Williams in 1950
Esther Jane Williams
August 8, 1921
Inglewood, California, U.S.
|Died||June 6, 2013 (aged 91)|
|Resting place||Remains scattered into the Pacific Ocean|
|Education||Washington High School|
|Alma mater||Los Angeles City College|
|Occupation||Actress, swimmer, businesswoman|
(m. 1940; div. 1944)
(m. 1945; div. 1959)
(m. 1969; died 1982)
Esther Jane Williams (August 8, 1921 – June 6, 2013) was an American competitive swimmer and actress. Williams set multiple national and regional swimming records in her late teens as part of the Los Angeles Athletic Club swim team. Unable to compete in the 1940 Summer Olympics because of the outbreak of World War II, she joined Billy Rose's Aquacade, where she took on the role vacated by Eleanor Holm after the show's move from New York City to San Francisco. While in the city, she spent five months swimming alongside Olympic gold medal winner and Tarzan star, Johnny Weissmuller. Williams caught the attention of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer scouts at the Aquacade. After appearing in several small roles, alongside Mickey Rooney in an Andy Hardy film, and future five-time co-star Van Johnson in A Guy Named Joe, Williams made a series of films in the 1940s and early 1950s known as "aquamusicals," which featured elaborate performances with synchronised swimming and diving.
From 1945 to 1949, Williams had at least one film listed among the 20 highest-grossing films of the year. In 1952, Williams appeared in her only biographical role, as Australian swimming star Annette Kellerman in Million Dollar Mermaid, which went on to become her nickname while at MGM. Williams left MGM in 1956 and appeared in a handful of unsuccessful feature films, followed by several extremely popular water-themed network television specials, including one from Cypress Gardens, Florida.
Williams was also a successful businesswoman. Even before retiring as an actress, she invested in a "service station, a metal products plant, a manufacturer of bathing suits, various properties and a successful restaurant chain known as Trails." She lent her name to a line of swimming pools and retro swimwear, instructional swimming videos for children, and served as a commentator for synchronized swimming at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.
Williams was born in Inglewood, California, on August 8, 1921. She was the fifth and youngest child of Louis Stanton Williams (January 19, 1886 – June 10, 1968) and Bula Myrtle (née Gilpin; October 8, 1885 – December 29, 1971). Louis was a sign painter and Bula was a psychologist. The two lived on neighboring farms in Kansas and carried on a nine-year courtship until June 1, 1908, when they eloped and set off for California. However, they ran out of money in Salt Lake City, Utah, and settled there. Esther's brother, Stanton (September 4, 1912 – March 3, 1929) was discovered by actress Marjorie Rambeau, which led to the family (including sisters Maurine and June and brother David) moving to the Los Angeles area to be near the studios. Louis Williams purchased a small piece of land in the southwest area of town, and had a small house built there. Esther was born in the living room, which was also where the family slept, until Louis Williams was able to add bedrooms. In 1929, Stanton Williams died after his colon burst.
In 1935, Bula Myrtle Williams invited 16-year-old Buddy McClure to live with her family. McClure had recently lost his mother and Bula was still grieving over the death of her son. Esther recounted in her autobiography that one night, when the rest of the family was visiting relatives in Alhambra, McClure raped her. She was terrified to tell anyone about the incident and waited two years before finally revealing the truth to her parents. Williams' mother seemed unsure about her story, claiming McClure was "sensitive" and was sympathetic towards him when he admitted his guilt. Bula Williams then banished him from her home, McClure joined the United States Coast Guard, and Williams never saw him again.
Williams was enthusiastic about swimming in her youth. Her older sister, Maurine, took her to Manhattan Beach and to the local pool. She took a job counting towels at the pool to pay the five cent entry fee, and while there, had swimming lessons from the male lifeguards. From them, she learned the 'male only' swimming strokes, including the butterfly, with which she would later break records.
Her medley team set the record for the 300-yard relay at the Los Angeles Athletic Club in 1939, and was also National AAU champion in the 100 meter freestyle, with a record-breaking time of 1 minute 09.0 seconds. By age 16, Williams had won three US national championships in breaststroke and freestyle swimming.
Williams graduated from Washington High School (now known as Washington Preparatory High School) in Los Angeles, 1939, where she served as class Vice President, and later President. However, Williams never trained in swimming while there.
