Windows Server 2012
|A version of the Windows NT operating system|
Windows Server 2012 Start screen
|Source model||Closed source / Shared source|
|August 1, 2012|
|September 4, 2012|
|Latest release||R2 6.3 (Build 9600) / October 17, 2013|
|Update method||Windows Update, Windows Server Update Services, SCCM|
|License||Commercial proprietary software|
|Preceded by||Windows Server 2008 R2|
|Succeeded by||Windows Server 2012 R2|
Windows Server 2012, codenamed "Windows Server 8", is the sixth release of Windows Server. It is the server version of Windows 8 and succeeds Windows Server 2008 R2. Two pre-release versions, a developer preview and a beta version, were released during development. The software was generally available to customers starting on September 4, 2012.
Unlike its predecessor, Windows Server 2012 has no support for Itanium-based computers, and has four editions. Various features were added or improved over Windows Server 2008 R2 (with many placing an emphasis on cloud computing), such as an updated version of Hyper-V, an IP address management role, a new version of Windows Task Manager, and ReFS, a new file system. Windows Server 2012 received generally good reviews in spite of having included the same controversial Metro-based user interface seen in Windows 8.
The successor to Windows Server 2012, called Windows Server 2012 R2, was released along with Windows 8.1 in October 2013. A service pack, formally designated Windows Server 2012 R2 Update, was released in April 2014.
- 1 History
- 2 Features
- 3 System requirements
- 4 Editions
- 5 Reception
- 6 Windows Server 2012 R2
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Windows Server 2012, codenamed "Windows Server 8", is the sixth release of Windows Server family of operating systems developed concurrently with Windows 8. It was not until April 17, 2012 that the company announced that the final product name would be "Windows Server 2012".
Microsoft introduced Windows Server 2012 and its developer preview in the BUILD 2011 conference on September 9, 2011. However, unlike Windows 8, the developer preview of Windows Server 2012 was only made available to MSDN subscribers. It included a graphical user interface (GUI) based on Metro design language and a new Server Manager, a graphical application used for server management. On February 16, 2012, Microsoft released an update for developer preview build that extended its expiry date from April 8, 2012 to January 15, 2013.
Before Windows Server 2012 was finalized, two test builds were made public. A public beta version of Windows Server 2012 was released along with the Windows 8 Consumer Preview on February 29, 2012. The release candidate of Windows Server 2012 was released on May 31, 2012, along with the Windows 8 Release Preview.
The product was released to manufacturing on August 1, 2012 and became generally available on September 4, 2012. However, not all editions of Windows Server 2012 were released at the same time. Windows Server 2012 Essentials was released to manufacturing on October 9, 2012 and was made generally available on November 1, 2012. As of September 23, 2012, all students subscribed to DreamSpark program can download Windows Server 2012 Standard or Datacenter free of charge.
Unlike its predecessor, Windows Server 2012 can switch between "Server Core" and "Server with a GUI" installation options without a full reinstallation. Server Core - an option with a command-line interface only - is now the recommended configuration. There is also a third installation option that allows some GUI elements such as MMC and Server Manager to run, but without the normal desktop, shell or default programs like File Explorer.
Server Manager has been redesigned with an emphasis on easing management of multiple servers. The operating system, like Windows 8, uses the Metro-based user interface unless installed in Server Core mode. Windows Store is available in this version of Windows but is not installed by default. Windows PowerShell in this version has over 2300 commandlets, compared to around 200 in Windows Server 2008 R2.
Windows Server 2012 includes a new version of Windows Task Manager together with the old version. In the new version the tabs are hidden by default showing applications only. In the new Processes tab, the processes are displayed in varying shades of yellow, with darker shades representing heavier resource use. It lists application names and status, as well as CPU, memory, hard disk and network utilization. The process information found in the older versions are now moved to the new Details tab. The Performance tab shows "CPU", "Memory", "Disk", "Wi-Fi" and "Ethernet" graphs. The CPU tab no longer displays individual graphs for every logical processor on the system by default; instead, it can display data for each non-uniform memory access (NUMA) node. When displaying data for each logical processor for machines with more than 64 logical processors, the CPU tab now displays simple utilization percentages on heat-mapping tiles. The color used for these heat maps is blue, with darker shades again indicating heavier utilization. Hovering the cursor over any logical processor's data now shows the NUMA node of that processor and its ID, if applicable. Additionally, a new Startup tab has been added that lists startup applications, however this tab does not exist in Windows Server 2012. The new task manager recognizes when a Windows Store app has the "Suspended" status.
