Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of Sub-Saharan Africa

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The proportions of various human Y-DNA haplogroups vary significantly from one ethnic or language group to another in Africa.

Data in the table below are based on genetic research. Each group sampled is identified in the second column by linguistic designation: AA = Afroasiatic, KS = Khoisan, NS = Nilo-Saharan and NC = Niger–Congo. The third column gives the total sample size studied, and the other columns indicate the percentage observed of particular haplogroups.

Population Language group n A B E1a E1b1a E1b1b E2 J R1b T Reference
Afro-Asiatic[nb 1] Afro-Asiatic (AA) 236 5.5 3.8 0.4 3.3 34.8 0.8 19.5 20.8 3.8 Wood 2005[1]
Alur Nilotic (NS) 9 22 0 0 11 0 67 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Amhara (Ethiopia) Semitic (AA) 48 14.6 2.1 0 45.8 0 33.3 0 4.2 Hassan 2008[2]
Bamileke Bantoid (NC) 85 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 Luis 2004[3]
Bantus (Gabon) Bantu (NC) 795 0.5 6.7 0.2 79.4 0.1 6.2 0 5.5 0 Berniell 2009[4]
Bantus (Kenya) Bantu (NC) 29 13.8 3.4 0 51.7 13.7 17.2 0 0 0 Hurles 2005[5]
Bantus (Tanzania)[nb 2] Bantu (NC) 110 2.7 9.1 48.2 21.8 16.4 0 0 1.8 [3][6]
Bantus (South Africa)[nb 3] Southern Bantu (NC) 137 5.1 10.9 0 54.7 4.4 21.2 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Bantus (South-Eastern) Bantu (NC) 343 5.0 16.3 66.2 1.5 10.2 0 Naidoo 2010[7]
Beja Cushitic (AA) 42 4.8 0 0 0 52.4 0 38.1 4.8 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Benin (Fon) Gbe (NC) 100 0 0 0 95 0 5 0 0 0 Luis 2004[3]
Berbers Berber (AA) 64 3 0 2 5 80 0 6 0 0 Cruciani2002[8]
Bissagos Islands Bijagó, Niger–Congo (NC) 21 76.2 14.3 Rosa 2007[9]
Burkina Faso[nb 4] Niger–Congo (NC) 106 0 0.9 3.8 81.1 2.8 11.3 0 0 0 Cruciani2002[8]
Burunge Cushitic (AA) 24 0 25 4 33 Tishkoff 2007[6]
Cameroon (North)[nb 5] Adamawa (NC) 72 1.4 12.5 4.2 54.2 0 0 0 27.8 0 Cruciani2002[8]
Cameroon (North)[nb 6] Chadic (AA) 54 1.8 3.7 0 13.0 3.7 7.4 0 70.4 0 Cruciani2002[8]
Cameroon (South)[nb 7] Bantoid (NC) 89 0 5.6 0 93.3 0 0 0 1.1 0 Cruciani2002[8]
R.D. Congo (East)[nb 8] Bantu (NC) 36 2.8 0 0 63.9 13.9 19.4 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Copts (Sudanese) Arabic (AA) 33 0 15.2 0 0 21.2 0 45.5 15.2 Hassan 2008[2]
Cross River (Nigeria) Cross River (NC) 1113 0 87 0 0 0 Veeramah2010[10]
Datog Nilotic (NS) 35 3 3 11 54 Tishkoff 2007[6]
Dinka Nilotic (NS) 26 62 23 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Dogon Dogon (NC) 55 1.8 7.3 45.5 43.6 0 1.8 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Ethiopians Afro-Asiatic (AA) 242 17.8 0.8 0 48.8 0.4 26.9 0 3.7 Moran 2004[11]
Ethiopian Jews Semitic (AA) 22 41 0 0 0 50 0 5 0 5 Cruciani2002[8]
Fulbe (Burkina Faso & Cameroon) Senegambian (NC) 37 5.4 0 29.7 48.6 0 0 8.1 Cruciani2002[8]
Fulbe (Guinea-Bissau) Senegambian (NC) 59 13.6 1.7 Rosa 2007[9]
Fulbe (Sudan) Senegambian (NC) 26 0 0 0 0 34.6 0 0 53.8 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Fulbe (Nigeria) Senegambian (NC) 21 0 Cruciani2010[12]
Fur Fur (NS) 32 31.3 3.1 0 0 59.4 0 6.3 0 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Ghana[nb 9] Kwa (NC) 91 0 0 2.2 92.3 1.1 0 0 1.1 0 Wood 2005[1]
Hadza Hadza (Isolate/KS) 80 0 57.5 26.2 15.0 Tishkoff 2007[6]
Hausa (Sudan) Chadic (AA) 32 12.5 15.6 0 12.5 3.1 0 0 40.6 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Hema Northeast Bantu (NC) 18 6 0 2.2 28 28 39 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Herero Niger–Congo (Bantu, Central) 24 4.2 70.8 12.5 I = 4.2%; R1a = 4.2%. (Wood 2005)[1]
Hutu (Rwanda) Northeast Bantu (NC) 69 0 4 0 83 3 8 0 1 0 Luis 2004[3]
Igbo[nb 10] Volta–Niger (NC) 209 A3b2=0 89.3 0 0 Veeramah 2010[10]
Iraqw Cushitic (AA) 9 0 22 0 11 56 0 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Khoisan[nb 11] Khoisan (KS) 90 47.7 14.4 0 24.4 6.7 2.2 1.1 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Khoisan Khoisan (KS) 183 44.3 11.5 0 23.0 16.4 1.6 0 1.6 0 Naidoo 2010[7]
Khoisan (South Africa)[nb 12] Khoisan (KS) 129 33.3 12.4 0 35.7 14.7 3.9 0 0 0 Tishkoff 2007[6]
Kikuyu & Kamba