During her senior year of high school, Williams received a D in her algebra course, preventing her from getting a scholarship to the University of Southern California. She enrolled in Los Angeles City College to retake the course. In 1939, Williams expressed interest in pursuing a degree in physical education in order to teach it one day. To earn money for tuition, Williams worked as a stock girl at the I. Magnin department store, where she also modeled clothing for customers and appeared in newspaper advertisements.
While Williams was working at I. Magnin, she was contacted by Billy Rose's assistant and asked to audition as a replacement for Eleanor Holm in his Aquacade show. Williams impressed Rose and she got the role. The Aquacade was part of the Golden Gate International Exposition, and Williams was partnered with Olympic swimmer and Tarzan star Johnny Weissmuller, who, Williams wrote in her autobiography, repeatedly tried to seduce her. Despite this, Williams remained with the show until it closed on September 29, 1940. Williams had planned to compete in the 1940 Summer Olympics but it was cancelled because of the outbreak of World War II.
It was at Aquacade that Williams first attracted attention from Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer scouts. MGM's head, Louis B. Mayer, had been looking for a female sports star for the studio to compete with Fox's figure skating star, Sonja Henie. Williams signed her contract with MGM in 1941. 
In her contract were two clauses: the first being that she receive a guest pass to The Beverly Hills Hotel where she could swim in the pool every day, and the second that she would not appear on camera for nine months to allow for acting, singing, dancing, and diction lessons. Williams wrote in her autobiography, "If it took nine months for a baby to be born, I figured my 'birth' from Esther Williams the swimmer to Esther Williams the movie actress would not be much different."
While top stars at the studios such as Judy Garland, Betty Grable, and Shirley Temple took part in bond tours during the war, Williams was asked to take in hospital tours. At this point, Williams had achieved pin-up status because of the number of photographs of her in bathing suits. To prepare, Williams and her publicity assistant would listen to Bob Hope and Jack Benny's radio programs, retelling the funniest jokes while at the hospitals. Williams also invited GIs to dance with her on stage and take part in mock screen tests. The men would receive a card telling them their lines, and they would act out the scene in front of the other soldiers. These tests were always romantic scenes to which the men were required to refuse multiple times. When the men said the final, "No", Williams would pull at her tear-away skirt and sweater leaving nothing but a gold lamé swimsuit. The scenes would always end with the men giving in and kissing her after that stunt. Her hospital tours continued into the 1950s. A (forged) signed, waterproof portrait of Williams was circulated among men in the United States Navy for a "capture the Esther" competition. This competition continues to this day in the Royal Australian Navy, which holds in its archives an "original" forged signed portrait while maintaining a "capturable" image for use in the fleet.
Three weeks after signing her contract, George Sidney directed Williams' first screen test. The studio was impressed, and when Lana Turner eloped with Artie Shaw, Williams screen tested with the leading man Clark Gable, for the film Somewhere I'll Find You. However, Turner divorced Shaw after four months of marriage, and rejoined the film. Following several short subject films, Williams appeared as Sheila Brooks in Andy Hardy's Double Life. Sheila was a coed with whom Andy falls in love. Next was a small part in the film A Guy Named Joe, starring Spencer Tracy and Irene Dunne. It was here she first worked with Van Johnson, with whom she would partner in five films.
Bathing Beauty, previously titled Mr. Coed, starred Red Skelton as a man who enrolls in a women's college to win back his swimming instructor fiancée, played by Williams. This was her first Technicolor musical. The studio changed the title of the film to showcase Williams. Almost all of the film's posters featured Williams in a bathing suit, though the swimming sequences make up a small portion of the film. Her date to the premiere at the Astor Theater in New York City was future husband Ben Gage. For the event, MGM publicity set up a six-story-tall billboard of Williams diving into Times Square with a large sign that said "Come on in! The story's fine!"
Williams appeared in the film Ziegfeld Follies as herself. This was followed by the musical Thrill of a Romance. Van Johnson co-starred as a decorated war veteran who falls in love with Williams while on her honeymoon. Thrill of a Romance was the 8th highest-grossing film of 1945. Williams had to help Johnson swim, and she placed her hand under his back to keep him afloat. The studio's publicity department tried to put the two together in public as much as possible in the hopes of encouraging a romance, even though Williams was involved with Gage at the time. When asked why they didn't date, Johnson replied, "because I'm afraid she can't get her webbed feet into a pair of evening sandals."
Williams tried a more serious role in The Hoodlum Saint (1946), with William Powell. Audiences expected Powell's Nick Charles persona and rejected the idea of a romance between Williams and Powell onscreen. She also appeared in Easy to Wed, a remake of 1936's Libeled Lady, with Johnson and Lucille Ball.