IP address management (IPAM)
Windows Server 2012 has an IP address management role for discovering, monitoring, auditing, and managing the IP address space used on a corporate network. The IPAM is used for the management and monitoring of Domain Name System (DNS) and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) servers. Both IPv4 and IPv6 are fully supported.
Windows Server 2012 has a number of changes to Active Directory from the version shipped with Windows Server 2008 R2. The Active Directory Domain Services installation wizard has been replaced by a new section in Server Manager, and a GUI has been added to the Active Directory Recycle Bin. Multiple password policies can be set in the same domain. Active Directory in Windows Server 2012 is now aware of any changes resulting from virtualization, and virtualized domain controllers can be safely cloned. Upgrades of the domain functional level to Windows Server 2012 are simplified; it can be performed entirely in Server Manager. Active Directory Federation Services is no longer required to be downloaded when installed as a role, and claims which can be used by the Active Directory Federation Services have been introduced into the Kerberos token. Windows Powershell commands used by Active Directory Administrative Center can be viewed in a "Powershell History Viewer".
Windows Server 2012, along with Windows 8, includes a new version of Hyper-V, as presented at the Microsoft BUILD event. Many new features have been added to Hyper-V, including network virtualization, multi-tenancy, storage resource pools, cross-premise connectivity, and cloud backup. Additionally, many of the former restrictions on resource consumption have been greatly lifted. Each virtual machine in this version of Hyper-V can access up to 64 virtual processors, up to 1 terabyte of memory, and up to 64 terabytes of virtual disk space per virtual hard disk (using a new .vhdx format). Up to 1024 virtual machines can be active per host, and up to 8000 can be active per failover cluster. SLAT is a required processor feature for Hyper-V on Windows 8, while for Windows Server 2012 it is only required for the supplementary RemoteFX role.
Resilient File System (ReFS), codenamed "Protogon", is a new file system in Windows Server 2012 initially intended for file servers that improves on NTFS in some respects. Major new features of ReFS include:
- Improved reliability for on-disk structures
- ReFS uses B+ trees for all on-disk structures including metadata and file data. Metadata and file data are organized into tables similar to a relational database. The file size, number of files in a folder, total volume size and number of folders in a volume are limited by 64-bit numbers; as a result ReFS supports a maximum file size of 16 Exabytes, a maximum of 18.4 × 1018 folders and a maximum volume size of 1 Yottabyte (with 64 KB clusters) which allows large scalability with no practical limits on file and folder size (hardware restrictions still apply). Free space is counted by a hierarchical allocator which includes three separate tables for large, medium, and small chunks. File names and file paths are each limited to a 32 KB Unicode text string.
- Built-in resilience
- ReFS employs an allocation-on-write update strategy for metadata, which allocates new chunks for every update transaction and uses large IO batches. All ReFS metadata has built-in 64-bit checksums which are stored independently. The file data can have an optional checksum in a separate "integrity stream", in which case the file update strategy also implements allocation-on-write; this is controlled by a new "integrity" attribute applicable to both files and directories. If nevertheless file data or metadata becomes corrupt, the file can be deleted without taking the whole volume offline. As a result of built-in resiliency, administrators do not need to periodically run error-checking tools such as CHKDSK when using ReFS.
