V. C. Samuel

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V.C. Samuel
Father V.C. Samuel.jpg
Personal details
Born (1912-04-06)6 April 1912
Omalloor, Pathanamthitta, Kerala
Died 18 November 1998(1998-11-18) (aged 86)
Bangalore, Karnataka
Nationality Indian
Religion Indian Orthodox Church

Father V.C. Samuel (Vilakuvelil Cherian Samuel) Great Servant of Lord (1912–1998), called Samuel Achen[1] was an Indian Christian philosopher, theologian, historian and ecumenical leader. He was a scholar, a university professor and a priest of the Indian Orthodox Church.[2] He was the author of many doctrinal books and papers including The Council of Chalcedon Re-Examined: Historical Theological Survey.[3][4]

Early life[edit]

Samuel was born 6 April 1912, at Edayil House - Cheekanal in the village of Omallur, in the British Raj Province of Travancore, now Pathanamthitta, Kerala State, India. He was born in an Orthodox Syrian Christian family. He was the fifth child of nine children of his parents E.I. Cherian and Annamma. His father E.I. Cherian was a school teacher and educationist and a Member of the Legislative Assembly.[5]

Samuel's growth in religious scholarship was due to in part to the atmosphere of religious devotion and Christian commitment of his family.

Education[edit]

Samuel had his primary education in a school founded by his father in his village and the Government English Middle School, Pathanamthitta. Samuel obtained his secondary education at St. Thomas English High School, Kozhencherry. He received his English School Leaving Certificate (E.S.L.C) in 1931 with distinction.

Seminary teacher and scholar[edit]

In addition to his general education, Samuel learned the Syriac language, which was the ecclesiastical and liturgical language of the St. Thomas Christians of Kerala.

Patriarch Mar Ignatius Elias III of Antioch visited India in 1932. Samuel had a sincere longing for the success of the patriarchal mission and was deeply moved when the spiritual head of the Syrian Orthodox Church died at St. Ignatius Church, Manjanikkara, in the neighbourhood of his home in 1932. The place where the Patriarch had died soon grew in stature as a centre of religious activities, including the teaching of Syriac and Antiochene Syrian ecclesiastical doctrine. Samuel pursued further Syriac studies at Manjanikkara Dayara (monastery). He had been attracted there by the presence of the Syrian Metropolitan Elias Mar Julius, the delegate of the Patriarch, and the Syrian Deacon and Rabban 'Abdel Ahad (monk), (who later become Patriarch Mor Ignatius Ya`qub III). At the time, he had no plans to be ordained. He merely wanted to continue his theological research.

He did so well academically that in few years he completed his studies. He began to share teaching duties with a colleague, Malpan Dn. Abdul Ahad Remban. He also served as the secretary and translator for the Metropolitan who knew only Arabic and Syriac.

Samuel continued his private study of both languages. He maintained his command of English by reading books on church history, theology, and biblical and devotional subjects. Besides the above and ecclesiastical subjects, he mastered Syriac and planned for advanced study and research in secular universities.[clarification needed]

In 1944, he joined the Union Christian College as a priest, thirteen years after he had completed his high school studies, to follow a regular university programme of academic discipline and devoted in study and research for another sixteen years.

Samuel spent long periods of research in various academic centres: Serampore College, West Bengal; United Theological College, Bangalore; Ramakrishna Ashram, Calcutta; CNI Library, Kottayam and Syriac Library of Pampakkuda all in India; Addis Ababa Library - Ethiopia; Bodleian Library, Oxford; British Museum Library, London; Library of the Ecumenical Institute, Bossey; Library of the Jesuit College, Louvain; and the Vatican Library, Rome.[6]

Doctoral research: Christological controversy[edit]

With a background in secular education, Samuel researched anew the History of Christian thought, which he chose for his specialisation; the classical doctrine of the Person of Christ worked out in the fifth century, which led to the first division in the Church that continues today. Samuel's mastery of philosophy, and both Syriac and Greek, made it possible for him to work with ancient texts and documents to carry on this Alexandrine-Antiochene Christologies very effectively.

