WNT16

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WNT16
Identifiers
Aliases WNT16, Wnt family member 16
External IDs MGI: 2136018 HomoloGene: 62175 GeneCards: WNT16
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 7 (human)
Chr. Chromosome 7 (human)[1]
Chromosome 7 (human)
Genomic location for WNT16
Genomic location for WNT16
Band 7q31.31 Start 121,325,367 bp[1]
End 121,341,104 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE WNT16 221113 s at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_057168
NM_016087

NM_053116

RefSeq (protein)

NP_057171
NP_476509

NP_444346

Location (UCSC) Chr 7: 121.33 – 121.34 Mb Chr 6: 22.29 – 22.3 Mb
PubMed search [3] [4]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Protein Wnt-16 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WNT16 gene.[5][6] It has been proposed that stimulation of WNT16 expression in nearby normal cells is responsible for the development of chemotherapy-resistance in cancer cells.[7]

Function[edit]

The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes that encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is a member of the WNT gene family. It contains two transcript variants diverging at the 5' termini. These two variants are proposed to be the products of separate promoters and not to be splice variants from a single promoter. They are differentially expressed in normal tissues, one of which (variant 2) is expressed at significant levels only in the pancreas, whereas another one (variant 1) is expressed more ubiquitously with highest levels in adult kidney, placenta, brain, heart, and spleen.[6]

WNT16B expression is regulated by nuclear factor of κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells 1 (NF-κB) after DNA damage, as can occur to normal cells during radiation or chemotherapy. Subsequently WNT16B signals in a paracrine manner to activate the Wnt expression program in tumor cells. The expression of WNT16B in the tumor microenvironment attenuates the effects of cytotoxic chemotherapy in vivo, promoting tumor cell survival and disease progression. This implies a mechanism by which cycles of genotoxic therapy might enhance subsequent treatment resistance in the tumor microenvironment.[7]

Model organisms[edit]

Model organisms have been used in the study of WNT16 function. A conditional knockout mouse line called Wnt16tm2b(EUCOMM)Wtsi was generated at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.[8] Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen[9] to determine the effects of deletion.[10][11][12][13] Additional screens performed: - In-depth immunological phenotyping[14] - in-depth bone and cartilage phenotyping[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000002745 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000029671 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  5. ^ McWhirter JR, Neuteboom ST, Wancewicz EV, Monia BP, Downing JR, Murre C (Sep 1999). "Oncogenic homeodomain transcription factor E2A-Pbx1 activates a novel WNT gene in pre-B acute lymphoblastoid leukemia". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 96 (20): 11464–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.20.11464. PMC 18056Freely accessible. PMID 10500199. 
  6. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: WNT16 wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 16". 
  7. ^ a b Sun Y, et al. (2012). "Treatment-induced damage to the tumor microenvironment promotes prostate cancer therapy resistance through WNT16B". Nature Medicine. 18: 1359–68. doi:10.1038/nm.2890. PMC 3677971Freely accessible. PMID 22863786. 
  8. ^ Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: high throughput characterisation of knockout mice". Acta Ophthalmologica. 88: 925–7. doi:10.1111/j.1755-3768.2010.4142.x. 
  9. ^ a b "International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium". 
  10. ^ Skarnes WC, Rosen B, West AP, Koutsourakis M, Bushell W, Iyer V, Mujica AO, Thomas M, Harrow J, Cox T, Jackson D, Severin J, Biggs P, Fu J, Nefedov M, de Jong PJ, Stewart AF, Bradley A (Jun 2011). "A conditional knockout resource for the genome-wide study of mouse gene function". Nature. 474 (7351): 337–42. doi:10.1038/nature10163. PMC 3572410Freely accessible. PMID 21677750. 
  11. ^ Dolgin E (Jun 2011). "Mouse library set to be knockout". Nature. 474 (7351): 262–3. doi:10.1038/474262a. PMID 21677718. 
  12. ^ Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9–13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID 17218247. 
  13. ^ White JK, Gerdin AK, Karp NA, Ryder E, Buljan M, Bussell JN, Salisbury J, Clare S, Ingham NJ, Podrini C, Houghton R, Estabel J, Bottomley JR, Melvin DG, Sunter D, Adams NC, Tannahill D, Logan DW, Macarthur DG, Flint J, Mahajan VB, Tsang SH, Smyth I, Watt FM, Skarnes WC, Dougan G, Adams DJ, Ramirez-Solis R, Bradley A, Steel KP (Jul 2013). "Genome-wide generation and systematic phenotyping of knockout mice reveals new roles for many genes". Cell. 154 (2): 452–64. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.022. PMC 3717207Freely accessible. PMID 23870131. 
  14. ^ a b "Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping (3i) Consortium". 
  15. ^ a b "OBCD Consortium". 

Further reading[edit]