Northeast Bantu (NC) 42 2 2 0 73 19 0 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1][dead link]
ǃKung Northern Khoisan (KS) 64 36 8 0 39 11 6 0 0 0 Cruciani2002[8]
Luo Nilotic (NS) 9 11 22 0 66 0 0 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Maasai Nilotic (NS) 26 27 8 0 16 50 0 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Malagasy Malayo-Polynesian 35 0 8.6 0 34.3 0 8.6 5.7 0 O = 34.3% (Hurles 2005)[5]
Mandinka Mande (NC) 39 5 3 3 79 8 3 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Mandinka (Guinea-Bissau) Manding (NC) 45 86.7 4.4 Rosa 2007[9]
Masalit Maban (NS) 32 18.8 3.1 0 0 71.9 0 6.3 0 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Mossi Gur (NC) 49 0 2 90 2 Tishkoff 2007[6]
Namibia (Nama) Khoikhoi (KS) 11 64 0 0 18 9 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Nande Northeast Bantu (NC) 18 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Niger–Congo[nb 13] Niger–Congo (NC) 705 2.7 9.6 4.5 68.2 3.9 6.9 0.1 1.4 0 Wood 2005[1]
Nilo-Saharan[nb 14] Nilo-Saharan 91 12.1 35.2 0 29.7 14.3 8.8 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Nilo-Saharan[nb 15] Nilo-Saharan 345 23.2 17.4 9.9 33.9 2.6 6.1 Wood 2005,[1] Hassan 2008,[2]
Tishkoff 2007,[6] Cruciani 2002[8]
Nubians Nubian(NS), Arabic(AA) 39 0 7.7 0 0 23.1 0 43.6 10.3 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Nuba Nuba (NS) 28 46.4 14.3 0 0 39.3 0 0 0 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Nuer Nilotic (NS) 12 33.3 50 0 0 16.7 0 0 0 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Oromo (Ethiopia) Cushitic (AA) 78 10.3 1.3 0 62.8 1.3 3.8 0 5.1 Hassan 2008[2]
Ouldeme Chadic (AA) 13 95.5 Cruciani2010[12]
Pygmy (Mbuti) Central Sudanic (NS) 47 2 59 0 34 0 4 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Pygmy (Western)[nb 16] Niger–Congo (NC) 60 5 53.3 28.3 0 0 3.3 0 Berniell 2009[4]
Sandawe Sandawe (tentative/KS) 68 4 14 43 34 Tishkoff 2007[6]
Senegalese Niger–Congo (NC) 139 0 0 5.0 81.3 6.5 2.9 0 0 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Shilluk Nilotic (NS) 15 53.3 26.7 0 0 20 0 0 0 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Shuwa Arabs Arabic (AA) 5 40 Cruciani2010[12]
Somalis Cushitic (AA) 201 0.5 1.0 0 1.5 77.6 0.5 2.5 3 10.4 Sanchez2005[13]
South African Whites Indo-European 157 0 0 0.6 0.6 9.6 0 3.8 51.6 Others=33.8[7]
Sudan (Arabs)[nb 17] Semitic (AA) 102 2.9 0 0 0 16.7 0 47.1 15.7 0 Hassan 2008[2]
South Sudan (Nilotic)[nb 18] Nilotic (NS) 81 50.6 24.7 0 0 24.7 0 0 0 Hassan 2008[2]
West Sudan (Darfur)[nb 19] Nilo-Saharan (NS) 90 27.8 2.2 0 0 62.2 0 4.4 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Tuareg (Burkina Faso)[nb 20] Berber (AA) 38 0 16.7 77.8 0 0 Pereira 2010[14]
Tuareg (Mali)[nb 21] Berber (AA) 21 0 9.1 90.9 0 0 Pereira 2010[14]
Tuareg (Niger)[nb 22] Berber (AA) 31 0 44.4 16.7 0 33.3 Pereira 2010[14]
Tutsi (Rwanda) Northeast Bantu (NC) 94 0 15 0 80 1 4 0 0 0 Luis 2004[3]
Wolof Senegambian (NC) 34 0 0 12.0 68.0 12.0 3.0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Yoruba Volta–Niger (NC) 13 0 8 0 92 0 0 0 0 0 Tishkoff 2007[6]
Yoruba Volta–Niger (NC) 28 93.1 IHC 2005[15]
Yoruba Volta–Niger (NC) 21 4.8 Cruciani 2010[12]
Xhosa Southern Bantu (NC) 80 5 5 0 54 5 28 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Zulu Southern Bantu (NC) 29 3 20 0 55 0 21 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Afroasiatic from: Ethiopia, Cameroon, Egypt, Tunisia.
  2. ^ Tanzania: Turu, Mbugwe, Wairak, Sukuma.
  3. ^ South Africa: Sotho–Tswana, Xhosa, Zulu.
  4. ^ Burkina Faso ethnic groups: Mossi, Rimaibe, Fulbe.
  5. ^ Adamawa Cameroon: Fali, Tali, mixed.
  6. ^ Chadic Cameroon: Ouldeme, Daba, mixed.
  7. ^ Southern Cameroon: Bamileke, Ewondo, Bakaka.
  8. ^ RDC: Nande, Hema.
  9. ^ Ghana: Ewe, Ga, Fante.