In choosing this area, Samuel's purpose was ecumenism. The fifth century division in the Church has been interpreted by Church traditions, each in its own way to make out that its acceptance or rejection of the councils in question was the result of a concern to conserve the Christian truth exclusively and the others were really at fault. Samuel's sense of objectivity and impartiality led him to feel that this reading must be as much one-sided as it was superficial, and that he should himself study the issues involved in the controversy. Thus his purpose was, in the first place, to find out him why the division arose, insofar as that was possible. Secondly, perhaps more importantly, to clarify all concerned why the Churches exist in a divide state. In other words, his work was intended to be of service to the Churches and the cause of Christian unity. From this point of view, Samuel had a special concern for the Churches of the East, particularly those of the Oriental Orthodox family, which have continued in the history without formally acknowledging the Council of Chalcedon on 451 A.D. These Church traditions have been referred to as "monophysite" heretical community by the Byzantine or the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Roman Catholic Church and the major Protestant Churches. In the face of this label of "heresy", Samuel felt interested in bringing out the real point of the division following the Council of 451 and the teaching of the fathers who opposed it. Samuel attempted to rescue Oriental Orthodoxy from centuries of intellectual oblivion. The doctoral thesis, "The Council of Chalcedon Re-examined: A Historical and Theological Survey" were published worldwide along with several papers. This stand represented the Oriental Orthodox perspective.

Post-doctoral research scholar[edit]

Samuel was a pioneer in these studies. He promoted the concept that the Church in India should be Indian. Out of this concern, he had deep interest in comparing at the roots of the historic faith with the religious heritage of Hinduism. Secondly, he realised that the claim of Apostolic origin and the identity as Syrian Christians of India, does not tally with its present standing either as part of the Roman Catholic Church or that of Antiochene Syrian Church. However, from the point of view both these sections of the Indian Christianity could envisualise a common future. Over the years, he promoted the history of the Indian Church and its foreign connections. He took the opportunity to compare them with other ancient Churches, particularly those of the East.

Samuel's concentration on the nuances of the classical doctrine of the person of Jesus Christ during his postgraduate studies did not leave him free to continue his studies in Hinduism. However, on completing his doctorate at Yale, an opportunity developed. Dr. P.D. Devanandan was establishing the Christian Institute for the Study of Religion and Society in Bangalore. Feeling that an association with the institute might enable him to combine the two plans, he joined it in 1957 under an appointment for the post-doctoral research programme sponsored by the University of Chicago. He was awarded the Rockefeller Fellowship for a period of three years. This included research for two years in India and one year in Chicago. Besides Indian Philosophy, Sankaracharya's Advaita, Ramanujacharya's Visishtadvaita and Madvacharya's Davita, that opportunity helped him to acquire first-hand knowledge of the Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda and working of the Ramakrishna Mission as well as of several others in contemporary Indian movements like Mahatma Gandhi's gramaswaraj and Vinoba Bhave's Bhoodan movement.[7]

Polyglot[edit]

Samuel was familiar with fifteen languages and a scholar in six: Malayalam, English, Syriac, Greek, Hebrew and Sanskrit.[8][citation needed]

Career[edit]

Teaching[edit]

In addition to the above, Samuel served as a Professor, guide and examiner in almost all the Seminaries and Theological Colleges in India, and many abroad.

Ecumenical movement[edit]

Samuel's presence and contribution in the ecumenical movement in the international arena for three decades. He was an accredited delegate of the Indian Orthodox Church at four of the General Assemblies of the World Council of Churches:

  • 1954 - Evanston, United States.
  • 1961 - New Delhi, India
  • 1968 - Uppsala, Sweden, and
  • 1976 – Nairobi, Kenya.

Faith and Order Commission[edit]

The New Delhi World Assembly of World Council of Churches. 1961 voted him as a member of the Council's Faith and Order Commission. He held that position until 1984. The fourth general assembly of the WCC at Uppsala in 1968, elected him as a member of the Commission's Working Committee and later in its Steering Committee. His active participation in the meetings of Faith and Order Commission was very significant and giving expressions for the important of Church unity. His paper in the Faith and Order meeting at Accra 1974 on the subject "How can the Unity of the Church be Achieved" he points to the influence of "different intellectual and cultural backgrounds" in the evolution the different church traditions, awareness of which should help relativise these traditions.[9] He was a participant of seven meetings of the Commission.

