total of 56 distinct entities have made attempts to qualify for the European Championship. Of those, 55 are still active in the competition. Due to political changes, a few of the entities have appeared under multiple incarnations (see the footnotes to the below table), and the East Germany team is now defunct.

Saarland, a former UEFA member, merged into West Germany in 1957 and therefore did not enter the qualifiers of any European Championships.

Year Debuting teams Successor teams Renamed teams
Teams No. CT
1960  Austria,  Bulgaria,  Czechoslovakia,[S 1]  Denmark,  East Germany,[P 1]  France,  Greece,  Hungary,  Norway,  Poland,  Portugal,  Republic of Ireland,  Romania,  Soviet Union,[S 2]  Spain,  Turkey,  Yugoslavia[S 3] 17 17
1964  Albania,  Belgium,  England,  Iceland,  Italy,  Luxembourg,  Malta,  Netherlands,  Northern Ireland,  Sweden,   Switzerland,  Wales 12 29
1968  Cyprus,  Finland,  Scotland,  West Germany[S 4] 4 33
1972 0 33
1976 0 33
1980 0 33
1984 0 33
1988 0 33
1992  Faroe Islands,  San Marino 2 35  Germany[S 4]
1996  Armenia,[P 2]  Azerbaijan,[P 2]  Belarus,[P 2]  Croatia,[P 3]  Estonia,[P 2]  Georgia,[P 2]  Israel,  Latvia,[P 2]  Liechtenstein,  Lithuania,[P 2]  Macedonia,[R 1][P 3]  Moldova,[P 2]  Slovakia,[P 4]  Slovenia,[P 3]  Ukraine[P 2] 15 50  Czech Republic,[S 1]  Russia[S 2]
2000  Andorra,  Bosnia and Herzegovina[P 3] 2 52  FR Yugoslavia[S 3][R 2]
2004 0 52  Serbia and Montenegro[R 2][S 3]
2008  Kazakhstan[P 2] 1 53  Serbia[S 3]
2012  Montenegro[P 3] 1 54
2016  Gibraltar 1 55
2020  Kosovo[P 3] 1 56  North Macedonia[R 1][P 3]
Successor teams inheriting the records of former teams (as considered by UEFA and FIFA)
  1. ^ a b Czechoslovakia dissolved into the Czech Republic and Slovakia and was succeeded by the Czech Republic from the 1996 qualification onwards.
  2. ^ a b After completing the 1992 qualification, the Soviet Union dissolved into multiple countries and was succeeded and replaced by the provisional Commonwealth of Independent States team for the 1992 finals, which in turn was succeeded by Russia from the 1996 qualification onwards.
  3. ^ a b c d SFR Yugoslavia broke up into multiple countries and was succeeded from the 2000 qualification by FR Yugoslavia, later renamed as Serbia and Montenegro. It entered the 2008 qualification, but, before playing any matches, split into the independent countries of Serbia and Montenegro and was succeeded and replaced by Serbia.
  4. ^ a b West Germany entered the 1992 qualification, but, before playing any matches, reunified with East Germany and was succeeded and replaced by the reunited nation of Germany.
Teams competing as parts of other teams
  1. ^ East Germany entered the 1992 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches, joined West Germany, and since then competes as part of the reunited nation of Germany.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, and Ukraine previously competed as parts of the Soviet Union (1960–1992). All of them except Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania also competed in the Euro 1992 finals as parts of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia (later renamed as North Macedonia), Montenegro, and Slovenia previously competed as parts of SFR Yugoslavia (1960–1992). Kosovo and Montenegro then competed as parts of FR Yugoslavia, later renamed as Serbia and Montenegro (2000–2004). Kosovo then competed as part of Serbia (2008), before unilaterally breaking off from it and eventually being admitted to UEFA.
  4. ^ Slovakia previously competed as part of Czechoslovakia (1960–1992).
Renamed teams
  1. ^ a b Macedonia was renamed as North Macedonia from the 2020 qualification onwards.
  2. ^ a b FR Yugoslavia was renamed as Serbia and Montenegro during the 2004 qualification.

