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|Centuries:||13th century – 14th century – 15th century|
|Decades:||1270s 1280s 1290s – 1300s – 1310s 1320s 1330s|
|Years:||1303 1304 1305 – 1306 – 1307 1308 1309|
|1306 by topic|
|State leaders - Sovereign states|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births - Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments - Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1306 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||2059|
|English Regnal year||34 Edw. 1 – 35 Edw. 1|
— to —丙午年十一月廿五日
|- Vikram Samvat||1362–1363|
|- Shaka Samvat||1228–1229|
|- Kali Yuga||4407–4408|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||306–307|
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||1306 MCCCVI|
|Minguo calendar||606 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||1849|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1306|
- February 10 – before the high altar of Greyfriars Church in Dumfries, Robert the Bruce murders John Comyn, his leading political rival sparking revolution in the Scottish Wars of Independence
- March 25 – Robert the Bruce becomes King of the Scots only five weeks after the murder in Dumfries.
- May – Hugh the younger Despenser, favourite of King Edward II of England, is married to heiress Eleanor de Clare.
- May 15 – one of the first exchange contracts (cambium) to mention the city of Bruges involved two parties: Giovanni Villani, representing the Peruzzi Company, granting a loan to Tommaso Fini, representing the Gallerani Company of Siena.
- June 19 – Battle of Methven: The forces of the Earl of Pembroke defeat Bruce's Scottish rebels.
Date unknown 
- Philip IV of France exiles all the Jews from France and confiscates their property.
- In London, a city ordinance decrees that heating with coal is forbidden when parliament is in session (the ordinance is not particularly effective).
- The Mongols raid India.
- August 8 – Rudolf II, Duke of Bavaria (d. 1353)
- Ashikaga Tadayoshi, general of the Northern and Southern Courts (d. 1352)
- Sasaki Takauji, Japanese poet, warrior, and bureaucrat (d. 1373)
- February 10 – John "the Red" Comyn, Scottish nobleman
- March 21 – Robert II, Duke of Burgundy (b. 1248)
- August 4 – King Wenceslaus III of Bohemia (b. 1289)
- December – Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk (b. 1270)
- Robert de Burghersh, 1st Baron Burghersh
- Roger de Flor, German soldier