Joint commissions[edit]

Samuel took a part in a number of study projects and joint commissions of the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Protestant Churches. The papers presented took an interest in discussing the issues from an Oriental Orthodox perspective. The papers were published under the auspices of the World Council of Churches:

Dialogue between Eastern and Oriental Orthodox theologians[edit]

The period of Samuel's association with the Faith and Order Commission of World Council of Churches coincided with two progresses[clarification needed] where he made a valuable and lasting contribution. Those were "Unofficial Consultation of Theologians of the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Churches" held in Arhus-1964, Bristol-1967, Geneva-1970 and Addis Ababa-1971. Samuel presented papers at all of them and helped the participants in arriving at the conclusion that the difference in Christological Doctrine between the two families of Churches was only verbal and not substantial.[citation needed] These papers and joint agreed statements have been published in different journals.[10][11]

Dialogue between Roman Catholic and Oriental Orthodox theologians[edit]

The second was a series of four consultations organised by the Pro Oriente Foundation of Vienna, Austria in 1972. These were called "Unofficial Consultations of Theologians of the Roman Catholic and Oriental Orthodox Churches". Samuel participated in them as an Orthodox theologian, presenting papers that were published under the auspices of the Pro Oriente Foundation. The first three of the consultations discussed the doctrine of the Person of Jesus Christ, on which there was agreement among participants that the difference between two Church traditions was not substantial.[12][13][citation needed]

Starting in 1964, Samuel took part in almost all the various meetings of the Unofficial Consultation of Theologians of Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches presenting papers, participated in the discussions, and drafting out for the agreed statements. He has served as a member of a group called together by the Faith and Order Commission of the World Council of Churches for a study, first of the Councils of early Church, and later of the Council of Chalcedon. The papers presented were published in the Greek Orthodox Theological Review, Brookline, Massachusetts, United States, Wort und Worhiet, Pro Oriente, Vienna, Ecumenical Review, World Council of Churches, Geneva and Abba Salama, Addis Ababa. Thus, Samuel's lifelong search for truth and the meticulous outcome helped to pave the way for a closer understanding, better relationship between the Chalcedonian and Non Chalcedonian Christendom, after a period of fifteen centuries of split and schism.[14]

Ethiopian life[edit]

The Church of Ethiopia and Haile Selassie I University (since renamed Addis Ababa University) persuaded him to return to Ethiopia. The college appointed him Dean of the Theological College of the Holy Trinity in 1969, a position that he held until he left Ethiopia in July 1976. He also served as the Secretary of the Faculty Council of the University.

The Great Conference of Oriental Orthodox Churches[edit]

Samuel helped organise the Conference of the Oriental Orthodox Churches with the initiative of both the Emperor Haile Selassie I and the acting Patriarch of Ethiopia, Abune Theophilus (later Patriarch). The conference brought together the five Oriental Orthodox Churches, Coptic, Syriac, Armenian, Ethiopian and Indian, which were isolated after the fifth century.

He was a member of the local committee and General Coordinator, responsible for the preparatory work of the Addis Ababa Conference of the Heads of Oriental Orthodox Churches, which held in January 1965. He was also one of the delegates in the Conference along with the Catholicos Baselios Augen I and others representing Indian Orthodox Church. He edited the report of the Conference and published it by the interim committee.[15][16]

Association of Ethio-Hellenic Studies[edit]

Samuel entered into a programme initiated by Methodios Fouyas, the Metropolitan of the Greek Orthodox Church of Aksum, founding the Association of Ethio-Hellenic Studies.[clarification needed] Samuel was the Vice-President of it, and Editorial Board of the publications 'Abba Salama' and the 'Ecliastca Fharan', in English, Greek, Amharic and Ge'ez languages.[17]

Ecumenism in the Indian context[edit]

Samuel played a major role in persuading the Indian Orthodox Church to abandon its old policy of isolation from other church traditions in India, and to join the Kerala Christian Council, the National Council of Churches, and the joint commission of Catholic and Orthodox Churches.[18]

Ministry in the Indian (Malankara) Orthodox Church[edit]

Ordained at the age of twenty-five Samuel continued his ministry in the Indian Orthodox Church for a period of six decades:

  • 1931–1932 Inspector, Sunday School.
  • 1932–1940 Secretary and Translator of Elias Mar Julius, Delegate Bishop of the Patriarch
  • 1935 Ordained as a Deacon.
  • 1935 Ordained as a Priest
  • 1935 - 1940 Priest and Malpan, Manjanikkara Dayara
  • 1940–1944 Vicar and Malpan, St. Thomas Syrian Orthodox Church Chengalam, Kottayam, Kerala
  • 1944–1948 Alwaye, Kerala, India
  • 1944–1998 Member, Governing Board of the Christu Shishya Ashram, Thadakom, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
  • 1948–1950 Service in Thambaram and Madras City
  • 1950–1953 First full-time Vicar, Holy Trinity Church, Bangalore. Started a new congregation in Jalahally
  • 1957–1959 Spiritual service in Bangalore and Jalahally (Founding father).
  • 1960–1963 Barakpore, across the River Hoogly, Calcutta.
  • 1963–1966 Indian Orthodox Congregations, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  • 1966–1968 Intermittent Service in Holy Trinity, Bangalore and St. Mary's Jalahally. President, St. Greegorios Cathedral Building Committee.
  • 1968 Ambassador of the Indian Orthodox Church to Ethiopia.
  • 1968–1976 Vicar, Addis Ababa.
  • 1970 Inauguration of the Parsonage of the St. Greegorios Cathedral in Bangalore
  • 1972 Consecration of the St. Greegorios Cathedral, Bangalore. Conducted the first Sunday Holy Qurbana in the Cathedral.
  • 1976–1982 Formation of the St. Thomas Orthodox Church, Bangalore East. (Founding father)
  • 1980–1998 Formation of St. Stephen's Orthodox Church, Vijayanagar, Bangalore. (Founding father)