Overview[edit]

Team 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 2016 2020 2024
 Albania DNE r16 3/3 4/4 DNE DNE 5/5 4/4 5/5 6/6 5/6 4/5 5/7 5/6 2/5 4/6
 Andorra 6/6 5/5 7/7 6/6 6/6 5/6
 Armenia 6/6 5/6 4/5 7/8 3/6 5/5 5/6
 Austria QF r16 3/4 2/4 3/4 2/5 3/5 3/4 4/5 4/6 3/5 3/5 Qhost 4/6 1/6 2/6
 Azerbaijan 6/6 5/6 5/5 8/8 5/6 5/6 5/5
 Belarus 4/6 5/5 5/5 4/7 4/6 4/6 4/5+p
 Belgium DNE pr 2/4 1/4+QW 1/4+QF 1/5 1/4 3/5 3/4 3/6 Qhost 3/5 5/8 3/6 1/6 1/6
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 3/6 4/5 4/7 2/6+p 3/6+p 4/6+p
 Bulgaria r16 r16 1/4+QF 2/4 3/4 4/5 3/4 2/5 4/5 2/6 4/5 1/5 3/7 5/5 4/6 4/5+p
 Croatia 1/6 3/5 2/5+p 1/7 2/6+p 2/6 1/5
 Cyprus DNE 4/4 4/4 4/4 4/4 5/5 5/5 5/5 5/6 4/5 4/5 6/7 5/5 5/6 4/6
 Czech Republic (1996—)
 Czechoslovakia (1960–1992)
QW pr 2/4 2/4 1/4+QW 1/4 3/5 2/4 2/5 1/6 1/6 1/5 1/7 2/5+p 1/6 2/5
 Denmark r16 QW 4/4 4/4 4/4 5/5 1/5 1/4 2/5
(inv)
2/6 2/5+p 1/5 4/7 1/5 3/5+p 2/5
 East Germany r16 r16 2/4 3/4 2/4 3/5 3/4 2/5 wdr
 England DNE pr 1/4+QW 1/4+QF 2/4 1/5 2/5 1/4 1/4 Qhost 2/5+p 1/5 3/7 1/5 1/6 1/5
 Estonia 6/6 5/6 4/5 6/7 2/6+p 4/6 5/5
 Faroe Islands 5/5 5/6 6/6 5/5 7/7 6/6 5/6 5/6
 Finland DNE DNE 4/4 4/4 4/4 3/4 4/4 4/4 4/5 4/6 3/5 4/5 4/8 4/6 4/6 2/6
 France QW QF 1/4+QF 3/4 3/4 2/4 Qhost 3/5 1/5 2/6 1/6 1/5 2/7 1/6 Qhost 1/6
 Georgia 3/6 6/6 5/5 6/7 5/6 5/6 4/5+p
 Germany (1992—)
 West Germany (1968–1988)
DNE DNE 2/3 1/4+QW 1/4+QW 1/4 1/5 Qhost 1/4 1/6 1/5 1/5 2/7 1/6 1/6 1/5 Qhost
 Gibraltar 6/6 5/5
 Greece r16 wdr 2/4 3/4 2/4 1/4 3/5 2/5 3/5 3/6 3/6 1/5 1/7 1/6 6/6 3/6
 Hungary r16 QW 1/4+QF 1/4+QW 2/4 2/4 4/5 3/5 4/5 4/5 4/6 4/5 6/7 3/6 3/6+p 4/5+p
 Iceland DNE pr DNE DNE 4/4 5/5 4/5 4/5 4/5 5/5 4/6 3/5 6/7 4/5 2/6 3/6+p
 Israel 5/6 2/5+p 3/5 4/7 3/6 4/6 5/6+p
 Italy DNE r16 1/4+QW 1/4+QF 3/4 Qhost 4/5 1/5 2/5 2/6 1/5 1/5 1/7 1/6 1/6 1/6
 Kazakhstan 6/8 6/6 5/6 5/6
 Kosovo 3/5+p
 Latvia 5/6 4/6 2/5+p 5/7 4/6 6/6 6/6
 Liechtenstein DNE DNE DNE DNE 6/6 6/6 5/5 7/7 5/5 5/6 6/6