- Compatibility with existing APIs and technologies
- ReFS does not require new system APIs and most file system filters continue to work with ReFS volumes. ReFS supports many existing Windows and NTFS features such as BitLocker encryption, Access Control Lists, USN Journal, change notifications, symbolic links, junction points, mount points, reparse points, volume snapshots, file IDs, and oplock. ReFS seamlessly integrates with Storage Spaces, a storage virtualization layer that allows data mirroring and striping, as well as sharing storage pools between machines. ReFS resiliency features enhance the mirroring feature provided by Storage Spaces and can detect whether any mirrored copies of files become corrupt using background data scrubbing process, which periodically reads all mirror copies and verifies their checksums then replaces bad copies with good ones.
Some NTFS features are not supported in ReFS, including named streams, object IDs, short names, file compression, file level encryption (EFS), user data transactions, hard links, extended attributes, and disk quotas. Sparse files are supported. ReFS does not itself offer data deduplication. Dynamic disks with mirrored or striped volumes are replaced with mirrored or striped storage pools provided by Storage Spaces. However, in Windows Server 2012, automated error-correction is only supported on mirrored spaces, and booting from ReFS is not supported either.
Windows Server 2012 includes version 8.0 of Internet Information Services (IIS). The new version contains new features such as SNI, CPU usage caps for particular websites, centralized management of SSL certificates, WebSocket support and improved support for NUMA, but few other substantial changes were made.
|Specification||Windows Server 2012||Windows Server 2008 R2|
when Hyper-V is disabled
when Hyper-V is enabled
|Memory||4 TB||2 TB|
|Failover cluster nodes (in any single cluster)||64||16|
|Processor||1.4 GHz, x64|
|Free disk space||32 GB (more if there is 16 GB of RAM or more)|
Upgrades from Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 are supported, although upgrades from prior releases are not.
|Distribution||OEM only||Retail, volume licensing, OEM||Retail, volume licensing, OEM||Volume licensing and OEM|
|Licensing model||Per server||Per server||Per CPU pair[c] + CAL[d]||Per CPU pair[c] + CAL[d]|
|Processor chip limit||1||2||64[e]||64[e]|
|Memory limit||32 GB||64 GB||4 TB||4 TB|
|File Services limits||1 standalone DFS root||1 standalone DFS root||Unlimited||Unlimited|
|Network Policy and Access Services limits||50 RRAS connections and 10 IAS connections||250 RRAS connections, 50 IAS connections, and 2 IAS Server Groups||Unlimited||Unlimited|
|Remote Desktop Services limits||50 Remote Desktop Services connections||Gateway only||Unlimited||Unlimited|
|Virtualization rights||N/A||Either in 1 VM or 1 physical server, but not both at once||2 VMs[c]||Unlimited|
|DNS server role||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Fax server role||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Print and Document Services||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Web Services (Internet Information Services)||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Windows Deployment Services||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Windows Server Update Services||No||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Active Directory Rights Management Services||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Application server role||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Active Directory Domain Services||Must be root of forest and domain||Must be root of forest and domain||Yes||Yes|
|Active Directory Certificate Services||Certificate Authorities only||Certificate Authorities only||Yes||Yes|
|Active Directory Federation Services||Yes||No||Yes||Yes|
|Server Core mode||No||No||Yes||Yes|
Reviews of Windows Server 2012 have been generally positive. Simon Bisson of ZDnet described it as "ready for the datacenter, today," while Tim Anderson of The Register said that "The move towards greater modularity, stronger automation and improved virtualisation makes perfect sense in a world of public and private clouds" but remarked that "That said, the capability of Windows to deliver obscure and time-consuming errors is unchanged" and concluded that "Nevertheless, this is a strong upgrade overall." InfoWorld noted that Windows Server 2012 has the Metro UI, which had led to mixed reviews for Windows 8, but mentioned that "Microsoft is pushing harder for a GUI-less install than a Metro-based screen", with reference to the improved Server Core installation option and the improvements for Windows PowerShell. However, Michael Otey of Windows IT Pro expressed dislike with the new Metro interface and the lack of ability to use the older desktop interface alone, saying that most users of Windows Server manage their servers using the graphical user interface rather than PowerShell. The Australian construction company Kennards found the OS stable.