Association[edit]

  • Founder Chief Advisor, Church Weekly, Alwaye, India
  • Chief Advisor and Lifelong Governing Board member; Christu Sishya Ashram, Tadagom, Coimbatore, India
  • Hindu Christian Dialogue, CISRS, Bangalore.
  • Editor, Indian Journal of Theology, Calcutta.
  • Secretary and Editor, Theological Forum, Bangalore.
  • Founder Vice-President and Editor, Ethio Hellenic Association, Addis Ababa.
  • Editor Abba Salama.
  • Editor Ecclisiastica Faran.
  • Patron, Indian Community School, Addis Ababa.
  • President, St. Gregorios Cathedral Building Committee, Bangalore.
  • WCC Delegate, Christian Muslim Dialogue.
  • Advisor, All Africa Christian Conference.
  • Member and Chief Advisor, Church History Association of India, Bangalore.
  • Editorial board member, History of Christianity in India, Bangalore.
  • Editorial Executive Member, Bible Commentary, CSS, Thiruvalla.
  • Editorial Executive Encyclopedia of Indian Orthodox Church.
  • Editorial Board Ethiopian Orthodox Church Publications .
  • Governing board member, Orthodox Theological College, Kottayam.
  • Resource Person, Thiruvachanabhashyam, Kottayam.
  • Resource Person Divyabodhanam, Kottayam.
  • Editorial board member, Malankara Sabha, Kottayam.
  • Editorial board member, Purohithan.
  • Editorial board member, Malankara Sabha.
  • Member Joint International Commission: Catholic Church and Malankara Orthodox Church.
  • Chief Editor, Harp, Kottayam.
  • Chief Advisor, St. Ephrem Ecumenical Research Institute, Kottayam.
  • President, Fifty Golden Years Celebrations Committee, Bangalore.

Ambassador of the Indian Church[edit]

The Church planned to consecrate him as a Bishop of the Church in the early 1950s.[citation needed] He declined this honour in favour of pursuing ecumenism through academia.

In 1968, the Catholicose Baselius Ougen I, the Head of the Malankara Orthodox Church appointed him as the Ambassador to Ethiopia[clarification needed] and other African Countries.[19][clarification needed]

Doctor of the Church[edit]

In 1991, Professor Samuel Chandanappally[20] published "Malankara Sabha Pithakkanmar" (Fathers of the Malankara Church). The book listed Samuel as the greatest Doctor of the Indian Church.[21][citation needed]

Death[edit]

He died in the early morning of Wednesday 18, November 1998 at his residence in Bangalore. Funeral service was conducted on 20th Friday at St. Gregorios Cathedral where he had served. Bishops Philipose Mar Eusebius and Mathews Mar Severus, his former students, led the service assisted by hundreds of Priests. Baselios Mar Thoma Mathews II, who was unable to attend due to hospitalization, flew directly to Bangalore after his discharge from the hospital on 22nd morning and conducted Thanksgiving Holy Qurbana at the Cathedral, and delivered a memorial.

Bibliography[edit]

Samuel published in India and abroad. A list of most titles, with publisher and date of publication, is given below. His writings are listed under three headings.

  1. Articles, papers, book reviews etc., in popular newspapers like Malayala Manorama, Deepika, Weeklies, Church Papers and Religious journals. Some of them deal with the issues in a learned way and some in a more popular manner.
  2. Lengthy papers dealing with theology, Christology, Church history, ecclesiology, canon, ecumenism, Hinduism, Philosophy of Vivekananda, and Ramakrishna Mission and other contemporary subjects, were published, by WCC, Geneva, Greek Orthodox Theological Review, Athens, Wort and Worhiet, Vienna, Abba Salama, Addis Ababa, Indian Journal of Theology, Religion and Society, Star of the East, etc.[22]
  3. Books: From 1959 to 1995, Samuel published twenty-five books. He has also written the History of Christianity, in Kerala section in volume IV of the History of Christianity in India for the Church History Association of India. His autobiographical piece 'Ente Chinthavikasanam' (Evolution of My Thinking) 1957 and the 'Swanubhavavediyil, (My Life Experience) which was published at the age of 85.