 Lithuania 3/6 4/6 4/5 5/7 4/5 5/6 5/5
 Luxembourg DNE QF 4/4 4/4 4/4 4/4 5/5 5/5 4/4 5/6 5/5 5/5 7/7 6/6 5/6 4/5
 Malta pr DNE 4/4 4/4 4/4 5/5 5/5 5/5 6/6 5/5 5/5 7/7 6/6 6/6 6/6
 Moldova 4/6 5/5 4/5 5/7 5/6 6/6 6/6
 Montenegro 2/5+p 4/6 5/5
 Netherlands DNE r16 3/4 2/4 1/4+QW 1/5 2/5 1/5 1/5 2/6+p Qhost 2/5+p 2/7 1/6 4/6 2/5
 North Macedonia (2020—)
 Macedonia (1996–2016)
4/6 4/5 4/5 5/7 5/6 6/6 3/6+p
 Northern Ireland DNE r16 4/4 3/4 2/4 2/5 2/5 3/4 3/5 3/6 4/5 5/5 3/7 5/6 1/6 3/5+p
 Norway r16 pr 4/4 4/4 4/4 5/5 4/4 5/5 3/5 3/6 1/6 2/5+p 3/7 3/5 3/6+p 3/6+p
 Poland r16 pr 3/4 2/4 2/4 2/5 3/4 4/5 3/4 4/6 3/5 3/5 1/8 Qhost 2/6 1/6
 Portugal QF pr 2/4 2/4 3/4 3/5 1/4 3/5 2/5 1/6 2/6 Qhost 2/8 2/5+p 1/5 2/5
 Republic of Ireland pr QF 3/4 4/4 2/4 3/5 3/5 1/5 2/4 2/6+p 2/5+p 3/5 3/7 2/6+p 3/6+p 3/5+p
 Romania QF pr 2/4 1/4+QF 2/4 3/4 1/5 2/4 3/5 1/6 1/6 3/5 1/7 3/6 2/6 4/6+p
 Russia (1996—)
 Soviet Union (1960–1992)
QW QW 1/4+QW 1/4+QW 1/4+QF 4/4 2/4 1/5 1/5 1/6 3/6 2/5+p 2/7 1/6 2/6 2/6
 San Marino 5/5 6/6 5/5 5/5 7/7 6/6 6/6 6/6
 Scotland DNE DNE 2/4 3/4 3/4 4/5 4/4 4/5 1/5 2/6 2/6+p 2/5+p 3/7 3/5 4/6 3/6+p
 Serbia (2008—)
 Serbia and Montenegro (2004)
 FR Yugoslavia (2000–2004)
 Yugoslavia (1960–1992)
QW r16 1/3+QW 1/4+QF 1/4+QW 2/4 1/4 2/4 1/5
(dsq)
susp 1/5 3/5 3/8 3/6 4/5 3/5+p
 Slovakia 3/6 3/6 3/5 4/7 4/6 2/6 3/5+p
 Slovenia 5/6 2/6+p 2/5+p 6/7 4/6 3/6+p 4/6
 Spain QF QW 1/4+QF 2/4 1/4+QF 1/4 1/5 1/4 3/5 1/6 1/5 2/5+p 1/7 1/5 1/6 1/6
 Sweden DNE QF 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 2/5 2/5 Qhost 3/5 1/5 1/5 2/7 2/6 3/6+p 2/6
  Switzerland DNE pr 3/4 2/4 4/4 4/5 2/4 4/5 2/5 1/5 3/5 1/5 Qhost 3/5 2/6 1/5
 Turkey r16 pr 4/4 3/4 3/4 2/4 4/5 4/4 4/4 2/5 2/5+p 2/5+p 2/7 2/6+p 3/6 2/6
 Ukraine 4/6 2/6+p 3/5 4/7 Qhost 3/6+p 1/5
 Wales DNE pr 3/4 3/4 1/4+QF 3/4 2/4 3/4 2/4 5/6 4/5 2/5+p 5/7 4/5 2/6 2/5
Team 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 2016 2020 2024