Fiesta (originally called Fiesta Brava) starred Williams as Ricardo Montalbán's twin sister, Maria, who pretends to be her bullfighting brother in hopes of luring him back home. Audiences, and Williams, thought the film was silly, as Williams and Montalbán had vastly different accents. Montalbán was born in Mexico and was a native Spanish speaker while Williams had a mid-western accent picked up from her Kansas-born parents. Production was difficult with a multitude of problems. By 1947, Gage and Williams were married. Gage had traveled to Mexico for the making of the film. He got into a fight with an employee of the cast's hotel, was arrested, and subsequently thrown out of the country.The director of photography, Sidney Wagner, and one other crew member died of cholera from eating contaminated street food. Many of the film's stuntmen were sent to the hospital after being gored by bulls. Director Dick Thorpe hadn't wanted the bulls killed (as they usually were at the end of a bullfight) because he believed them to be too expensive to replace.
After filming was completed on Fiesta, Williams appeared in the romance This Time for Keeps (1947) with singer Johnnie Johnston. In 1948, Williams signed a contract with swimwear company Cole of California to appear as their spokesperson, and Williams and the other swimmers in her films wore Cole swimsuits. Since the aqua-musicals were an entirely new genre, the studio's costume designers had little experience creating practical swimsuits. William's plaid flannel swimsuit for This Time for Keeps was so heavy that she was dragged to the bottom of the pool, and had to unzip the suit, swimming naked to the edge of the pool to avoid drowning. Cole swimsuits used latex, which meant zippers were no longer necessary. While filming Skirts Ahoy (1952), Williams discovered that members of the WAVES program received thin, cotton, shapeless swimsuits as part of their uniforms. Williams modeled a Cole swimsuit for the Secretary of the Navy and explained that the new swimsuits helped support women's figures. The United States Navy ordered 50,000 suits immediately.
Filming Take Me Out to the Ball Game (1949) was, according to Williams in her autobiography, an experience of "pure misery". A period musical starring Gene Kelly and Frank Sinatra, the two male leads character's were players in a baseball team owned by K.C. Higgins, Williams's role. She claimed that Kelly and co-writer Stanley Donen treated her with contempt and went out of their way to make jokes at her expense. The film was well-received critically and became a major commercial success, raking in $3.4 million in rentals and becoming the 11th highest earning film of the year. Williams made Neptune's Daughter (also 1949) around the same time with co-stars Ricardo Montalbán, Red Skelton and Betty Garrett, who had also been in Take Me Out to the Ball Game.  In the film, Williams sings "Baby, It's Cold Outside" with Montalbán. The song won the Academy Award for Best Original Song at the 22nd Academy Awards. Williams and Montalbán were originally slated to sing "(I'd Like to Get You on a) Slow Boat to China", but studio censors thought the song was too sexual (interpreting the word "get" as "have") and instead gave them "Baby, It's Cold Outside." Neptune's Daughter became the 10th highest-grossing film of 1949.
Williams made Duchess of Idaho (1950), shot on location in Sun Valley, Idaho, co-starring Van Johnson. MGM paired her with Howard Keel for two films, Pagan Love Song (also 1950) and later Jupiter's Darling (1955). They both had cameos in the film Callaway Went Thataway (1951).
In Million Dollar Mermaid (1952), Williams portrayed Annette Kellermann, a real-life Australian swimming and diving star. Williams co-starred with Victor Mature, who played Kellermann's husband and manager, James Sullivan. The two engaged in a passionate affair during filming. Williams often called this her favorite film, and named her autobiography after it. Williams also won the Henrietta Award at the 1952 Golden Globes, for World Film Favorite – Female. Easy to Love (1953), also with Van Johnson, was filmed on location in Cypress Gardens, where a swimming pool in the shape of the state of Florida had been built specifically for the film. Williams was pregnant during shooting, but still performed all her own waterskiing stunts.
In Dangerous When Wet (also 1953), Williams worked with three important males – Tom and Jerry and future husband Fernando Lamas. During casting, Lamas told Williams he did not want to star in the film with her because he only wanted to be involved in "important pictures". His part had to be rewritten to persuade him to take part in the film.
