Yakub Memon

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Yakub Memon
Yakub Memon.jpg
Born Yakub Abdul Razak Memon
(1962-07-30)30 July 1962
Bombay (now Mumbai), Maharashtra, India
Died 30 July 2015(2015-07-30) (aged 53)
Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
Cause of death Execution by hanging at 06:35 IST in Nagpur central jail
Occupation Chartered accountant
Known for 1993 Bombay bombings
Criminal penalty Death[1] (see below for full list)
Criminal status Executed by hanging on 30 July 2015
Place - Nagpur Central Jail [2]
Conviction(s) Criminal conspiracy (27 July 2007)[1] (see below for full list)
Killings
Country India
Location(s) Mumbai
Killed 257[3]
Injured 713[3]
Date apprehended
1994
Imprisoned at Nagpur Central Jail

Yakub Abdul Razak Memon (Yākūb Abdul Rajāk Mēmon) (30 July 1962 – 30 July 2015) was a terrorist[4][5][6] who was convicted over his involvement in the 1993 Bombay bombings by Special Terrorist and Disruptive Activities court on 27 July 2007.[6][7] Yakub Memon was the brother of one of the prime suspects in the bombings, Tiger Memon.[5][8][9] His appeals and petitions for clemency were all rejected and he was executed by hanging on 30 July 2015 in Nagpur jail.[10]

Early history[edit]

Yakub Memon was born into an ethnic Muslim Memon family on 30 July 1962[11] in Mumbai and grew up in the Byculla neighborhood where he attended Antonio D'Souza High School.[12] He completed a Masters in Commerce at the Burhani College of Commerce and Arts. In 1986, Memon enrolled in the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India and completed study as a chartered accountant in 1990.[13]

In 1991, Memon founded the chartered accountancy firm 'Mehta & Memon Associates' with his childhood friend Chetan Mehta. The following year, they parted ways, and he founded another accountancy firm 'AR & Sons'. Named after his father, it was so successful that Memon won a "Best Chartered Accountant of the Year" award from the Memon community of Mumbai. He also formed the export company 'Tejrath International' to export meat products to the Persian Gulf region and Middle East.[14]

1993 Bombay bombings[edit]

Part in the bombings[edit]

According to Indian authorities, Memon financially assisted his brother Tiger Memon and Dawood Ibrahim in planning and executing the bombings.[15] Memon allegedly handled Tiger's funds, funded the training of 15 youths who were sent to Pakistan to learn handling arms and ammunition, purchased the vehicles used in the bombings, and stockpiled weapons.[14][16][17][18]

Arrest[edit]

The Indian Central Bureau of Investigation claims that Memon was arrested at New Delhi railway station on 5 August 1994. However, Memon claims that he surrendered to police in Nepal on the 28 July 1994.[13][19] Memon was arrested with a briefcase which contained a recording of a conversation he had in Karachi.[20]

Trial[edit]

Justice P. D. Kode, in a Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act (TADA) court, found Memon guilty of the following offences on 27 July 2007:[7][21][22]

Crime Sentence
Criminal conspiracy to carry out terrorist act and disruptive activities, and murder Death
Aiding and abetting and facilitating in a terrorist act Life imprisonment
Illegal possession and transportation of arms and ammunition Rigorous imprisonment for 14 years
Possessing explosives with intent to endanger lives Rigorous imprisonment for 10 years

Subsequent appeals and petitions[edit]

Memon filed an appeal before the Supreme Court of India under Section 19 of the TADA Act and State of Maharashtra filed a reference before the court for the confirmation of Memon's death sentence. On 21 March 2013, the Supreme Court confirmed Memon's conviction and death sentence for conspiracy through financing the attacks. The court held that Memon's role was limited not only to the extent of correspondence between the masterminds and all other accused, but he was also entrusted with task of handling the explosive bags and for their safe keeping, which is stated in the confessional statements of various co-accused persons. It also held that Memon was actively involved in hawala transactions for the purpose of facilitating the blasts. The judges called him the "mastermind" and "driving force" behind the bombings.[19][23][24] Memon has consistently claimed innocence.[25]

