Vashti Refuses the King's Summons by Edwin Long
|Occupation||Queen of Achaemenid Empire|
|Known for||figures in the Book of Esther in the Hebrew Bible|
Vashti (Hebrew: וַשְׁתִּי, Vashti, Koine Greek: ᾿Αστίν Astín) was a queen of Persia and the first wife of Persian King Ahasuerus in the Book of Esther, a book included in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and the Old Testament (Christian Bible) and read on the Jewish holiday of Purim. She was banished for her refusal to appear at the king's banquet to show her beauty as the king wished, and Esther was chosen to succeed her as queen. In the Midrash, Vashti is described as wicked and vain. She is viewed as an independent-minded heroine in feminist interpretations of the Purim story.
Attempts to identify her as one of the Persian royal consorts mentioned in other historical records remain speculative.
In the Book of Esther
In the Book of Esther, Vashti is the first wife of King Ahasuerus. While the king holds a magnificent banquet for his princes, nobles and servants, she holds a separate banquet for the women. On the seventh day of the banquet, when the king's heart was "merry with wine", the king orders his seven chamberlains to summon Vashti to come before him and his guests wearing her royal crown, in order to display her beauty. Vashti refuses to come, and the king becomes angry. He asks his advisers how Vashti should be punished for her disobedience. His adviser Memucan tells him that Vashti has wronged not only the king, but also all of the husbands of Persia, whose wives may be encouraged by Vashti's actions to disobey. Memucan encourages Ahasuerus to dismiss Vashti and find another queen. Ahasuerus takes Memucan's advice, and sends letters to all of the provinces that men should dominate in their households. Ahasuerus subsequently chooses Esther as his queen to replace Vashti.
King Ahaseurus's command for the appearance of Queen Vashti is interpreted by several midrashic sources as an order to appear unclothed for the attendees of the king's banquet.
There is no reference to known historical events in the story; the narrative of Esther was invented to provide an aetiology for Purim, and the name Ahasuerus is usually understood to refer to a fictionalized Xerxes I, who ruled the Achaemenid Empire between 486 and 465 BCE. Persian kings did not marry outside a restricted number of Persian noble families and it is unlikely that there was a Jewish queen Esther; in any case the historical Xerxes's queen was Amestris. In the Septuagint, the Book of Esther refers to this king as 'Artaxerxes' (Ancient Greek: Αρταξέρξης).
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Bible commentators attempted to identify Vashti with Persian queens mentioned by the Greek historians. Traditional sources identify Ahasuerus with Artaxerxes II of Persia. Jacob Hoschander, supporting the traditional identification, suggested that Vashti may be identical to a wife of Artaxerxes mentioned by Plutarch, named Stateira. Upon the discovery of the equivalence of the names Ahasuerus and Xerxes, some Bible commentators began to identify Ahasuerus with Xerxes I and Vashti with the wife named Amestris mentioned by Herodotus.
Meaning of the name
The meaning of the name Vashti is uncertain. As a modern Persian name it is understood to mean "goodness" but most likely it originated from the reconstructed Old Persian *vaištī, related to the superlative adjective vahišta- "best, excellent" found in the Avesta, with the feminine termination -ī; hence "excellent woman, best of women".
Hoschander proposed that it originated as a shortening of an unattested "vashtateira", which he also proposed as the origin of the name "Stateira".
Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary of the 19th century, attempting to interpret the name as Hebrew, suggested the meanings "that drinks" or "thread". Critics of the historicity of the book of Esther proposed that the name may have originated from a conjectured Elamite goddess whom they called "Mashti".
Vashti is one of a very few proper names in the Tanakh that begins with the letter waw, and by far the most prominently mentioned of them. Hebrew names that begin with waw are rare because of the etymological tendency for word-initial waw to become yodh.
In the Midrash
According to the Midrash, Vashti was the great-granddaughter of King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon, the granddaughter of King Amel-Marduk and the daughter of King Belshazzar. During Vashti's father's rule, mobs of Medes and Persians attacked. They murdered Belshazzar that night. Vashti, unknowing of her father's death, ran to her father's quarters. There she was kidnapped by King Darius of Persia. But Darius took pity on her and gave her to his son, Ahasuerus, to marry.