In 1953, Williams had been on maternity leave for three months while pregnant with daughter Susan, and assumed she would go straight to work on the film Athena when she returned. However, production started without her, and the studio cast Jane Powell in the lead role, rewriting much of the premise that Williams and writers Leo Pogostin and Chuck Walters had come up with. The studio moved her to Jupiter's Darling. Two more films were planned, Bermuda Encounter and Olympic Venus, about the first Olympic swimmers; however, these were never made.
Many of her MGM films, such as Million Dollar Mermaid and Jupiter's Darling, contained elaborately staged synchronized swimming scenes, with considerable risk to Williams. She broke her neck filming a 115 ft dive off a tower during a climactic musical number for the film Million Dollar Mermaid and was in a body cast for seven months. She subsequently recovered, although she continued to suffer headaches as a result of the accident. Her many hours spent submerged in a studio tank resulted in ruptured eardrums numerous times. She also nearly drowned after not being able to find the trapdoor in the ceiling of a tank. The walls and ceiling were painted black and the trapdoor blended in. Williams was pulled out only because a member of the crew realized the door was not opening.
After 15 years of appearing in films, Williams was threatened with contract suspension from MGM after refusing the lead role in The Opposite Sex (eventually released in 1956), a musical remake of 1939's The Women. The role of Mary would have been rewritten to be an aquacade star (and was eventually filled by June Allyson as "Kay", a nightclub singer). Williams redecorated her dressing room to accommodate returning star Grace Kelly, packed her terry cloth robes and swimsuits and drove off the studio lot. As a result of leaving her contract, Williams lost almost $3 million in deferred contract payments, which had been taken from her paychecks over the previous 14 years and put aside as both a nest egg and a tax deferral. She was, however, still able to collect on the $50,000 signing bonus from when she first signed her contract.
In 1956, she moved to Universal International and appeared in a non-musical dramatic film, The Unguarded Moment (1956). After that, her film career slowly wound down. She later admitted that husband Fernando Lamas preferred her not to continue in films. She would, however, make occasional appearances on television, including mystery guest appearances for What's My Line?, The Donna Reed Show, The Ed Sullivan Show, and two aqua-specials, The Esther Williams Aqua Spectacle (1956) and Esther Williams at Cypress Gardens which was telecast on August 8, 1960. More than half of all television sets in use in the United States were tuned in to watch the Cypress Gardens special. She starred in an aqua-special at Wembley Stadium in London. In 1966, Williams was inducted into the International Swimming Hall of Fame.
Williams retired from acting in the early 1960s and later turned down the role of Belle Rosen, a character with a crucial swimming scene, in The Poseidon Adventure. (The role eventually went to Shelley Winters.) She continued to lend her name to a line of retro women's swimwear. "Women worldwide are fighting a thing called gravity," said Williams. "I say to women when I talk to them, 'You girls of 18 have until about 25, 30 at the most, and then you have to report to me. My suits are quality fabric.'" She went on: "I put you in a suit that contains you and you will swim in. I don't want you to be in two Dixie cups and a fish line."
She was also the namesake of a company that manufactures swimming pools and swimming pool accessories. She came out with a line of Swim, Baby, Swim videos, which helped parents teach their children how to swim. She also appeared as a commentator for synchronized swimming at the 1984 Summer Olympics. Williams met her fourth husband as a result of his calling her to coordinate her appearance. She co-wrote her autobiography, The Million Dollar Mermaid (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999), with popular media critic and author Digby Diehl. In 1994 she made her first new big-screen appearance in 31 years as one of the hosts of the retrospective That's Entertainment! III.
In a 2007 interview with Diane Sawyer, Williams admitted that she had recently suffered a stroke. "I opened my eyes and I could see, but I couldn't remember anything from the past," she said. In June 2008, Williams attended Cyd Charisse's funeral, which she did while seated in a wheelchair.
In April 2010, Williams appeared at the first Turner Classic Movies Classic Film Festival in Hollywood, California, alongside two-time co-star Betty Garrett. Their film Neptune's Daughter (1949) was screened at the pool of the Roosevelt Hotel, along with a performance of the Williams-inspired synchronized swimming troupe, The Waterlilies. South Beach Miami's 2010 Mercedes Benz Fashion Week Swim, a showcase of designer swimwear, included a Williams suite, complete with a beach summer theme and sand palette with aqua accents.
In 2000 an account of Williams's life and career appeared in the Swedish book Esther Williams — Skenbiografin (Esther Williams — The Fake Biography) written by Jane Magnusson, in which the author shares with readers her own fascination for art swimming as a genre and, here, in particular, Williams as — to the author — both a bewildering and mesmerizing front figure and icon in this field.