Memon then filed a Review Petition seeking review of Supreme Court’s judgment confirming his death sentence. On 30 July 2013, Supreme Court bench headed by Chief Justice P Sathasivam and Justice BS Chauhan rejected Memon's application for oral hearing and dismissed his review petition by circulation.[26] Memon then filed a Writ Petition before the Supreme Court as the issue of oral hearing of review petitions against death sentences was being heard by the Supreme Court.[22]

On 6 August 2013, Memon's brother Suleman filed a mercy petition before the President of India. However Indian President Pranab Mukherjee rejected Memon's petition for clemency on 11 April 2014.[27]

On 1 June 2014, Justices J. Khehar and C. Nagappan imposed a stay of execution while a plea from Memon, that review of death penalties should be heard in an open court rather than in chambers, was heard by a constitution bench of the Supreme Court[28][29] which was then extended in December 2014.[30] On 24 March 2015, open court hearing began on Memon's review petition. Senior Counsel Jaspal Singh represented Memon. On 9 April 2015, Supreme Court dismissed Memon’s review petition.

On 30 April 2015, Maharashtra Government issued a death warrant setting 30 July 2015 as the date for Memon's execution.[7][22] Memon then filed a curative petition before the Supreme Court on 22 May 2015, which was rejected on 21 July 2015. Meanwhile, Memon then filed a mercy petition with the Governor of Maharashtra and then filed a Writ before the Supreme Court of India for a stay on his execution till the mercy petition is decided. He claimed that the death warrant was illegal, as it had been issued before he had exhausted all his legal avenues of appeal.[31] The capital punishment given to Yakub Memon has been criticized by a few eminent personalitities, including Salman Khan, Research and Analysis Wing officer B. Raman,[32][33][34] former Supreme Court judge Justice H. S. Bedi,[35] Former Supreme Court judge Markandey Katju,[36] Hussain Zaidi,[37] Ram Jethmalani,[38] Asaduddin Owaisi,[39] R. Jagannathan[40] and a few Muslim bodies, who asked for implementation of the Srikrishna Commission report.[41][42][43][44] On 26 July 2015, a petition was handed over by some eminent personalities and political leaders to President Mukherjee to reconsider Memon's mercy plea.[45]

On 28 July 2015, Memon filed a fresh writ petition before the Supreme Court challenging the order passed in the curative petition contending that the required quorum was not present based on the interpretation of the Supreme Court Rules. After the hearing, the two judges disagreed on the issue and passed an order requesting the Chief Justice of India (CJI) to urgently constitute a larger bench. On July 29, the Supreme Court rejected his petition. Memon also submitted a petition for clemency to Maharashtra Governor C. Vidyasagar Rao and a fresh petition to President Mukherjee, both of which were rejected.[46][47] As a final resort Memon's lawyers filed a plea for 14-day stay of execution with Supreme Court Chief Justice citing that there needs to be 14-day period between a mercy plea rejected by president and the execution.[48] A three-judge bench convened at 2:30 IST to hear the arguments. After hearing the arguments the bench upheld the execution, rejecting Memon's lawyers arguments.[48]

Imprisonment[edit]

Memon was originally held at Yerwada Central Jail, and was transferred to Nagpur Central Jail in August 2007.[49] While in prison, he studied at Indira Gandhi National Open University and earned two master's degrees: the first, in 2013, in English literature and the second degree, in 2014, in political science.[19]

Execution[edit]

Memon was executed by hanging in Nagpur Central Jail at around 6:30 am IST on 30 July 2015, his 53rd birthday. He had been woken at 4:00 AM, permitted to take a warm bath and was provided with a fresh set of clothing. He was allowed to read the Quran and do Salah, given a last meal of his choice, allowed a final phone call with his daughter as per his last wish,[50][51] and underwent a final medical examination before the execution.[52] A Pune police constable who had previously executed Ajmal Kasab served as the hangman.[53] He became 24th person to be hanged at Nagpur central jail and the 59th in the Maharashtra state since 1947.[54][55]