Books in English[edit]

  • Marriage and Celibacy; Addis Ababa, 1972
  • Ramakrishna Movement: The World Mission of Hinduism; Christian Institute for the Study of Religion and Society (CISRS), Bangalore, India, 1959
  • The Oriental Orthodox Churches Addis Ababa Conference January 1965; Ed. For the Interim Committee, m Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 1965.[23]
  • Christianity and Indigenization; Addis Ababa, 1976
  • The Council of Chalcedon Re-Examined: A Historical Theological Survey; Indian Theological library, No.8, Christian Literature Society (C.L.S), Madras, India, 1977.British Orthodox Press, London, UK, 2003.
  • An Orthodox Catechism on The Faith and Life of the Church; Mar Gregorios Orthodox Christian Student
  • Movement (MGOCSM), Kottayam, India, 1983.
  • Truth Triumphs: Life and Achievements of Metropolitan Mar Dionysius VI; Malanakara Orthodox Church (M.O.C), Kottayam, India, 1986
  • The Growing Church: An Introduction to Indian Church History; Divya Bodhanam Publication, Orthodox Theological Seminary (O.T.S), Kottayam, India, 1992.
  • Fifty Golden Years; Orthodox Congregations, Bangalore, India, 1994.
  • Orthodox Catechism: Text Book – Class VIII, Oriental Orthodox Churches.
  • Orthodox Catechism: Text Book – Class IX, Oriental Orthodox Churches.
  • Orthodox Catechism: Text Book – Class X, Oriental Orthodox Churches.
  • Orthodox Catechism: Text Book – Class XI, Oriental Orthodox Churches.
  • Orthodox Catechism: Text Book – Class XII, Oriental Orthodox Churches.
  • An Introduction to Christian Theology

Co-author[edit]

  • Syrian Orthodox Eucharistic Worship: Ways and Worship; Ed.H.R.Machphail, Madras, 1950.
  • An Ancient Church: A Glance into the Past and Peep into the Future; New Life in an Old Church, Ed. M.V.George, Calcutta, 1963.
  • Faith of Christianity; Christianity, published by Punjab University, 1969.
  • The Faith of the Church; The Church of Ethiopia:A Panorama of History and Spiritual Life, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 1972 [24]
  • God Whom We Worship: The Teachings of Gregory Nazianzen; Prayer and Contemplation, Asirvanam Benedictine Monastery, Bangalore, 1980
  • Grace in the Cappadocian Fathers; Divine Grace and Human Response, Asirvanam Monastery, 1981.
  • The Indian Church and Autonomy; Orthodox Identity in India, Ed, M.K.Kuriakose, Fr.V.C. Samuel 75th Birth Day Celebration Committee, Bangalore -1988
  • Christological Controversy; Orthodox Identity in India
  • History of the Malanakara Orthodox Christians, 18th Century; Indian Church History, Vol.

Books in Malayalam[edit]

  • Yesu Christu Aaru (Who Jesus Christ Is?); Christian Literature Society (CLS), Thiruvalla, India. 1967.
  • Ithe Oru Indian Sabhayo? Is this an Indian Church?; Distribution, C.L.S, Thiruvalla, India, 1974.
  • Sabha Valarunnu, (The Growing Church);: Indian Church History, Vol. I, Divyabodahan Series, O.T.S, Kottayam, India, 1984.
  • Adhunika Bharatha Sabha (Modern Indian Church): Indian Church History, Vol.II; Divyabodahanam Series,
  • O.T.S, Kottayam, India, 1984.
  • Apposthala Pravarthikal Oru Vyakayanam, (Acts Of Apostles and Commentary); Translation from Greek and
  • The Commentary; Thiruvachanabhashyam, O.T. S, Kottayam, India.
  • Mar Divannasios Nalaman, Cheppad Mar Divannasios: Mar Dionysius Charitable Trust, Kerala, India.
  • Swanubhavavediyil: Malayalam, Autobiography, MGOCSM, Kottayam, India.
  • Malankara Anthiokian Bandhathile Chila Charitra Satyangal (Certain Truth about the Connection between
  • The Churches of Malanaka and Antioch): Malankarasabhadeepam, Kottayam, India.
  • Kristhuvijnaniyam; (A series of articles designed for publication as a book), Purohithan, Kottayam