Williams married four times. She met her first husband, Leonard Kovner, while attending Los Angeles City College. She later wrote in her autobiography The Million Dollar Mermaid that "he was smart, handsome, dependable ... and dull. I respected his intelligence, and his dedication to a future career in medicine. He loved me, or so he said, and even asked me to marry him." They were married in the San Francisco suburb of Los Altos on June 27, 1940. On their split she said "I found, much to my relief, that all I needed for my emotional and personal security was my own resolve and determination. I didn't need a marriage and a ring. I had come to realize all too quickly that Leonard Kovner was not a man I could ever really love." They divorced on September 12, 1944.
She married singer/actor Ben Gage on November 25, 1945; they had three children, Benjamin Stanton (born August 6, 1949),  Kimball Austin (October 30, 1950 – May 6, 2008) and Susan Tenney (born October 1, 1953). In her autobiography, she portrayed Gage as an alcoholic parasite who squandered $10 million of her earnings. Gage and Williams separated in 1952, and divorced in April 1959.
During the filming of Pagan Love Song in Hawaii, Williams learned she was pregnant with her third child, and notified the studio in California. Gage had met a man at the hotel who owned a ham radio and persuaded the man to let them use it to call California. What they failed to realize at the time, though, was that anyone could be listening in on their conversation, and news of her pregnancy was broadcast to the entire West Coast.
She disclosed in her autobiography that she had an affair with actor Victor Mature while they were working on Million Dollar Mermaid, citing that at the time her marriage was in trouble and, feeling lonely, she turned to Mature for love and affection, and he gave her all she wanted. The affair stopped while Williams was recovering from her fall during the shooting of Million Dollar Mermaid. She was romantically linked with Jeff Chandler. She claims in her autobiography that Chandler was a cross-dresser and that she broke off the relationship. According to the Los Angeles Times, many friends and colleagues of Chandler's rebutted Williams' claims. Jane Russell commented, "I've never heard of such a thing. Cross-dressing is the last thing I would expect of Jeff. He was a sweet guy, definitely all man."
She married her former lover, Argentine actor/director, Fernando Lamas on December 31, 1969. For 13 years, she lived in total submission to him, where she had to stop being "Esther Williams" and could not have her children live with her. In return, he would be faithful. They were married until his death from pancreatic cancer on October 8, 1982.
In September 1959, Cary Grant told Look magazine that he had taken LSD under a doctor's supervision, and it had changed his life. Grant's therapist, Mortimer Hartman, described LSD as "a psychic energizer which empties the subconscious and intensifies emotion and memory a hundred times". Grant said that, with the help of LSD, he had "found that [he] had a tough inner core of strength", and that when he was young, he "was very dependent upon older men and women. Now, people [came] to [him] for help." Williams stated that she wanted to be one of those people. As she said in Million Dollar Mermaid, "At that point, I really didn't know who I was. Was I that glamorous femme fatale?... Was I just another broken-down divorcée whose husband left her with all the bills and three kids?" Shortly after reading the article, she contacted Grant. He called his doctor and made an appointment for her. Williams said LSD seemed like instant psychoanalysis.
Death and tributes
Of her death CNN quoted her International Swimming Hall of Fame biography, saying, "Her movie career played a major role in the promotion of swimming, making it attractive to the public, contributing to the growth of the sport as a public recreation for health, exercise, water safety -- and just plain fun." Her stepson Lorenzo Lamas tweeted she was "The best swim teacher and soul mom." Her friend Annabeth Gish also tweeted a tribute, writing that Esther Williams was "An elegant, gracious movie star, legend and neighbor". Film historian Leonard Maltin called her "a major, major star, a tremendous box office attraction."
For her contribution to the motion-picture industry, Williams has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1560 Vine Street. She left her hand and foot prints in front of the Grauman's Chinese Theatre on August 1, 1944.