Based on Vashti's descent from a king who was responsible for the destruction of the temple as well as on her unhappy fate, the Midrash presents Vashti as wicked and vain. Since Vashti is ordered to appear before the king on the seventh day of the feast, the rabbis argued that Vashti enslaved Jewish women and forced them to work on the Sabbath. They attribute her unwillingness to appear before the king and his drinking partners not to modesty, but rather to an affliction with a disfiguring illness. One account relates that she suffered from leprosy, while another states that the angel Gabriel came and "fixed a tail on her." The latter possibility is often interpreted as "a euphemism for a miraculous transformation to male anatomy."
According to the Midrashic account, Vashti was a clever politician, and the ladies' banquet that she held in parallel to Ahasuerus' banquet represented an astute political maneuver. Since the noble women of the kingdom would be present at her banquet, she would have control of a valuable group of hostages in case a coup d'état occurred during the king's feast.
As a feminist icon
Vashti's refusal to obey the summons of her drunken husband has been admired as heroic in many feminist interpretations of the Book of Esther. Early feminists admired Vashti's principle and courage. Harriet Beecher Stowe called Vashti's disobedience the "first stand for woman's rights." Elizabeth Cady Stanton wrote that Vashti "added new glory to [her] day and generation...by her disobedience; for 'Resistance to tyrants is obedience to God.'"
Some more recent feminist interpreters of the Book of Esther compare Vashti's character and actions favorably to those of her successor, Esther, who is traditionally viewed as the heroine of the Purim story. Michele Landsberg, a Canadian Jewish feminist, writes: "Saving the Jewish people was important, but at the same time [Esther's] whole submissive, secretive way of being was the absolute archetype of 1950s womanhood. It repelled me. I thought, 'Hey, what's wrong with Vashti? She had dignity. She had self-respect. She said: 'I'm not going to dance for you and your pals.'"
- Vashti is the name of one of the principal characters in E. M. Forster's prophetic science fiction piece "The Machine Stops".
- Vashti is the subject of the second chapter of Laszlo Krasznahorkai's novel "Seiobo There Below".
- In Charlotte Brontë's novel Villette, the protagonist Lucy Snowe calls an actress she admires Vashti. A chapter of this novel is called Vashti.
- Vashti is the title of a 1869 novel by American author Augusta J. Evans Wilson.
- A reference to Vashti's dethronement by Esther also appears in the short story "A Strayed Allegiance" by Lucy Maud Montgomery.
- Vashti is the name of a character in Karen Hesse's 1997 book A Time of Angels, set during the influenza epidemic of 1918 in Boston. Vashti is a stern, stubborn, complex woman with great gifts of healing.
- Jane Withers played a character named Vashti Snythe in the 1956 James Dean-Elizabeth Taylor-Rock Hudson epic film Giant.
- The African-American actress Butterfly McQueen, who played Prissy in Gone with the Wind, portrayed a servant girl named Vashti in the 1946 David O. Selznick film Duel in the Sun.
- Vashti (1894) is the name of a poem by Anglo-American poet, lawyer and politician John Brayshaw Kaye. Kaye portrays Vashti as a wise and virtuous woman who finds herself exiled because of court politics; she adopts an orphan girl, Meta, and takes care of her, and lives out her life after the palace in solitude, but also close to nature and beauty, and loved by her adopted daughter.
- The African American poet Frances E.W. Harper wrote an admiring poem about Vashti ("Vashti," 1895) in which she found self-respect to be Vashti's motivating force in her decision not to appear when the drunken king called her to show herself to his courtiers; in the last lines of the poem, she calls Vashti "A woman who could bend to grief, /But would not bow to shame."
- James Weldon Johnson's poem "Vashti" (published in Fifty Years & Other Poems, 1863-1913) is a meditation in the voice of an enamored male servant of a princess whom he meets later, in exile, finding a greater gulf between them than before, even. Names are not used within the poem itself; the name "Vashti" appears only in the title.
- Lascelles Abercrombie (1881–1938), a British poet also known as "The Georgian Laureate," wrote a 40-page poem entitled "Vashti" which contains the famous lines, spoken by Ahasuerus to Vashti, on women's beauty:
- What beauty is there, but thou makest it?
- How is earth good to look on, woods and fields,
- The season's garden, and the courageous hills,
- All this green raft of earth moored in the seas?
- The manner of the sun to ride the air,
- The stars God has imagined for the night?
- What's this behind them, that we cannot near,
- Secret still on the point of being blabbed,
- The ghost in the world that flies from being named?
- Where do they get their beauty from, all these?
- They do but glaze a lantern lit for man,
- And woman's beauty is the flame therein.
- Sabine Baring-Gould has the local parson likening the Mehala to Vashti in his 1880 novel.