Co-author[edit]

  • Sabhayude Adisthana Viswasangal (Basic Faith of the Church); Irupatam Nuttandile Malankara Sabha (The Church of Malabar in the Twentieth Century) Ed. T.G.Zacharia and K.V.Mammen, Kottayam, 1977.
  • Malankara Sabhayude Antiokian Bandham (The Connection of Church of Malabar with Antioch); Irupatham Nuttandile Malankara Sabha, Ed.T.G.Zacharia and K.V.Mammen, Kottayam, 1977. It published in Malankara Sabha, Kottayam.
  • Yesu Christu – Aposttolica Prakyapanam (Jesus Christ -Apostolic Proclamation: Vedaputhakabhashyam (One Volume Commentary) Theological Literature Society, Thiruvalla, India, 1979.
  • Daivasastra Darsanam (The Theological Vision of M.M.Thomas); Viswasavum
  • Prathyayasasthrvum (Faith and Ideology), Ed. Varghese George, CLS Thiruvalla.

Translation[edit]

  • Pentakosthi Muthal Janana Perunalvare - Aradhana Getangal Malayalam, Translation from Syriac
  • Visudha Qurbana Thaksa; Malayalam, Translation from Syriac Text
  • Holy Qurbana; English, Translation from Syriac Text
  • Peedanubhava Aazhchayile prarthanakal, (Worship of Holy Week): Malayalam, from Syriac, Addis Ababa.
  • Wedding Ceremony: According to the Order of Malankara Orthodox Church
  • Baptism Ceremony: According to the Order of Malankara Orthodox Church
  • Apposthala Pravarthikal (Acts Of Apostles) Translation from Greek Text

Papers in English[edit]