Key

  • golden background = Team completed a successful qualifying campaign. Excludes automatic qualifiers; includes Yugoslavia in 1992; excludes Denmark in 1992[Note 1992]
  • red font colour = Team participated in the final tournament. Includes automatic qualifiers; includes Denmark in 1992; excludes Yugoslavia in 1992[Note 1992]
  • Qhost = Team qualified automatically as host
  • QW = Team qualified for the final tournament as quarter-finals winner
  • QF = Team was eliminated in the quarter-finals
  • r16 = Team was eliminated in the round of 16
  • pr = Team was eliminated in the preliminary round
  • X/Y = Team came Xth in a qualifying group of Y teams
  • X/Y+QW = Team came Xth in a qualifying group of Y teams and then qualified for the final tournament as winner of a subsequent quarter-final
  • X/Y+QF = Team came Xth in a qualifying group of Y teams and then was eliminated in a subsequent quarter-final
  • X/Y+p = Team came Xth in a qualifying group of Y teams and then entered a play-off round
  • dsq = Team qualified for the finals but was disqualified from participating there (Yugoslavia in 1992)[Note 1992]
  • inv = Team was invited to participate in the finals after having originally failed to qualify (Denmark in 1992)[Note 1992]
  • grey background = Team did not take part in qualifying
    • (no caption) = Association was not a UEFA member
    • DNE = Team did not enter despite association being a UEFA member
    • wdr = Team entered but withdrew before playing any matches
    • susp = Team was suspended from taking part in qualifying (Yugoslavia in 1996)[Note 1992]

Team records[edit]

Legend
Team has won the European Championship
Team has qualified for the main tournament
Team hasn't qualified for the main tournament
Team is defunct (and never qualified for the main tournament)

Up to and including the 2020 qualifying matches played in November 2019. Teams in bold continue their participation in the qualifying, in the play-offs.

Notes on the below table:

No.[n 1] Team Qualifying attempts[n 2] Appearances
in the finals[n 3]
Overall qualification record Points[n 4]
Total Successful[n 5] Pld W D L GF GA GD Total Avg
1  Spain 16 11 11 125 89 18 18 314 91 +223 285 2.280
2  Russia
 Soviet Union
16 12 12 130 81 29 20 268 94 +174 272 2.092
3  Czech Republic
 Czechoslovakia
16 10 10 124 81 21 22 251 102 +149 264 2.129
4  Italy 14 9 10 118 74 30 14 224 76 +148 252 2.136
5  Germany
 West Germany
13 12 13 106 76 20 10 267 68 +199 248 2.340
6  Netherlands 14 9 10 117 77 16 24 274 92 +182 247 2.111
7  England 14 9 10 108 73 24 11 258 64 +194 243 2.250
8  France 14 8 10 112 67 27 18 231 91 +140 228 2.036
9  Romania 16 5 5 125 63 37 25 225 116 +109 226 1.808
10  Portugal 15 7 8 115 66 26 23 216 107 +109 224 1.948
11  Sweden 14 6 7 114 61 26 27 197 111 +86 209 1.833
12  Belgium 14 5 6 114 59 26 29 210 115 +95 203 1.781
13  Serbia
 Serbia and Montenegro
 FR Yugoslavia
 Yugoslavia
15 6 5 112 59 27 26 203 126 +77 201 1.795
14  Denmark 16 8 9 123 57 30 36 208 145 +63 201 1.634
15  Republic of Ireland 16 3 3 129 53 40 36 190 141 +49 199 1.543
16  Scotland 14 2 2 120 57 26 37 182 138 +44 197 1.642
17  Hungary 16 3 3 129 56 26 47 205 172 +33 194 1.504
18  Greece 15 4 4 119 56 24 39 170 136 +34 192 1.613
19  Poland 15 3 4 110 52 28 30 182 115 +67 184 1.673
20  Turkey 16 5 5 120 51 29 40 152 152 0 182 1.517
21  Bulgaria 16 2 2 121 50 29 42 163 137 +26 179 1.479
22  Austria 15 2 3 109 51 17 41 202 155 +47 170 1.560
23  Norway 16 1 1 124 47 25 52 166 169 −3 166 1.339
24  Wales 15 2 2 112 45 23 44 135 139 −4 158 1.411
25  Northern Ireland 15 1 1 118 44 26 48 129 151 −22 158 1.339
26   Switzerland 14 4 5 100 44 24 32 172 122 +50 156 1.560
27  Croatia 7 6 6 70 45 16 9 135 46 +89 150 2.143
28  Finland 14 1 1 114 33 24 57 125 172 −47 123 1.079
29  Iceland 13 1 1 106 30 18 58 95 157 −62 108 1.019
30  Slovakia 7 1 1 68 32 11 25 107 88 +19 107 1.574
31  Ukraine 6 2 3 62 29 17 16 90 57 +33 104 1.677
32  Slovenia 7 1 1 76 29 16 31 99 91 +8 103 1.355
33  Israel 7 0 0 70 28 13 29 112 96 +16 97 1.386
34  Bosnia and Herzegovina 6 0 0 64 26 11 27 94 93 +1 89 1.391
35  Albania 13 1 1 101 20 23 58 88 173 −85 83 0.822
36  Latvia 7 1 1 72 21 13 38 70 116 −46 76 1.056
37  East Germany 8 0 0 46 20 12 14 76 57 +19 72 1.565
38  Cyprus 14 0 0 114 19 15 80 98 288 −190 72 0.632
39  Lithuania 7 0 0 66 20 9 37 55 108 −53 69 1.045
40  Georgia 7 0 0 68 18 10 40 70 100 −30 64 0.941
41  North Macedonia
 Macedonia
7 0 0 68 15 16 37 71 103 −32 61 0.897
42  Armenia 7 0 0 68 15 13 40 65 110 −45 58 0.853
43  Belarus 7 0 0 66 15 13 38 53 103 −50 58 0.879
44  Estonia 7 0 0 70 15 9 46 49 129 −80 54 0.771
45  Moldova 7 0 0 68 12 9 47 55 140 −85 45 0.662
46  Luxembourg 15 0 0 117 8 11 98 51 319 −268 35 0.299
47  Kazakhstan 4 0 0 44 7 8 29 37 80 −43 29 0.659
48  Azerbaijan 7 0 0 68 6 10 52 41 165 −124 28 0.412
49  Faroe Islands 8 0 0 78 7 6 65 44 212 −168 27 0.346
50  Montenegro 3 0 0 28 6 8 14 20 45 −25 26 0.929
51  Malta 14 0 0 112 4 14 94 52 315 −263 26 0.232
52  Liechtenstein 7 0 0 68 5 9 54 21 207 −186 24 0.353
53  Kosovo 1 0 0 8 3 2 3 13 16 −3 11 1.375
54  Andorra 6 0 0 60 1 1 58 14 169 −155 4 0.067
55  San Marino 8 0 0 76 0 1 75 8 340 −332 1 0.013
56  Gibraltar 2 0 0 18 0 0 18 5 87 −82 0 0.000

Footnotes

  1. ^ Teams are ranked by total points, then by goal difference, then by goals scored. Note that this column does not represent any official rankings.
  2. ^ Only qualifying campaigns are counted where the team played at least one match.
  3. ^ Including automatic qualifiers. Including teams that have qualified for Euro 2020.
  4. ^ The three points for a win system is used.
  5. ^ Including teams that have qualified for Euro 2020.

Notes[edit]

  1. Note 1992: Yugoslavia won their 1992 qualifying group and were due to compete at UEFA Euro 1992, but were banned from participating as the country was under international sanctions by the United Nations Security Council Resolution 757 because of the Yugoslav Wars.[2] The sanctions also resulted in the team being banned from entering the 1996 qualification. Denmark, who had originally failed to qualify for the 1992 finals finishing second in Yugoslavia's qualifying group, were invited to replace Yugoslavia in the finals. In the tables in this article, the 1992 qualifying campaign is treated as successful for Yugoslavia and unsuccessful for Denmark.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "European Championship 1968". RSSSF. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  2. ^ "United Nations Security Council Resolution 757 (Implementing Trade Embargo on Yugoslavia)". University of Minnesota Human Rights Center. Retrieved 27 July 2014.

External links[edit]

See also[edit]