Scarlett Johansson's character in the 2016 Coen Brothers film, Hail, Caesar!, shares several similarities with Williams, most notably being an aquamusical star who becomes pregnant during a production.
|1942||Andy Hardy's Double Life||Sheila Brooks|
|1942||Personalities||Sheila Brooks (Screen test footage)||Short subject|
|1942||Inflation||Mrs. Smith||Short film|
|1943||A Guy Named Joe||Ellen Bright|
|1944||Bathing Beauty||Caroline Brooks|
|1945||Thrill of a Romance||Cynthia Glenn|
|1946||Ziegfeld Follies||Herself||('A Water Ballet')|
|1946||The Hoodlum Saint||Kay Lorrison|
|1946||Easy to Wed||Connie Allenbury Chandler|
|1946||Till the Clouds Roll By||Herself||Uncredited|
|1947||This Time for Keeps||Leonora 'Nora' Cambaretti|
|1948||On an Island with You||Rosalind Reynolds|
|1949||Take Me Out to the Ball Game||K.C. Higgins|
|1949||Neptune's Daughter||Eve Barrett|
|1950||Duchess of Idaho||Christine Riverton Duncan|
|1950||Pagan Love Song||Mimi Bennett|
|1951||Texas Carnival||Debbie Telford|
|1951||Callaway Went Thataway||Herself||Uncredited|
|1952||Skirts Ahoy!||Whitney Young|
|1952||Million Dollar Mermaid||Annette Kellerman|
|1953||Dangerous When Wet||Katie Higgins|
|1953||Easy to Love||Julie Hallerton|
|1955||1955 Motion Picture Theatre Celebration||Herself||Short subject|
|1956||The Unguarded Moment||Lois Conway|
|1956||Screen Snapshots: Hollywood, City of Stars||Herself||Short subject|
|1958||Raw Wind in Eden||Laura|
|1961||The Big Show||Hillary Allen|
|1963||Magic Fountain||Hyacinth Tower|
|1994||That's Entertainment! III||Herself|
|1957||Lux Video Theatre||Vicki||Episode: "The Armed Venus"|
|1960||The Donna Reed Show||Molly||Episode: "The Career Woman"|
|1960||Zane Grey Theater||Sarah Harmon||Episode: "The Black Wagon"|
|1961||The Bob Hope Show||Episode: "The Bob Hope Buick Sports Awards Show"|
Box office rankings
For a number of years, US movie exhibitors voted Esther Williams among the most popular film stars in the country:
- 1947 – 24th most popular star
- 1948 – 11th
- 1949 – 8th
- 1950 – 8th – also 2nd most popular star in the UK
- 1951 – 5th most popular female star
- 1952 – 12th
- 1953 – 12th
- 1954 – 25th
- "Esther Williams Queen of Aquacade". Los Angeles Times. May 13, 1940. p. A12.
"Box Office Report for 1945". BoxOfficeReport.com. Archived from the original on July 13, 2009. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
Thrill of a Romance
"Box Office Report for 1946". BoxOfficeReport.com. Archived from the original on June 24, 2006. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
Till the Clouds Roll By and Easy to Wed
"Box Office Report for 1947". BoxOfficeReport.com. Archived from the original on August 7, 2008. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
This Time for Keeps and Fiesta
"Box Office Report for 1948". BoxOfficeReport.com. Archived from the original on October 12, 2008. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
On an Island with You
"Box Office Report for 1949". BoxOfficeReport.com. Archived from the original on January 9, 2011. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
Neptune's Daughter and Take Me out to the Ball Game
- Williams 1999, p. 285.
- "Esther Williams". The Telegraph. June 6, 2013. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
- "Actress Esther Williams Hospitalized". ABClocal.go.com. Associated Press. October 25, 2006. Retrieved July 30, 2010. While some references cited 1922 as her year of birth, Williams told The Associated Press in 2004 that she was born August 8, 1921.
- According to the California Birth Index, 1905–1995 located at the Center for Health Statistics, Department of Health Services, Sacramento, California.
- L.A. Times & 01/02/72, pp. A6.
- Williams 1999, p. 22.
- Williams 1999, pp. 24–28.
- "Swim Mark Shattered". Los Angeles Times. May 27, 1939. p. 8, Pt. I.
- "L.A.A.C. Mermaids Set New Medley Relay Record". Los Angeles Times. March 31, 1939. p. 8. Retrieved July 15, 2010.
- International Swimming Hall of Fame: 1966 Honorees – Esther Williams Archived June 9, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- Sherrow 1996, p. 333.
- Williams 1999, p. 160.
- "Photograph of Esther Williams's High School Yearbook". Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
- "A Stroke for Esther". Los Angeles Times. September 25, 1977. p. U2. Retrieved July 15, 2010.
- "Mercury Miss Olympic 'Hope'". Los Angeles Times. April 5, 1939. p. A13. Retrieved July 15, 2010.