His execution set off a debate on the death penalty in India, with many commentators and activists calling for its abolition.[56][57]

In media[edit]

Memon was portrayed by actor/director Imtiaz Ali in Anurag Kashyap's film Black Friday.[19] A part of the real footage of Yakub Memon's interview given to Madhu Trehan of Newstrack, where he states that the conspiracy was orchestrated by his brother Tiger Memon and his underworld associates, was also included in the film.[58][59]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Yakub Memon to be hanged on 30 July as SC rejects Mumbai blast convict's plea". Firstpost. 21 July 2015. 
  2. ^ "Yakub Memon Hanged in Nagpur Jail". Hindustan Times. 30 July 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015. 
  3. ^ a b "BBC NEWS - South Asia - Victims await Mumbai 1993 blasts justice". bbc.co.uk. 
  4. ^ Iyengar, Rishi (16 July 2015). "India Moves to Hang Terrorist Yakub Memon Amid Growing Calls to Abolish Death Penalty". Time. Retrieved 22 July 2015. 
  5. ^ a b Deepshikha, Ghosh, ed. (22 July 2015). "Yakub Memon to Hang On July 30 for India's Deadliest Terror Attack". NDTV. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  6. ^ a b "Yakub Memon sentenced to death by TADA court". deccanherald.com. 27 July 2007. Archived from the original on 24 February 2009. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  7. ^ a b c "Yakub Memon to hang for Mumbai blasts, Supreme Court rejects plea". indiatoday.in. 21 July 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  8. ^ George, Arun (22 July 2015). "Yakub Memon to be hanged: Did the 1993 Mumbai blasts convict pay for being Tiger's brother?". firstpost.com. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  9. ^ Bhatt, Sheela (21 July 2015). "From Rediff Archives: The strange case of Yakub Memon". rediff.com. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  10. ^ "Yakub Memon Hanged in Nagpur Jail". NDTV. 30 July 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015. 
  11. ^ Deshmukh, Chaitraly (16 July 2015). "Maharashtra's 53rd birthday gift to Yakub Memon: Death by hanging". mid-day.com. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  12. ^ "Will Someone shed a tear for Yakub ? In story of his return lies an answer". The Indian Express. Mumbai, New Delhi. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015. 
  13. ^ a b "Yakub Memon: A chartered accountant and younger brother of Tiger Memon". The Indian Express. 16 July 2015. 
  14. ^ a b "No mercy for Mumbai blasts convict: Yakub Memon, once best CA awardee, will be hung on 30 July". firstpost.com. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  15. ^ "The ones who got away". Times of India. 
  16. ^ "Yakub Memon to Be Hanged on July 30 as SC Rejects Curative Petition". The New Indian Express. 22 July 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015. 
  17. ^ "Yakub Memon: Chartered accountant to a ruthless terrorist". IBN Live. 15 July 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015. 
  18. ^ "The New York Times | Debate Grows Over Planned Execution of Yakub Memon for Mumbai Bombings". nytimes.com. Retrieved 2 August 2015. 
  19. ^ a b c d "Yakub Memon: 5 things to know about the 1993 Mumbai blasts convict". hindustantimes.com/. 
  20. ^ "Transcript of Yakub Memon's sensational Karachi tape". intoday.in. 
  21. ^ "Yakub Abdul Razak Memon vs State Of Maharashtra Th:Cbi ... on 21 March, 2013". indiankanoon.org. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  22. ^ a b c "Yakub Memon – Timeline of legal developments". 1, Law Street. Retrieved 31 July 2015. 
  23. ^ "Yakub Abdul Razak Memon v. State of Maharashtra [Death sentence affirmed] - 1, Law Street". Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  24. ^ "1993 Mumbai serial blasts case: SC upholds death sentence of Yakub Memon, calls him mastermind of terror strike". The Times of India. 21 March 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2013. 