  10. ^ Calculated by averaging the haplogroup frequencies of the IG-C (Calabar), IG-E (Enugu) and IG-N (Nenwe) Igbo samples (see Table 1) in Table 4.
  11. ^ Khoisan: !Kung/Sekele, Tsumkwe San, Dama, Nama.
  12. ^ Khoisan from South Africa: Khwe, !Kung, and mixed.
  13. ^ Niger–Congo from: Gambia, Senegal, Mali, Ghana, Cameroon, CAR, DRC, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Namibia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe.
  14. ^ Nilo-Saharan: Alur, Mbuti (R.D.Congo), Massai, Luo (Kenya). Clade was exclusively carried by the Maasai amongst the Nilo-Saharan speakers - Appendix A
  15. ^ Nilo-Saharan: 14 populations from R.D.Congo, Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania and Cameroon
  16. ^ Pygmies: Baka, Bakola.
  17. ^ Northern Sudan: Gaalien, Meseria, Arakien.
  18. ^ South Sudan: Dinka, Shilluk, Nuer.
  19. ^ Western Sudan: Fur, Masalit, Borgu. Clade introduced from North Africa. High frequencies likely due to a population bottleneck.
  20. ^ Tgor: Tuareg from Burkina Faso, around the village of Gorom-Gorom.
  21. ^ Tgos: Tuareg from Mali, near Gossi.
  22. ^ Ttan: Tuareg from Niger, in the vicinity of Tanut.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Wood, Elizabeth T et al 2005 Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes; also Appendix A
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Hassan, Hisham Y. et al. 2008 Y-Chromosome Variation Among Sudanese: Restricted Gene Flow, Concordance With Language, Geography, and History
  3. ^ a b c d e J. R. Luis et al 2004, The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations
  4. ^ a b Berniell-Lee, Gemma et al 2009 Genetic and Demographic Implications of the Bantu Expansion: Insights from Human Paternal Lineages
  5. ^ a b Hurles, Matthew E. et al 2005, The Dual Origin of the Malagasy in Island Southeast Asia and East Africa: Evidence from Maternal and Paternal Lineages
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Tishkoff, Sarah A. et al 2007 History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Variation
  7. ^ a b c Naidoo, Thijessen et al 2010, Development of a single base extension method to resolve Y chromosome haplogroups in sub-Saharan African populations
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Cruciani, Fulvio et al 2002, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes
  9. ^ a b c Rosa Alexandra; Ornelas Carolina; Jobling Mark A; Brehm António; Villems Richard (2007). "Y-chromosomal diversity in the population of Guinea-Bissau: a multiethnic perspective". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7: 124. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-124. PMC 1976131. PMID 17662131.
  10. ^ a b Veeramah, Krishna R; et al. (2010). "Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 10: 92. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-92. PMC 2867817. PMID 20356404. & Supplementary material
  11. ^ Moran CN et al 2004, Y chromosome haplogroups of elite Ethiopian endurance runners.
  12. ^ a b c d Cruciani et al. 2010, Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88: a paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and the spread of Chadic languages
  13. ^ Sánchez, Juan J et al 2005, High frequencies of Y chromosome lineages characterized by E3b1, DYS19-11, DYS392-12 in Somali males
  14. ^ a b c Pereira, Luísa; Černý, Viktor; Cerezo, María; Silva, Nuno M; Hájek, Martin; Vašíková, Alžběta; Kujanová, Martina; Brdička, Radim; Salas, Antonio (August 2010). "Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel". European Journal of Human Genetics. 18 (8): 915–923. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.21. ISSN 1018-4813. PMC 2987384. PMID 20234393.
  15. ^ International HapMap Consortium, 2005, "A haplotype map of the human genome", Nature, no. 437 (27 October), pp. 1299-1320.

External links[edit]