- "Esther Williams Back at Poolside". Los Angeles Times. May 27, 1984. p. G1. Retrieved July 15, 2010. Williams stated in her autobiography that her family could not afford to send her to USC, and that she did not get a scholarship to the school. In a 1984 interview with The Los Angeles Times, it reports she spent a year there.
- Williams 1999, p. 39.
- Williams 1999, p. 41.
- "Weissmuller Lands Lead in Aquacade". Los Angeles Times. May 22, 1940. p. 21. Retrieved July 15, 2010.
- Williams 1999, p. 56.
- Williams 1999, p. 57.
- Wayne 2003, p. 380.
- Williams 1999, p. 73.
- Williams 1999, p. 101.
- Wayne 2003, p. 103.
- Williams 1999, p. 102.
- Hopper, Hedda (May 18, 1951). "Unexpected Pleasure". Los Angeles Times. p. 2. Retrieved July 15, 2010. Staff Sgt. Walter Wasik of Chicago appears to be a very happy GI as he holds Movie Actress Esther Williams on his lap for a picture before a swimming demonstration at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, D.C.
- Hopper, Hedda (November 15, 1942). "Hedda Hopper's Hollywood". Los Angeles Times. p. C3.
- Williams 1999, p. 94.
- Scott, John L. (March 12, 1943). "Screen and Stage". Los Angeles Times. p. 14.
- Hay 1991, p. 202.
- Williams 1999, p. 120.
- Williams 1999, p. 116.
- Ziegfeld Follies at the TCM Movie Database
- Ronald L. Davis Van Johnson: MGM's Golden Boy, Jackson, Mississippi: University of Mississippi Press, 2001, p.88
- "TCM article on The Hoodlum Saint". Tcm.com. November 12, 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
- Easy to Wed at the TCM Movie Database
- April 19, 1945 The Deseret News.
- Wayne 2003, p. 381.
- Williams 1999, pp. 137–146.
- Williams 1999, p. 104.
- Williams 1999, p. 205.
- Williams 1999, p. 152.
- 1999 New York Times Interview.
- TCM Database listing for Duchess of Idaho.
- TCM Database listing for Callaway Went Thataway.
- Williams 1999, p. 1.
- "Esther Williams, Alan Ladd Get Movie Henriettas". Los Angeles Times. January 27, 1952. p. B1.
- Williams 1999, pp. 245–249.
- Hopper, Hedda (March 7, 1953). "'Athena' Announced for Esther Williams". Los Angeles Times. p. 8.
- Schallert, Edwin (January 6, 1954). "Drama". Los Angeles Times. p. B7.
- "Danny Thomas Set in 2D Jolson Role". "Los Angeles Times. November 29, 1952. p. 12. Retrieved July 15, 2010.
- The Toledo Blade, May 19, 1953.
- Box Office Barometer, November 15, 1947 "This states Olympic Venus as incomplete."
- Williams 1999, p. 349.
- (Fredericksburg, Virginia) Free-Lane Star, August 9, 1960.
- Williams 1999, p. 324.
- Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 23, 1997 article.
- "Esther Williams: Biography". biography.com.
- GMA interview with Diane Sawyer in 2007.
- "LIFE - TIME". TIME.com.
- Lond, Harley W. (April 26, 2010). "TCM Classic Film Festival info". Insidemovies.moviefone.com. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
- "Photographs of Williams and Garrett at the TCM Classic Film Festival Q & A". LIFE. April 22, 2010. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
- "Review of the TCM Classic Film Festival". Monstersandcritics.com. April 27, 2010. Archived from the original on July 19, 2012. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
- "PR Newswire press release re Mercedes Benz Fashion Week Swim". Florida, New Jersey: Prnewswire.com. July 16, 2010. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
- Jane Magnusson. Esther Williams – skenbiografin. Stockholm, Sweden: Bokförlaget DN, 2000.
- Esther Williams – skenbiografin; Forum Bokförlag Archived July 24, 2011, at the Wayback Machine (Swedish)
- Corliss, Richard. "Bathing Beauty: The Wet and Wild Life of Esther Williams" – via entertainment.time.com.
- Williams 1999, p. 54.
- "Marriage Announcement 2". Los Angeles Times. June 28, 1940. p. 31.
- "Esther Williams Sues for Divorce". Los Angeles Times. August 15, 1944. p. A10.
- Williams 1999, p. 113.
- September 11, 1944, San Jose Evening News.
- "Esther Williams Will be Married Tomorrow". Los Angeles Times. November 24, 1945. p. A1.