Paul Ferrill wrote that "Windows Server 2012 Essentials provides all the pieces necessary to provide centralized file storage, client backups, and remote access," but Tim Anderson contended that "Many businesses that are using SBS2011 and earlier will want to stick with what they have", citing the absence of Exchange, the lack of ability to synchronize with Active Directory Federation Services and the 25-user limit, while Paul Thurott wrote "you should choose Foundation only if you have at least some in-company IT staff and/or are comfortable outsourcing management to a Microsoft partner or solution provider" and "Essentials is, in my mind, ideal for any modern startup of just a few people."
Windows Server 2012 R2
Windows Server 2012 R2 was released on October 18, 2013. It was unveiled on June 3, 2013 at TechEd North America. According to Windows Server 2012 R2 datasheet published on May 31, 2013, there are four editions of this operating system: Foundation, Essentials, Standard and Datacenter. As with Windows Server 2012, the Datacenter and Standard editions are feature identical, varying only based on licensing (particularly licensing of virtual instances). The Essentials edition has the same features as the Datacenter and Standard products, with some restrictions.
A further update, formally designated Windows Server 2012 R2 Update, was released in April 2014.
Changes from Windows Server 2012
Microsoft has confirmed the following changes introduced by Windows Server 2012 R2:
- Automated Tiering: Storage Spaces stores most frequently accessed files on fastest physical media
- Deduplication for VHD: Reduces the storage space for VHD files with largely similar contents by storing the similar contents only once
- Windows PowerShell v4, which now includes a Desired State Configuration (DSC) feature
- Integrated Office 365 support (Essentials edition)
- User interface changes from Windows 8.1, including visible Start button.
- UEFI-based virtual machines
- Upgrades from driver emulators to synthetic hardware drivers to minimize legacy support
- Faster VM deployment (approximately half the time)
- Internet Information Services 8.5: Support for logging to Event Tracing for Windows and the ability to log any request/response headers. To improve scalability, if IIS is configured with 100 or more web sites, by default it will not automatically start any of them. Alongside this, a new "Idle Worker Process Page-Out" configuration option has been added to application pools to instruct Windows to page-out the process if it has been idle for the idle time-out period (by default, 20 minutes).
- Server Message Block: Performance and event logging quality improvements, support for Hyper-V Live Migration over SMB, bandwidth prioritization management, and the ability to remove SMB 1.0 support
- Windows Deployment Services: Support for managing WDS via PowerShell.
- Windows Defender is available in a Server Core installation, and is installed and enabled by default.
- IP Address Management (IPAM): Extended to support role-based access control, allowing for fine-grained control over which users can view or change configurations for DHCP reservations, scopes, IP address blocks, DNS resource records, etc. Additionally, IPAM can integrate with System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2012 R2 to have coordinated IP policy across both physical and virtual environments. The IPAM database can be stored in a SQL Server instance instead of Windows Internal Database.
- Group Policy has a new "Policy Cache" setting which allows domain-joined machines to store a copy of the group policy settings on the client machine and, depending on the speed of access to the domain controller, use those at startup time instead of waiting for the policy settings to download. This can improve startup times on machines that are disconnected from the company network. New Group Policy settings have been added to cover new features in Windows 8.1 and Internet Explorer 11, such as enabling/disabling SPDY/3 support, configuring start screen layouts, and detecting phone numbers in web pages.
- TLS support is extended to support RFC 5077, "Transport Layer Security (TLS) Session Resumption without Server-Side State", which improves performance of long-running TLS-secured connections that need to reconnect due to session expiration.
- Applies to Windows Server 2008 R2 and 2012 Datacenter and Windows Server 2012 Standard only. Other editions support less.
- Each virtualized partition, including the host itself, can use up to 64 processors.