  • Towards a Doctrine of the Church; Church Weekly, Alwaye, India, 1955
  • Cosmos on the Church of Malabar; Church Weekly, 1955
  • Christ and Creation: Religion and Society, Christian Institute for the Study of Religion and Society (CISRS) Bangalore, India, 1957.
  • Religious Affirmation of Ramakrishna Movement: Religion and Society, CISRS, Bangalore, 1959.
  • Vivekananda's Appraisal of Person of Jesus Christ; Chicago University, 1959
  • Ramakrishna Mission and its Work; Chicago, 1960.
  • A Brief Historical Survey of the Council of Chalcedon, Indian Journal of Theology (I.J.T), Calcutta, 1962
  • And Church Weekly (C.W), Kottayam, India..
  • Where they Monophysites?; I.J.T, Calcutta and Church Weekly Kottayam, 1962
  • Doctrine of Creation; Religion and Society, CISRS, Bangalore 1962.
  • One Incarnate Nature of God the Word: Greek Orthodox Theological Review, winter, 164-165, Athens, 1964
  • And Does Chalcedon Divide or Unite?; Ed. Paulos Mar Gregorios, William Lazareth and Nikos A Nissiotis, World Council of Churches (WCC), 1981.
  • Humanity of Christ in Christian Tradition, Orthodox Theological Review, Athens, 1967
  • Euteyches and His Condemnation, Bangalore Theological Forum, United Theological College, Bangalore 1967
  • Proceedings of the Council of Chalcedon, The Ecumenical Review, October 1970, Geneva and Abba Salama, 1970, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  • A Brief History of Efforts to Reunite the Chalcedonian and Non-Chalcedonian Sides, Greek Orthodox Theological Review, 1971
  • Witness of Orthodoxy; St. Thomas 19th Centenary Souvenir, Orthodox Theological Seminary, Kottayam, 1972.(What is Orthodoxy)[25]
  • Marriage and Celibacy; Abba Salama, Addis Ababa, 1972, and Church Weekly, 28 April 1974 to 23 June 1974
  • The Christology of Severus of Antioch: Abba Salama, Addis Ababa, 1973.
  • The Understanding of the Christological Definition of both the Oriental Orthodox and Roman Catholic Traditions in the Light of the Post-Chalcedonian Theology: An Analysis of Terminologies in a Conceptual Framework, Wort und Wahrheit, Pro Oriente Vienna, 1973
  • How can the Unity of Church be Achieved?; Uniting in Hope, Commission of Faith and Order, World Council of Churches (W.C.C), Geneva, 1976
  • Christianity and Indigenization; Abba Salama, 1976 Addis Ababa
  • Further Studies in the Christology of Severus of Antioch; Papers referring to the Theological Dialogue between Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Churches, Ed. Archbishop Methodios of Aksum, Athens, 1976
  • An Oriental Orthodox Assessment of the First Vatican Council's Infallibility Doctrine: Wort und Wahrheit, Theological Dialogue between Roman Catholic and Oriental Orthodox Churches, Pro-Oriente, Vienna, 1978.
  • Vienna consultations, Star of the East, July 1979, Kottayam, India
  • The Christological basis of some Syrian Orthodox Traditions, Star of the East, July 1980.
  • The Nicene Creed, its Authorship and the Faith it Conserves: Star of the East, Oct-Dec. 1981, Kottayam.
  • The Trinitarian Understanding of the Christian God in Relation to Monotheism and Polytheism; WCC, Lima, 1982.
  • Tradition Community and Hermeneutics; Indian Journal of Theology, Calcutta, July – December 1982.
  • Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Churches: A Movement towards Church Unity; Star of the East, Kottayam, July – Sept. 1982.
  • The Nicene Creed: Compared to the Apostles' Creed, the Quincunque Vult and the New Testament: The Roots of Our Faith, Ed. Hans-Georg Links, WCC Geneva, 1983.
  • Our Church in History; Star of the East, Dec. 1983.
  • The Mission Implications of Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry; International Review of Mission, Geneva, 1983.
  • Mission in the Context of Religious Heritage: Councilor Unity, Ecumenical Christian Centre, Bangalore.
  • Christian Missiological Challenges in a Society of other Religions: International Consultation of Theological Education, Gurukul, Madras.
  • The International Syriac Conference, Mar Aprem and V.C.Samuel; Harp Vol.I, No1, St. Ephrem Ecumenical Research institute(SEERI), Kottayam, India.1987, [1]
  • Christology and Terminology, Harp Vol.I, No. 2&3, St. Ephrem Ecumenical Research institute(SEERI), Kottayam, India. [2]
  • A Way of Christian Unity, Harp Vol.I, No.1, SEERI, Kottayam, India [3]
  • Christology; Joint International Commission for Dialogue between the Catholic Church and the Malankara
  • Orthodox Syrian Church: Papers and Joint Statements 1989-2000. Kottayam, 2001.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Achen is the term for priests in Malayalam)
  2. ^ The St. Thomas Christians of India was called Nazranis; Marthomman Christians; Jacobite Syrian Christians Etc. Father V.C. Samuel named the Indian Orthodox Church in the second half of the twentieth century. See Samuel, V.C: Ithe Oru Indian Sabhayo? (Is this an Indian Church?); Malayalam, C.L.S. Thiruvalla, India, 1974 and Kuriakose M.K, Fr. Ed. Orthodox Identity in India: Dr. V.C. Samuel 75th Birth Day Celebration Committee, Bangalore.
  3. ^ Samuel V.C.; The Council of Chalcedon Re-Examined: A Historical Theological Survey; For the Senate of Serampore College; Christian Literature Society, Madras, 1977; British Orthodox Press, ISBN 1-4010-1644-8, 2001.
  4. ^ http://www.britishorthodox.org/publications
  5. ^ Sreemoolam Praja Sabha of Travancore Province.
  6. ^ Samuel V.C.; The Council of Chalcedon Re-Examined: A Historical Theological Survey
  7. ^ Religion and Society: Christian Institute for the Study of Religion and Society, Bangalore, 1957.
  8. ^ Geevarughese Mar Osthathios: My Elder Brother and Guru; Ch. Vaidikarude Vaidikan: Commemorative Volume; p. 492, Konni, Kerala, India, 2001
  9. ^ See Uniting in Hope; Accra 1974, Faith and Order Paper No.72
  10. ^ Greek Orthodox Theological Review, Athens, Abba Salama, Addis Ababa and Orthodox Identity in India, Bangalore
  11. ^ http://www.thevoiceoforthodoxy.com/orthodox_documents.
  12. ^ Wort und Wahrheit, Theological Dialogue between Roman Catholic and Oriental Orthodox Churches, Pro-Oriente, Vienna and Christological Controversy and Division in Church, Orthodox Identity in India.
  13. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20091026184739/http://www.geocities.com/derghazar/OOC_RCC.DOC
  14. ^ Orthodox Identity in India
  15. ^ Samuel V.C, Ed. The Oriental Orthodox Churches Addis Ababa Conference January 1965, Addis Ababa
  16. ^ http://orientalorthodox.blogspot.com/2008/12/oriental-orthodox-churches-addis-ababa
  17. ^ Abba Salama: Addis Ababa, 1972
  18. ^ Thomas M.M.: Opening Indian Orthodoxy for Dialogue about its Future; Orthodox Identity in India: Essays in Honour of V.C. Samuel, Ed.M.K.Kuriakose
  19. ^ Mathew Vaidyan K.L, Fr.Dr; Vaidikarude Vaidikan, Commemorative Volume, Rev. Dr. V.C. Samuel Ecumenical Forum, Konni, India, 2001
  20. ^ who was a Church leader, literary orator and the winner of Catholicate Award
  21. ^ 11
  22. ^ Kuriakose M.K.Ed. Orthodox Identity in India: Essays in Honor of V.C.Samuel
  23. ^ http://www.orientalorthodox.blogspot.com/2008/12/oriental-orthodox-churches-addis-ababa.html
  24. ^ http://www.ethiopianorthodox.org/english/dogma/faith.html
  25. ^ http://www.icon.org.in/church_whatisorhodoxy.icon