  25. ^ Michelle FlorCruz (21 July 2015). "Mumbai Bombing 1993: Bomber Yakub Memon Execution Appeal Rejected by India, Hanging Scheduled for July 30". International Business Times. Retrieved 24 July 2015. 
  26. ^ "Yakub Abdul Razak Memon v. State of Maharashtra [Review Pet dismissed - 30 July 2013] - 1, Law Street". Retrieved 31 July 2015. 
  27. ^ "Yakub Memon and 23 other mercy pleas rejected by President Pranab Mukherjee". 
  28. ^ "Yakub Abdul Razak Memon v. Supreme Court of India [2 June 2014] - 1, Law Street". Retrieved 31 July 2015. 
  29. ^ "India court stays execution of blasts convict". aljazeera.com. 
  30. ^ "SC extends stay on 1993 Mumbai blasts convict Yakub Memon's execution | Zee News". zeenews.india.com. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  31. ^ "Yakub Memon New Appeal Against Hanging, Family Visits Him". ndtv.com. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  32. ^ "Exclusive! B Raman's unpublished 2007 article: Why Yakub Memon must not be hanged". Rediff.com. 2007. 
  33. ^ "Yakub Memon must not hang, we brought him back: Key RAW man in ’07". 
  34. ^ "Yakub Memon does not deserve to be hanged, top intelligence office wrote". 
  35. ^ "How to rectify injustice to Yakub? SC should take suo motu notice of Raman piece". 
  36. ^ "Gross travesty of justice in Yakub Memon's case: Markandey Katju". The Times of India. 
  37. ^ "From messenger to mastermind". thehindu.com. 
  38. ^ "Fresh mercy petition from MPs, ex-judges and activists". indianexpress.com. 
  39. ^ "Yakub Memon being hanged because he's Muslim: Asaduddin Owaisi". indiatoday.com. 
  40. ^ "State's eagerness to hang 1993 Mumbai blast convict Yakub Memon doesn't quite pass the smell test". firstpost.com. 
  41. ^ "Don't hang Yakub Memon, implement Srikrishna report: Muslim bodies". dnaindia.com. 
  42. ^ "As Salman Khan questions Yakub Memon's death penalty, Twitter gives a mixed reaction". 
  43. ^ "Salman Khan: Parade and hang Tiger Memon, not Yakub". 
  44. ^ "Parade and hang Tiger Memon, not Yakub: Salman Khan". 
  45. ^ "Eminent people urge President Pranab Mukherjee to reconsider Yakub Memon's mercy plea". 
  46. ^ A Vaidyanathan, Ketki Angre (29 July 2015). "Government Averse to Delaying Yakub Memon's Hanging". NDTV.com. 
  47. ^ "Live: President Pranab Mukherjee rejects Yakub Memon's mercy plea". Firstpost. 
  48. ^ a b "LIVE: Yakub Memon's post-mortem complete, body will be flown to Mumbai". The Indian Express. 29 July 2015. 
  49. ^ "Yakub Memon, Mumbai blasts convict, loses SC appeal; to be hanged". hindustantimes.com. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  50. ^ "Yakub Memon's last call to his daughter". The Times of India. 23 July 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015. 
  51. ^ Tare, Kiran. "The Last Words and Wishes of Yakub Memon". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 1 August 2015. 
  52. ^ "Live: Yakub Memon executed at Nagpur jail for Mumbai blasts". Hindustan Times. 
  53. ^ "Police constable who hanged Kasab picked for Yakub's execution". Hindustan Times. 
  54. ^ "Yakub Memon wrote another, undelivered, mercy plea on the eve of his hanging". The Times of India. Retrieved 1 August 2015. 
  55. ^ "State-wise List of Prisoners Executed in India since 1947" (PDF). National Law University Delhi. 23 January 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2015. 
  56. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/06/opinion/indias-death-penalty.html
  57. ^ "Yakub Memon: Mumbai bomb plotter's execution sparks death penalty debate". BBC News. 
  58. ^ ""I Came Back to my Motherland": Yakub Memon's Only Interview". thequint.com. 16 July 2015. 
  59. ^ "1993 Mumbai blasts convict Yakub Memon's exclusive interview". indiatoday.in. 

External links[edit]