- Each license of Windows Server 2012 Standard or Datacenter allows up to two processor chips. Each license of Windows Server 2012 Standard allows up to two virtual instances of Windows Server 2012 Standard on that physical server. If more virtual instances of Windows Server 2012 Standard are needed, each additional license of Windows Server 2012 allows up to two more virtual instances of Windows Server 2012 Standard, even though the physical server itself may have sufficient licenses for its processor chip count. Because Windows Server 2012 Datacenter has no limit on the number of virtual instances per licensed server, only enough licenses for the physical server are needed for any number of virtual instances of Windows Server 2012 Datacenter. If the number of processor chips or virtual instances is an odd number, the number of licenses required is the same as the next even number. For example, a single-processor-chip server would still require 1 license, the same as if the server were two-processor-chip and a five-processor-chip server would require 3 licenses, the same as if the server were six-processor-chip, and if 15 virtual instances of Windows Server 2012 Standard are needed on one server, 8 licenses of Windows Server 2012, which can cover up to 16 virtual instances, are needed (assuming, in this example, that the processor chip count does not exceed 16).
- For the Standard and Datacenter editions, each user or device accessing the software must have a client access license (CAL) assigned (either per-user or per-device), so there may be no more simultaneous users than the number of client-access licenses, except up to 2 simultaneous users purely to administer the server software, or for running virtualization or web workloads. Remote Desktop Services requires an additional CAL separate from the aforementioned CAL.
- If the number of physical processors in a particular server is under 64, the limit is determined by the quantity of licenses assigned to that server. In that case, the number of physical processors cannot exceed twice the number of licenses assigned to the server.
- "Microsoft Product Lifecycle". Microsoft Support. Microsoft. January 2012. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Foley, Mary Jo (April 17, 2012). "Windows Server "8" officially dubbed Windows Server 2012". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 17, 2012.
- Snover, Jeffrey (August 1, 2012). "Windows Server 2012 released to manufacturing!". Windows Server Blog. Microsoft. TechNet blogs. Retrieved January 29, 2013.
- Foley, Mary Jo (April 5, 2010). "Microsoft pulls the plug on future Itanium support". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved January 1, 2012.
- Resseler, Mike (August 2013). "eBook - What’s new in Windows Server 2012 R2 Preview". Veeam Software. Retrieved September 3, 2013.
- Savill, John (February 29, 2012). "Q: Where can I download and get more information on Windows Server "8" Beta and Windows 8 Consumer Preview?". Windows IT Pro. Penton Media. Retrieved February 29, 2012.
- Snover, Jeffrey (April 24, 2012). "Windows Server 2012 Release Candidate Timing". Windows Server Blog. Microsoft. TechNet blogs. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
- Laing, Bill (September 9, 2011). "Windows Server 8: An Introduction". Server & Cloud Blog. Microsoft. TechNet blogs. Retrieved January 23, 2013.
- "Download Windows Server 8 Developer Preview via MSDN". Softpedia. SoftNews SRL. September 14, 2011. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
- Bisson, Simon (September 14, 2011). "Windows 8 Server Developer Preview". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved January 1, 2012.
- Arghire, Ionut (February 18, 2012). "Windows 8 Developer Preview Expiration Date Gets Postponed". Softpedia. SoftNews SRL. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- Snover, Jeffrey. "Windows Server 2012 Essentials released to manufacturing, available for evaluation today!". Windows Server Blog!. Microsoft. TechNet blogs. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
- "Windows Server 2012 Essentials reaches general availability!". Windows Server Blog!. Microsoft. TechNet blogs. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
- "Windows Server 2012". Microsoft DreamSpark. Microsoft. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
- Callaham, John (September 9, 2011). "WIndows Server 8 Screenshot Leak Shows New UI". Neowin.net. Neowin LLC. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
- Wilhelm, Alex (September 9, 2011). "Windows Server 8 Screenshot leaks". News. The Next Web. Retrieved January 1, 2012.
- "Managing Privacy: Windows Store and Resulting Internet Communication". TechNet. Microsoft. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
- Thurott, Paul (November 2, 2011). "Windows Server "8" Preview (Unedited, Complete Version)". Paul Thurott's Supersite for Windows. Penton Media. Retrieved January 1, 2012.
