Vascular disease is a class of diseases of the blood vessels – the arteries and veins of the circulatory system of the body. It is a subgroup of cardiovascular disease. Disorders in this vast network of blood vessels, can cause a range of health problems which can be severe or prove fatal. [1 ]
Associated medical conditions [ edit ]
There are several types of vascular disease, (which is a subgroup of
cardiovascular disease) among them are: [2 ]
Mechanism [ edit ]
Endothelium lines the inner wall of the vessel
Vascular disease is a pathological state of large and medium muscular arteries and is triggered by
endothelial cell dysfunction. Because of factors like pathogens, oxidized LDL particles and other inflammatory stimuli [8 ] endothelial cells become active. The process causes thickening of the vessel wall, forming a plaque that consists of proliferating [9 ] smooth muscle cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. [10 ] The plaque results in obstructed blood flow which will diminish the amount of oxygen and nutrients that reach certain organs, [11 ] the plaque might rupture causing the formation of clots. [12 ]
Diagnosis [ edit ]
It can be difficult to make a Vascular disease diagnosis since there are a variety of symptoms that a person can have, also
family history and a physical examination are important. The physical exam may be different depending on the type of vascular disease. In the case of a peripheral vascular disease the physical exam consists in checking the blood flow in the legs. [13 ] [14 ]
Treatment [ edit ]
Peripheral vascular disease-ulcer
Treatment varies with the each type of Vascular disease, in the case of Renal artery disease information from a meta-analysis indicated that balloon angioplasty results in improvement of diastolic blood pressure and a reduction in antihypertensive drug requirements.
In the case of Peripheral artery disease preventing complications is important, without treatment sores or gangrene (tissue death) may occur. Among the treatments are: [15 ] [16 ]
Lower blood pressure
Lower blood glucose
References [ edit ]
^ "Vascular Diseases: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov . Retrieved . 2015-06-23
^ "http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1137388". content.onlinejacc.org . Retrieved . 2015-06-23
^ "Peripheral Arterial Disease: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov . Retrieved . 2015-06-23
^ "Renal Artery Stenosis". www.niddk.nih.gov . Retrieved . 2015-06-23
^ "Thromboangiitis obliterans: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov . Retrieved . 2015-06-23
^ "Raynaud's Disease: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov . Retrieved . 2015-06-23
^ "Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC): MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov . Retrieved . 2015-06-25
^ Rajendran, Peramaiyan; Rengarajan, Thamaraiselvan; Thangavel, Jayakumar; Nishigaki, Yutaka; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal; Sethi, Gautam; Nishigaki, Ikuo (2013). "The Vascular Endothelium and Human Diseases". International Journal of Biological Sciences 9 (10): 1057–1069. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.7502. ISSN 1449-2288. PMC 3831119. PMID 24250251.
^ Bikfalvi, Andreas (2013-12-19). . Springer. Encyclopedic Reference of Vascular Biology & Pathology ISBN 9783642570636.
^ Rubin, Emanuel; Damjanov, Ivan (2013-11-11). . Springer Science & Business Media. Pathology Reviews · 1989 ISBN 9781461245025.
^ Gunstone, Frank D.; Harwood, John L.; Dijkstra, Albert J. (2007-03-13). . CRC Press. The Lipid Handbook with CD-ROM, Third Edition ISBN 9781420009675.
^ Rolfes, Sharon Rady; Pinna, Kathryn; Whitney, Ellie (2011-06-20). . Cengage Learning. Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition ISBN 084006845X.
^ "How Is Peripheral Arterial Disease Diagnosed? - NHLBI, NIH". www.nhlbi.nih.gov . Retrieved . 2015-06-23
^ Andras, Alina; Ferket, Bart (2014). . John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Screening for peripheral arterial disease ISBN 1465-1858.
^ Jenks, Sara; Yeoh, Su Ern; Conway, Bryan R. (2014). "Balloon angioplasty, with and without stenting, versus medical therapy for hypertensive patients with renal artery stenosis". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 12: CD002944. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002944.pub2. ISSN 1469-493X. PMID 25478936.
^ "How Is Peripheral Arterial Disease Treated? - NHLBI, NIH". www.nhlbi.nih.gov . Retrieved . 2015-06-23
Further reading [ edit ]