United States Senate elections, 1876 and 1877

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United States Senate elections, 1876 and 1877
United States
1874 / 1875 ←
Dates vary by state
(And other dates for special elections)
→ 1878 / 1879

26 of the 76 seats in the United States Senate (with special elections)
39 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Republican Democratic
Seats before 45 30
Seats won 11 14
Seats after 39 35
Seat change Decrease 6 Increase 5
Seats up 17 9

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Anti-Monopoly Independent
Seats before 1 0
Seats won 0 1
Seats after 1 1
Seat change Steady Increase 1
Seats up 0 0

Majority Party before election

Republican

Elected Majority Party

Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1876 and 1877 had the Democratic Party gain five seats in the United States Senate, and coincided with Rutherford B. Hayes's narrow election as President. Republicans remained in the majority, however.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 45th Congress (1877–1879)

  • Majority Party: Republican (39)
  • Minority Party: Democratic (35)
  • Other Parties: Anti-Monopoly (1), Independent (1)
  • Total Seats: 76

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

After the November 15, 1876 elections in the new state of Colorado.

D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 D17 D18
D28
Retired
D27
Retired
D26
Unknown
D25
Ran
D24
Ran
D23
Ran
D22
Ran
D21 D20 D19
D29
Retired
D30
Retired
AM1 R45
Retired
R44
Retired
R43
Retired
R42
Retired
R41
Unknown
R40
Unknown
R39
Unknown
Majority →
R29
Ran
R30
Ran
R31
Ran
R32
Ran
R33
Ran
R34
Ran
R35
Ran
R36
Ran
R37
Ran
R38
Unknown
R28 R27 R26 R25 R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19
R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18
R8 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1

After the elections[edit]

D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 D17 D18
D28
Hold
D27
Hold
D26
Hold
D25
Re-elected
D24
Re-elected
D23
Re-elected
D22
Re-elected
D21 D20 D19
D29
Hold
D30
Hold
D31
Gain
D32
Gain
D33
Gain
D34
Gain
D35
Gain
I1
Gain
AM1 R39
Hold
Majority →
R29
Re-elected
R30
Re-elected
R31
Re-elected
R32
Re-elected
R33
Re-elected
R34
Hold
R35
Hold
R36
Hold
R37
Hold
R38
Hold
R28 R27 R26 R25 R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19
R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18
R8 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1
Key:
AM# Anti-Monopoly Party
D# Democratic
I# Independent
R# Republican

