Vascular disease

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Vascular disease
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 G45-G46, I60-I95
ICD-9 325, 430-459
MeSH D014652
Veins and arteries

Vascular disease is a class of diseases of the blood vessels – the arteries and veins of the circulatory system of the body. It is a subgroup of cardiovascular disease. Disorders in this vast network of blood vessels, can cause a range of health problems which can be severe or prove fatal.[1]

Associated medical conditions[edit]

Types[edit]

There are several types of vascular disease, (which is a subgroup of cardiovascular disease) among them are:[2]

  • Peripheral artery disease – happens when plaque builds up in the arteries that supply blood to the arms and leg, plaque causes the arteries to narrow or become blocked.[3]
  • Renal artery stenosis - is the narrowing of renal arteries that carry blood to the kidneys from the aorta.[4]
  • Buerger's disease – is due to small blood vessels that inflame and swell, vessels then narrow or are blocked by blood clots.[5]
  • Raynaud's disease – a rare disorder of constriction of the peripheral blood vessels, in the fingers and toes when the person is cold.[6]
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation – a widespread activation of clotting in the smaller blood vessels.[7]

Mechanism[edit]

Endothelium lines the inner wall of the vessel

Vascular disease is a pathological state of large and medium muscular arteries and is triggered by endothelial cell dysfunction. [8]Because of factors like pathogens, oxidized LDL particles and other inflammatory stimuli endothelial cells become active. [9]The process causes thickening of the vessel wall, forming a plaque that consists of proliferating smooth muscle cells, macrophages and lymphocytes.[10] [11]The plaque results in obstructed blood flow which will diminish the amount of oxygen and nutrients that reach certain organs,[12] the plaque might rupture causing the formation of clots.

Diagnosis[edit]

It can be difficult to make a Vascular disease diagnosis since there are a variety of symptoms that a person can have, also family history and a physical examination are important. The physical exam may be different depending on the type of vascular disease. In the case of a peripheral vascular disease the physical exam consists in checking the blood flow in the legs.[13][14]

Treatment[edit]

Peripheral vascular disease-ulcer

Treatment varies with the each type of Vascular disease, in the case of Renal artery disease information from a meta-analysis indicated that balloon angioplasty results in improvement of diastolic blood pressure and a reduction in antihypertensive drug requirements.[15] In the case of Peripheral artery disease preventing complications is important, without treatment sores or gangrene (tissue death) may occur. Among the treatments are: [16]

  • Quit smoking
  • Lower cholesterol
  • Lower blood pressure
  • Lower blood glucose
  • Physical activity

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Vascular Diseases: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23. 
  2. ^ "http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1137388". content.onlinejacc.org. Retrieved 2015-06-23. 
  3. ^ "Peripheral Arterial Disease: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23. 
  4. ^ "Renal Artery Stenosis". www.niddk.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23. 
  5. ^ "Thromboangiitis obliterans: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23. 
  6. ^ "Raynaud's Disease: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23. 
  7. ^ "Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC): MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-25. 
  8. ^ Rajendran, Peramaiyan; Rengarajan, Thamaraiselvan; Thangavel, Jayakumar; Nishigaki, Yutaka; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal; Sethi, Gautam; Nishigaki, Ikuo (2013). "The Vascular Endothelium and Human Diseases". International Journal of Biological Sciences 9 (10): 1057–1069. doi:10.7150/ijbs.7502. ISSN 1449-2288. PMC 3831119. PMID 24250251. 
  9. ^ Bikfalvi, Andreas (2013-12-19). Encyclopedic Reference of Vascular Biology & Pathology (in English). Springer. ISBN 9783642570636. 
  10. ^ Rubin, Emanuel; Damjanov, Ivan (2013-11-11). Pathology Reviews · 1989 (in English). Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781461245025. 
  11. ^ Gunstone, Frank D.; Harwood, John L.; Dijkstra, Albert J. (2007-03-13). The Lipid Handbook with CD-ROM, Third Edition (in English). CRC Press. ISBN 9781420009675. 
  12. ^ Rolfes, Sharon Rady; Pinna, Kathryn; Whitney, Ellie (2011-06-20). Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition (in English). Cengage Learning. ISBN 084006845X. 
  13. ^ "How Is Peripheral Arterial Disease Diagnosed? - NHLBI, NIH". www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23. 
  14. ^ Andras, Alina; Ferket, Bart (2014). Screening for peripheral arterial disease (in English). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN 1465-1858. 
  15. ^ Jenks, Sara; Yeoh, Su Ern; Conway, Bryan R. (2014). "Balloon angioplasty, with and without stenting, versus medical therapy for hypertensive patients with renal artery stenosis". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 12: CD002944. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002944.pub2. ISSN 1469-493X. PMID 25478936. 
  16. ^ "How Is Peripheral Arterial Disease Treated? - NHLBI, NIH". www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23. 

Further reading[edit]