- November 17, 1945 Ellensburg, Washington Daily Record.
- "Family Portrait". Los Angeles Times. November 17, 1949. p. 26. Actress Esther Williams of MGM and her husband, Ben Gage, with their 2-month-old son, Benjamin Stanton, and first family portrait.
- "Second Son". Los Angeles Times. February 16, 1951. p. 26. Esther Williams with her new son, Kimball Austin Gage, born October 30. The swimming star is also the mother of Benjamin Gage, born August 6, 1949.
- "Important Event". Los Angeles Times. March 15, 1954. p. A1. Williams holds daughter, Susan, 5 months, at baptism rites for her three children. Sons Kimmie and Benjie stand in front. Helping hold Susan is Gov. Kohler of Wisconsin. At left is Esther's husband, Ben Gage.
- Wayne 2003, p. 382.
- "Esther Williams Wins Divorce From Ben Gage", April 9, 1958, Los Angeles Times.
- Williams 1999, pp. 189–190.
- Williams 1999, p. 309.
- Lovell, Glenn (October 27, 1999). "Esther Williams Is All Wet, Say Friends of the Late Jeff Chandler". latimes.com. Retrieved September 11, 2009.
- Williams 1999, pp. 343–367.
- Williams 1999, p. 380.
- Williams 1999, p. 392-393.
- Williams 1999, pp. 12–16.
- Beauchamp, Cari (August 2010). "Cary in the Sky with Diamonds". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 1, 2014.
- "Actress Esther Williams dies at 91". BBC News. June 6, 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
- "Esther Williams, star of film and swimming, dies at 91". CNN. June 6, 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
- "Esther Williams (USA) – 1966 Honor Contributor". International Swimming Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on June 9, 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
- Memmott, Mark (June 6, 2013). "Esther Williams, Swimmer Turned Movie Star, Dies". National Public Radio. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
- Alexander, Bryan (June 6, 2013). "Swimming champion, movie star Esther Williams dies". USA Today. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
- "Esther Williams Collection". Academy Film Archive.
- Esther Williams at the TCM Movie Database
- Michaelson, J. (June 13, 1984). "Esther Williams Back at Poolside". Los Angeles Times – via Newspapers.com.(subscription required)
- "Lux Video Theatre". Getty Images. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
- Tucker, David C. The women who made television funny: ten stars of 1950s sitcoms. McFarland. pp. 109ff.
- "Zane Grey Theater: The Black Wagon". TV.com. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
- "The Bob Hope Show Season 11". TV.com. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
- "Bing's Lucky Number: Pa Crosby Dons 4th B.O. Crown" by Richard L. Coe. The Washington Post [Washington, D.C] January 3, 1948: 12.
- "Filmdom Ranks Its Money-Spinning Stars Best At Box-Office". The Sydney Morning Herald. National Library of Australia. March 30, 1950. p. 12. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- "BOB UPSETS BING—AT THE BOX OFFICE". The Daily News. Perth: National Library of Australia. December 31, 1949. p. 9 Edition: FIRST. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- Of Local Origin New York Times December 29, 1950: 15.
- "FILM STARS—LIKED AND DISLIKED". The Sydney Morning Herald. National Library of Australia. December 14, 1950. p. 3. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- "BOX-OFFICE WINNERS". The Sunday Times. Perth: National Library of Australia. December 23, 1951. p. 3. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- "BOX OFFICE DRAW". The Barrier Miner. Broken Hill, NSW: National Library of Australia. December 29, 1952. p. 3. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- "TOP TWO AT BOX OFFICE". The Courier-Mail. Brisbane: National Library of Australia. December 10, 1954. p. 9. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- The Eddie Mannix Ledger, Los Angeles: Margaret Herrick Library, Center for Motion Picture Study
- Háy, Peter (1991). MGM: When the Lion Roars (1st ed.). Atlanta, Georgia: Turner Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-1-878685-04-9. OCLC 499304130. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
- Sherrow, Victoria (1996). The Encyclopedia of Women and Sports. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-87436-826-0. OCLC 34658767. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
- Williams, Esther (1999). The Million Dollar Mermaid: An Autobiography (Autobiography) (First ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-15-601135-8. OCLC 43706619. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
- Wayne, Jane Ellen (2003). The Golden Girls of MGM: Greta Garbo, Joan Crawford, Lana Turner, Judy Garland, Ava Gardner, Grace Kelly, and Others (First ed.). New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7867-1303-5. OCLC 54010001. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
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