Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
|2,718 (1,630 full-time, 996 part-time/voluntary, and 92 emeritus)|
|Location||Nashville, TN, USA|
Vanderbilt University School of Medicine is a medical school located in Nashville, Tennessee. Located in the Vanderbilt University Medical Center on the southeastern side of the Vanderbilt University campus, the School of Medicine claims two Nobel laureates: Earl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr., in 1971, for his discovery of the metabolic regulating compound cyclic AMP, and Stanley Cohen, in 1986, for his discovery with a colleague of epidermal growth factor.
The Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (abbreviated VUSM) was founded in 1851 as the school of medicine at the University of Nashville and only became affiliated with Vanderbilt University in 1874. The first degrees issued by Vanderbilt University were to 61 Doctors of Medicine in February 1875, thanks to an arrangement that recognized the University of Nashville's medical school as serving both institutions. The arrangement continued for 20 more years, until the school was reorganized under the control of the Vanderbilt Board of Trustees. In the early days, the School of Medicine was owned and operated as a private property of the practicing physicians who composed the faculty and received the fees paid by students. At this time, the course of medical instruction consisted of just three years of schooling, which was extended to four years starting in 1898. Vanderbilt University made no financial contribution to the school's support and exercised no control over admission requirements, the curriculum, or standards for graduation. In 1925, the school moved from the old South Campus across town to the main campus, thus integrating instruction in the medical sciences with the rest of the university.
The school changed fundamentally during the next decades. The new medical campus finally brought together the School of Medicine, its hospital, the outpatient clinics, laboratory space, and medical library into one location. The move also put the school adjacent to the Vanderbilt University School of Nursing, which had been founded in 1909. Other internal developments included the establishment of a department of Pediatrics (1928) and a department of Radiology (1936) and the acquisition of one of the school's first large research grants, a $250,000 award from the Rockefeller Foundation in 1932. The research happening at Vanderbilt during this time included advancements that had far-reaching implications for the practice of medicine. Dr. Alfred Blalock and Vivien Thomas conducted research into Blue baby syndrome that led to their 1933 medical-first neonatal cardiothoracic surgery, which formed the basis for the development of the Blalock–Taussig shunt, a life-saving procedure for infants with the Tetralogy of Fallot. And in the early 1940s, the process for culturing vaccines in chick embryos was developed by Vanderbilt's Dr. Ernest William Goodpasture, a feat that allowed for the mass production of vaccines for diseases like yellow fever, smallpox, and typhus.
During the latter half of the 20th century, there was a further expansion of the school's clinical mission and research achievements. The school established a formal department of Anesthesiology in 1945 to build on the school's already significant commitment to the use of anesthetics during procedures, which had its roots in the development of the first ether-oxygen apparatus in 1907 by Vanderbilt's Dr. James Gwathmey. The research at the school received a boost with the founding of a federally-funded Clinical Research Center in 1960. The services that the school and medical center provided for children grew tremendously with the start of a department of Neonatology and the world's first Neonatal intensive care unit in 1961, led by Dr. Mildred T. Stahlman, and the Vanderbilt Children's Hospital, which opened its doors in 1970. The research at the school of medicine also garnered two Nobel prizes during this time, with the 1971 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine going to Dr. Earl Wilbur Sutherland Jr. for his work on cyclic AMP and Dr. Stanley Cohen sharing in the 1986 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work on growth factors.
While Vanderbilt University has owned and operated the Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) that serves the medical school for much of the its history, in 2016 the hospitals and clinics of the medical center were incorporated into a new entity which operates independent of Vanderbilt University's control. This organization, also called the Vanderbilt University Medical Center, is clinically and academically affiliated with Vanderbilt University.
In March 2014, the institution was being sued by the federal government in a whistle-blower case for a decade-long Medicare fraud scheme. In May 2015, a federal court ruled that the Vanderbilt University Medical Center was in violation of the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) Act for laying off 200 employees without adequate notice and would have to pay out $400,000, pending an appeal.
In November 2014, the university admitted that one of its scientists fraudulently falsified six years of biomedical research in high-profile journals. The scientist, Igor Dhuza, was a senior research associate, was hired by Vanderbilt University's Department of Biomedical Engineering. His research was published in Nature Cell Biology, The Journal of Physiology, Circulation, and The FASEB Journal, in 2000-2005; it was cited "more than 500 times."