External material[edit]

References[edit]

  • The St. Thomas Christians of India was called Nazranis; Marthomman Christians; Jacobite Syrian Christians Etc. Father V.C. Samuel named the Indian Orthodox Church in the second half of the twentieth century. See Samuel, V.C: Ithe Oru Indian Sabhayo? (Is this an Indian Church?); Malayalam, C.L.S. Thiruvalla, India, 1974 and Kuriakose M.K, Fr. Ed. Orthodox Identity in India: Dr. V.C. Samuel 75th Birth Day Celebration Committee, Bangalore.
  • Member of the Legislative Assembly - Sreemoolam Praja Sabha of Travancore.
  • Samuel V.C.; The Council of Chalcedon Re-Examined: A Historical Theological Survey; For the Senate of Serampore College; Christian Literature Society, Madras, 1977; British Orthodox Press, ISBN 1-4010-1644-8, 2001.
  • Religion and Society: Christian Institute for the Study of Religion and Society, Bangalore, 1957.
  • Geevarughese Mar Osthathios: My Elder Brother and Guru; Ch. Vaidikarude Vaidikan: Commemorative Volume; p. 492, Konni, Kerala, India, 2001.
  • Kuriakose M.K.; Ed, Orthodox Identity in India.
  • Samuel V.C: Ed. The Oriental Orthodox Churches Addis Ababa Conference January 1965: Addis Ababa – August 1965.
  • Abba Salama: Addis Ababa, 1972
  • Thomas M.M.: Opening Indian Orthodoxy for Dialogue about its Future; Orthodox Identity in India
  • Mathew Vaidyan K.L, Fr.Dr; Vaidikarude Vaidikan, Commemorative Volume, Rev. Dr. V.C. Samuel Ecumenical Forum, Konni, India, 2001.
  • Who was a Church leader, literary orator and winner of Catholicate Award
  • Samuel Chandanappally Dr: Malankara Sabha Pithakkanmar, Grace Samuel, Ceedees Books, Chandanappally, 1991.
  • Kuriakose M.K: Orthodox Identity in India: Essays in Honour of V.C. Samuel; Vaidikarude.

Sources[edit]

  • The Council of Chalcedon Re-Examined: Father V.C.Samuel; For the Senate of Serampore College;

Christian Literature Society, Madras, 1977; British Orthodox Press, ISBN 1-4010-1644-8, 2001

  • A Brief Life History of Father V.C.Samuel: Sunny Kulathakka; Ed. Kuriakose, M.K; Orthodox Identity in India: Essays in Honour of V.C. Samuel; Rev. Dr. V.C. Samuel 75th Birth Day Celebration Committee, Bangalore – 1988
  • Ente Chintha Vikasanam (Evolution of My Thinking); Autobiographical piece, Church Weekly, Alwaye, India. 1954.
  • Malayala Manorama Daily; Nov.19, 1998.
  • Ecumenical Contribution of V.C.Samuel; Sebastian, J. Jayakiran; Thomas, T.K; Ecumenical Review, 1 January 1999, WCC, Geneva.
  • The Oriental Orthodox Churches Addis Ababa Conference January 1965: Samuel, V.C: Ed, Addis Ababa, August 1965.
  • Fifty Golden Years: Samuel, V.C: Bangalore, 1994.
  • Vaidikarude Vaidikan: Mathew Vaidyan, K.L, Fr.Dr.: Chief Editor, Rev.Dr.V.C.Samuel

Commemorative Volume, Ecumenical Forum, Konni, Kerala, India.

External links[edit]