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 44th Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were seated during 1876 or in 1877 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Louisiana
(Class 3)
Vacant Senate had declined to seat rival claimants William L. McMillen and P. B. S. Pinchback.[1] Senator elected January 12, 1876.
Democratic gain.
James B. Eustis (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Connecticut
(Class 3)
James E. English Democratic 1875 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired when successor elected.
Winner elected May 17, 1876.
Democratic hold.
William Henry Barnum (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Colorado
(Class 2)
New state Colorado admitted to the Union August 1, 1876.
First senator elected November 15, 1876.
Republican gain.
Winner was also elected to the next term, see below.
Henry M. Teller (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Colorado
(Class 3)
New state Colorado admitted to the Union August 1, 1876.
First senator elected November 15, 1876.
Republican gain.
Jerome B. Chaffee (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee
(Class 1)
David M. Key Democratic 1875 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost special election.
Winner elected January 19, 1877.
Democratic hold.
James E. Bailey (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine
(Class 2)
James G. Blaine Republican 1876 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 17, 1877. James G. Blaine (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
West Virginia
(Class 1)
Samuel Price Democratic 1876 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost special election.
Winner elected January 26, 1877.
Democratic hold.
Frank Hereford (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 45th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1877; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama George Goldthwaite Democratic 1870 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1876.
Democratic hold.
John Tyler Morgan (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Arkansas Powell Clayton Republican 1870 Unknown if incumbent retired or ran for re-election.
Winner elected in 1876.
Democratic gain.
Augustus Garland (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Colorado Henry M. Teller Republican 1876 (New state) Incumbent re-elected in 1876 or 1877. Henry M. Teller (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware Eli M. Saulsbury Democratic 1870 Incumbent re-elected in 1876. Eli M. Saulsbury (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia Thomas M. Norwood Democratic 1871 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or ran for re-election.
Winner elected January 26, 1877.
Democratic hold.
Benjamin Harvey Hill
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Illinois John A. Logan Republican 1870 or 1871 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner's election year unknown.
Independent gain.
David Davis (Independent)
John A. Logan (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Iowa George G. Wright Republican 1870 Incumbent retired.
Winner's election year unknown.
Republican hold.
Samuel J. Kirkwood (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kansas James M. Harvey Republican 1874 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or ran for re-election.
Winner elected in 1877.
Republican hold.
Preston B. Plumb (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky John W. Stevenson Democratic 1871 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1876.
Democratic hold.
James B. Beck (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Louisiana Joseph R. West Republican 1870 or 1871 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1876.
Republican hold.
William P. Kellogg (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine James G. Blaine Republican 1876 (Appointed)
1877 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1877. James G. Blaine (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts George S. Boutwell Republican 1873 (Special) Incumbent lost renomination.
Winner elected in 1877.
Republican hold.
George Frisbie Hoar (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Michigan Thomas W. Ferry Republican 1871 Incumbent re-elected in 1877. Thomas W. Ferry (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Minnesota William Windom Republican 1870 (Appointed)
1871
Incumbent re-elected in 1877. William Windom (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi James L. Alcorn Republican 1870 Unknown if incumbent retired or ran for re-election.
Winner elected in 1876.
Democratic gain.
Lucius Q.C. Lamar II (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Nebraska Phineas Hitchcock Republican 1870 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1877.
Republican hold.
Alvin Saunders (Republican)
Phineas Hitchcock (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire Aaron H. Cragin Republican 1864
1870
Unknown if incumbent retired or ran for re-election.
Winner elected in 1876.
Republican hold.
Edward H. Rollins (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey Frederick T. Frelinghuysen Republican 1870 or 1871 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1877.
Democratic gain.
John R. McPherson (Democratic)
Frederick T. Frelinghuysen (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina Matt W. Ransom Democratic 1872 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1876. Matt W. Ransom (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Oregon James K. Kelly Democratic 1870 Incumbent retired.
Winner's election year unknown.
Democratic hold.
La Fayette Grover (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Rhode Island Henry B. Anthony Republican 1858
1864
1870
Incumbent re-elected in 1876. Henry B. Anthony (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina Thomas J. Robertson Republican 1868 (Special)
1870
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1876.
Democratic gain.
Matthew Butler (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee Henry Cooper Democratic 1870 or 1871 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1877.
Democratic hold.
Isham G. Harris (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Texas Morgan C. Hamilton Republican 1870 (Special)
1871
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1876.
Democratic gain.
Richard Coke (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia John W. Johnston Democratic 1870 (Special)
1871
Incumbent re-elected in 1877. John W. Johnston (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
West Virginia Henry G. Davis Democratic 1871 Incumbent re-elected in 1877. Henry G. Davis (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Elections during the 45th Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were elected in 1877 after March 4.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Pennsylvania
(Class 3)
Simon Cameron Republican 1857
1861 (Resigned)
1867
1873
Incumbent resigned March 12, 1877.
Successor elected March 20, 1877.
Republican hold.
J. Donald Cameron (Republican)
Andrew H. Dill (Democratic)
Hiester Clymer (Democratic)
Andrew G. Curtin (Democratic)
John Jackson (Democratic)
Ohio
(Class 3)
John Sherman Republican 1861 (Special)
1866
1872
Incumbent resigned March 8, 1877 to become U.S. Secretary of the Treasury.
Winner elected March 21, 1877.
Republican hold.
Stanley Matthews (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Complete list of elections[edit]

Pennsylvania (special)[edit]

The special election in Pennsylvania was held March 20, 1877.

Republican Senator Simon Cameron had been elected to the United States Senate by the Pennsylvania General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, in 1867 and was re-elected in 1873. Sen. Cameron resigned on March 12, 1877.[2]

Following the resignation of Simon Cameron, the Pennsylvania General Assembly convened on March 20, 1877, to elect a new Senator to fill the vacancy. Former United States Secretary of War J. Donald Cameron, Simon Cameron's son, was elected to complete his father's term, set to expire on March 4, 1879.[3] The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

Pennsylvania Results[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican J. Donald Cameron 147 58.57
Democratic Andrew H. Dill 92 36.65
Democratic Hiester Clymer 1 0.40
Democratic Andrew G. Curtin 1 0.40
Democratic John Jackson 1 0.40
N/A Not voting 9 3.59
Totals 251 100.00%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Taft, George S. (1885). Compilation of Senate Election Cases from 1789 to 1885 - Pages 483 - 512. U.S. Government Publishing Office. 
  2. ^ "CAMERON, Simon, (1799 - 1889)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  3. ^ "CAMERON, James Donald, (1833 - 1918)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  4. ^ "U.S. Senate Election - 20 March 1877" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 22, 2013.