- Williams, Mike; Hanson, Matt (October 25, 2012). "Windows 8 tips: mastering the interface". Techradar. Future Publishing. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- Haveson, Ryan (October 13, 2011). Sinofsky, Steven, ed. "The Windows 8 Task Manager". Building Windows 8. Microsoft. MSDN blogs. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
- "Using Task Manager with 64+ logical processors". Building Windows 8. MSDN blogs. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
- "How to Get the Most out of New Windows 8 Task Manager?". Retrieved October 29, 2011.
- Hu, Aaron. "How to disable start-up items in windows server 2012". TechNet Forums. Microsoft. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
The Startup tab is not present on Windows Server 2012. It is only on Windows 8.
- "IP Address Management (IPAM) Overview". TechNet Library. Microsoft. February 29, 2012. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
- Shields, Greg (July 3, 2012). "Quick Guide: What's New in Windows Server 2012 Active Directory". Redmond magazine. 1105 Redmond Media. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
- Sherif Mahmoud, Tamer (May 29, 2012). "Creating fine grained password policies through GUI Windows server (sic) 2012 "Server 8 beta"". Team blog of MCS @ Middle East and Africa. Microsoft. TechNet blogs. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
- Bruzzese, J. Peter (October 26, 2011). "Windows Server 8: The 4 best new Active Directory features". Infoworld. IDG. Retrieved January 1, 2012.
- Deuby, Sean (September 14, 2011). "What’s New in Windows Server 2012 Active Directory". Windows IT Pro. Penton Media. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- Herrmann, Max; Laing, Bill; Vecchiet, Manlio; Neil, Mike (September 14, 2011). "Day 2: Windows Server 8". Channel 9. Microsoft. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
- "BUILD2011: Windows Server 8". Channel 9. Anaheim, California: Microsoft. September 13–16, 2011. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
- "Server Virtualization Features". Microsoft. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
- Savill, John (October 28, 2011). "Q: What are Windows Server 8's Scalability Numbers?". Windows IT Pro. Penton Media. Retrieved November 5, 2011.
- Garg, Pankaj; Tan, See-Mong (September 14, 2011). "Day 2: A deep dive into Hyper-V Networking". Channel 9. Microsoft. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- Savil, John (October 21, 2011). "Q: Will Windows Server 8 require the processor to support SLAT?". Windows IT Pro. Penton Media. Retrieved November 5, 2011.
- Lucas, Martin (January 1, 2013). "Windows Server 2012: Does ReFS replace NTFS? When should I use it?". Ask Premier Field Engineering (PFE) Platforms. Microsoft. TechNet blogs. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
- Foley, Mary Jo (January 16, 2012). "Microsoft goes public with plans for its new Windows 8 file system". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
- Verma, Surendra (January 16, 2012). Sinofsky, Steven, ed. "Building the next generation file system for Windows: ReFS". Building Windows 8. Microsoft. MSDN blogs. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
- Meyer, David (January 17, 2012). "Microsoft takes wraps off new Windows file system". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
- "ReadDirectoryChangesW function". MSDN Library. Microsoft. November 8, 2012. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
- Nagar, Rajeev (January 5, 2012). Sinofsky, Steven, ed. "Virtualizing storage for scale, resiliency, and efficiency". Building Windows 8. Microsoft. MSDN blogs. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
- "Windows Server 2012: Does ReFS replace NTFS? When should I use it?". January 2, 2013. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- "ReFS (Resilient File System) supports sparse files". Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- Mackie, Kurt. "Microsoft Touts IIS 8 Improvements". Redmond magazine. 1105 Redmond Media. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- Anderson, Tim (September 4, 2012). "Windows Server 2012: inside Microsoft's Enterprise Server OS". Computer Weekly. TechTarget. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
- Seldam, Matthijs ten (October 13, 2012). "Windows Server - Sockets, Logical Processors, Symmetric Multi Threading". Matthijs's blog. Microsoft. TechNet blogs. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- "Logical Processor count changes after enabling Hyper-V role on Windows Server 2012". March 28, 2013. Retrieved April 1, 2013.