- A radio production called "Vashti, Queen of Queens", "based on the first six verses of the Book of Esther", was produced at KPFA and broadcast on Pacifica Radio in 1964.
- Valerie Freireich's short story "Vashti and God" (1996) explores Vashti's story from the feminist perspective.
- Vashti is also the name of the main character in the 2003 children's book, "The Dot," by Peter H. Reynolds.
- Vashti is the name of Stamp Paid's wife in Toni Morrison's novel Beloved. She convinces Stamp Paid to look the other way while their young, white slave master takes Vashti for himself for the better part of year. When Vashti returns to her husband, he can no longer love her.
- Vashti is the name of freak-folk musician Vashti Bunyan
- Vashti is the first name of Vashti McCollum, the plaintiff in McCollum v. Board of Education, the landmark ruling that struck down religious education in American public schools.
- Vashti is a major character in the theatrical production of "For Your Soul's Sake - A Soul Opera", in which she speaks about thinking for yourself and making your own decisions, even when it won't be well received by others.
- Vashti Murphy McKenzie (born May 28, 1947) is a bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Church - first female elected as bishop in the denomination's history.
- Vashti is a key character in the computer strategy game Kohan: Immortal Sovereigns, which is inspired by Persian mythology.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Singer, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). . The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls.
- Yosef Marcus, Megillah with In-Depth Commentary—Side by Side Version, chabad.org.
- Yalkut Shimoni Esther 1049, Esther Rabbah 4, Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer 48
- Browning, W. R. F., ed. (2009), "Ahasuerus", A Dictionary of the Bible (2nd ed.), Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acref/9780199543984.001.0001, ISBN 978-0-19-954398-4, retrieved 2020-04-17,
The story is fictitious and written to provide an account of the origin of the feast of Purim; the book contains no references to the known historical events of the reign of Xerxes.
- Tucker, Gene M. (2004) , Metzger, Bruce M.; Coogan, Michael D. (eds.), "Esther, The Book of", The Oxford Companion to the Bible, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acref/9780195046458.001.0001, ISBN 978-0-19-504645-8, retrieved 2020-04-17,
Although the details of its setting are entirely plausible and the story may even have some basis in actual events, in terms of literary genre the book is not history.
- Littman, Robert J. (1975). "The Religious Policy of Xerxes and the "Book of Esther"". The Jewish Quarterly Review. 65 (3): 146. doi:10.2307/1454354. JSTOR 1454354.
Xerxes could not have wed a Jewess because this was contrary to the practices of Persian monarchs who married only into one of the seven leading Persian families. History records that Xerxes was married to Amestris, not Vashti or Esther. There is no historical record of a personage known as Esther, or a queen called Vashti or a vizier Haman, or a high placed courtier Mordecai. Mordecai was said to have been among the exiles deported from Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, but that deportation occurred 112 years before Xerxes became king.
- "Esther 1 And it came to pass in the days of Artaxerxes. This Artaxerxes held a hundred twenty-seven regions from India". studybible.info. Retrieved 2020-04-18.
- Jacob Hoschander, The Book of Esther in the Light of History, Oxford University Press, 1923
- "The Religious Policy of Xerxes and the 'Book of Esther'", Littman, Robert J., The Jewish Quarterly Review, 65.3, January 1975, p.145–148.
- Segal, Eliezer (2000). Holidays, history, and halakhah. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7657-6151-4. Retrieved February 27, 2009.
- Stowe, Harriet Beecher (1878). Bible heroines: being narrative biographies of prominent Hebrew women in the patriarchal, national, and Christian eras, giving views of women in sacred history, as revealed in the light of the present day. Fords, Howard, & Hulbert. Retrieved February 27, 2009.
- Stanton, Elizabeth (1895). The Woman's Bible: A Classic Feminist Perspective. European Pub Co. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-486-42491-0. Retrieved February 27, 2009.
- Horowitz, Elliott (2006). Reckless rites: Purim and the legacy of Jewish violence. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691124919. Retrieved February 27, 2009.
- KPFA Folio (Feb 10-23 1964)
- The Oxford Bible Commentary (edited by John Barton and John Muddiman, NY: Oxford University Press, 2001, pages 326-327, written by Carol Meyers)
- Asimov's Guide to the Bible, Random House, 1969
- Vashti at Jewish Encyclopedia
- "Vashti, Queen of Queens" audio file, at John Whiting, "My KPFA - A Historical Footnote: Compendium Cliché Productions: The Jim Armstrong Legacy"