The Vanderbilt University Medical Center is the only Level I Trauma Center in Middle Tennessee. The trauma center serves a large geographic area stretching from Southern Kentucky to Northern Alabama in what amounts to a 65,000-square-mile catchment area. The following units comprise VUMC:
- Vanderbilt University Hospital
- Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt
- Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center
- The Vanderbilt Clinic
- Vanderbilt Bill Wilkerson Center
- Vanderbilt Stallworth Rehabilitation Hospital
- Vanderbilt Psychiatric Hospital
- Eskind Biomedical Library
- Vanderbilt Sports Medicine
- Dayani Human Performance Center
- Vanderbilt Page Campbell Heart Institute
- Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
- Vanderbilt University School of Nursing
With over 21,500 employees (including 2,876 full-time faculty), Vanderbilt is the largest private employer in Middle Tennessee and the second largest in the state (after FedEx, headquartered in Memphis). Approximately 74% of the university's faculty and staff are employed by the Medical Center.
As of 2017, the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine offers 10 types of single degree programs:
- Master of Education of the Deaf
- Master of Laboratory Investigation
- Master of Public Health
- Master of Science in Applied Clinical Informatics
- Master of Science in Clinical Investigation
- Master of Science in Medical Physics
- Master of Science (Speech-Language Pathology)
- Doctor of Audiology
- Doctor of Medical Physics
- Doctor of Medicine
Also as of 2017, the school offers 9 types of dual degree programs:
- M.D./Ph.D. through a Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP)
- M.D./M.S. in Biomedical Informatics
- M.D./M.Div. and M.D./M.T.S.
- M.D./M.A. in Medicine, Health, and Society
The school also offers a Medical Innovators Development Program (MIDP), which is an M.D. track tailored to individuals who already hold a doctoral degree in engineering or applied sciences.
- Walter Russell Lambuth (1854-1921) - missionary and physician; founder of Soochow Hospital in China
- James Tayloe Gwathmey (1862-1944) - anesthesiologist; first president of the American Association of Anesthetics and co-author of Anesthesia, the first medical textbook on the subject
- John Abner Snell (1880-1936) - medical missionary and superintendent of Soochow Hospital, China
- Mildred T. Stahlman (1922–) - Professor of pediatrics and pathology; founded first Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in the world
- Norman Shumway (1923-2006) - transplant surgeon, performed the first successful adult heart transplant in the USA
- Levi Watkins (1944-2015) - pioneer in cardiac surgery; co-invented the automatic implantable defibrillator
- Ghanshyam Swarup (1953–) - molecular biologist, Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar laureate
- Michael Burry (1971–) - hedge fund manager, portrayed in the film The Big Short
- Antonio Gotto - physician scientist; expert in the field of lipid diseases and former dean of Weill Cornell Medicine
- "Vanderbilt Medicine - Basic Facts". Retrieved February 25, 2007.
- Wood, Wayne (October 20, 2000). "Vanderbilt Medical School celebrates 125th anniversary". VUMC Reporter. Retrieved May 20, 2017.
- Noonan, Jacqueline A. (2004-08-01). "A History of Pediatric Specialties: The Development of Pediatric Cardiology". Pediatric Research. 56 (2): 298–306. doi:10.1203/01.PDR.0000132662.73362.96. ISSN 0031-3998.
- Stahlman, Mildred T. (1 July 1984). "Newborn intensive care: Success or failure?". The Journal of Pediatrics. 105 (1). doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(84)80386-8. ISSN 0022-3476.
- "Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. - Facts". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2017-06-01.
- "Stanley Cohen - Facts". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2017-06-01.
- "School of Medicine Catalog" (PDF). Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
- "Vandy Stuck With Whistleblowing Docs' FCA Claims".
- Barchenger, Stacey. "Laid-off Vanderbilt employees may get $285,000". The Tennessean.
- "Updated: Former Vanderbilt scientist faked nearly 70 images, will retract 6 papers: ORI".
- Wilemon, Tom (November 24, 2014). "Vanderbilt scientist faked research". The Tennessean. p. 3A. Retrieved December 17, 2017 – via Newspapers.com. (Registration required (. ))
- Vanderbilt University News Service (January 2008). "RE:VU: Quick Facts about Vanderbilt". Vanderbilt University. Retrieved 2008-01-10.
- Team, VUMC Web Development. "Center for Trauma, Burn, and Emergency Surgery - Vanderbilt Health Nashville, TN". ww2.mc.vanderbilt.edu. Retrieved 2017-05-20.
- "Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Visitors". Vanderbilt University. Retrieved 2007-07-02.
- "DR. J. T. GWATHMEY, ANESTHETIST, DIES; Leading Authority on Subject Stricken at 80; Aided Our Allies in First World War". The New York Times. 12 February 1944. Retrieved 2017-06-05.