- "Installing Windows Server 2012". TechNet Library. Microsoft. System requirements. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
- Foley, Mary Jo (July 5, 2012). "Microsoft goes public with Windows Server 2012 versions, licensing". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
- "Windows Server 2012 Editions". Microsoft. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- "Windows Server 2012 Licensing and Pricing FAQ". Microsoft. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
- "Windows Server 2012 Licensing Data Sheet". Microsoft. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
- "Introduction to Windows Server 2012 Foundation". TechNet Library. Microsoft. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- Bisson, Simon (September 13, 2012). "Windows Server 2012: RTM review". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- Anderson, Tim (September 5, 2012). "Windows Server 2012: Smarter, stronger, frustrating". The Register. Situation Publishing. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- Ferrill, Paul (October 3, 2012). "Windows Server 2012 Review: The Bottom Line". ServerWatch. QuinStreet. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- Rist, Oliver (June 27, 2012). "Review: Weighing Windows Server 2012". InfoWorld. IDG. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- Otey, Michael (July 25, 2012). "Is Microsoft Trying to Kill Windows Server?". Windows IT Pro. Penton Media. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
- Lui, Spandas (September 12, 2012). "Kennards adopts Windows Server 2012 for virtualisation". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
- Ferrill, Paul (December 16, 2012). "A Hands-on Look at Windows Server 2012 Essentials". ServerWatch. QuinStreet. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
- Anderson, Tim (December 21, 2012). "Windows Server 2012 Essentials review". PC Pro. Dennis Publishing. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
- Thurott, Paul (October 2, 2012). "Windows Server 2012: Foundation vs. Essentials". Windows IT Pro. Penton Media. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
- Jeff Meisner (August 14, 2013). "Save the date: Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows System Center 2012 R2 and Windows Intune update coming Oct. 18 - The Official Microsoft Blog - Site Home - TechNet Blogs". TechNet Blogs. Retrieved February 10, 2014.
- Damien Caro (June 10, 2013). "Windows Server 2012 R2–First look - Damien Caro's Blog - Site Home - TechNet Blogs". Blogs.technet.com. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- "Cloud Optimize Your Business". Microsoft. Retrieved August 2, 2013.
- Mackie, Kurt (June 20, 2013). "Microsoft Enhancing Windows Server 2012 R2 Essentials for SMBs". Redmondmag.com. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- Jackson, Joab (June 5, 2013). "Windows Server 2012 R2 bulks up on storage and networking". PC World. IDG. Retrieved September 20, 2013.
- Sams, Brad (June 25, 2013). "Windows 8.1 Start button revealed in Windows Server 2012 R2". Neowin.net. Neowin LLC. Retrieved September 20, 2013.
- Tulloch, Mitch (2013). Introducing Windows Server 2012 R2 (Preview Release ed.). Redmond, Washington: Microsoft Press. ISBN 978-0-7356-8293-1. Retrieved September 19, 2013.
- "What's New in IIS 8.5?". Microsoft.
- "What's New for SMB in Windows Server 2012 R2".
- "What's New for Windows Deployment Services in Windows Server 2012 R2".
- "What's Changed in Security Technologies in Windows 8.1".
- "What's New in IPAM in Windows Server 2012 R2".
- "What's New in Group Policy in Windows Server 2012 R2". Microsoft.
- "What’s new in Group Policy in Windows Server 2012 R2". Group Policy Central.
- Stanek, William (2013). Windows Server 2012 Inside Out. Microsoft Press. ISBN 978-0-7356-6631-3.
- Stanek, William (2014). Windows Server 2012 R2 Inside Out Volume 1: Configuration, Storage, & Essentials. Microsoft Press. ISBN 978-0-7356-8267-2.
- Stanek, William (2014). Windows Server 2012 R2 Inside Out Volume 2: Services, Security, & Infrastructure. Microsoft Press. ISBN 978-0-7356-8255-9.
|Wikiversity has learning materials about Windows Server|
- Official website
- Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2012 on TechNet
- Windows Server 2012 R2 on MSDN
- Windows Server 2012 on MSDN