Air Force Special Operations Command
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2010)|
|United States Air Force Special Operations Command|
Air Force Special Operations Command Emblem
|Active||22 May 1990 – present|
|Country||United States of America|
|Branch||United States Air Force|
|Role||Conduct global special operations missions ranging from precision application of firepower to infiltration, aviation foreign internal defense, exfiltration, resupply and refueling of SOF operational elements|
|Part of||United States Special Operations Command|
|Garrison/HQ||Hurlburt Field, Florida|
|Motto||"Any Time, Any Place"|
|Lieutenant General Eric E. Fiel|
United States Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) is the special operations component of the United States Air Force and the US Air Force component command to the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), a unified command located at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida. AFSOC provides AF Special Operations Forces (SOF) for worldwide deployment and assignment to regional unified commands.
AFSOC was initially established on 10 February 1983 as Twenty-Third Air Force (23 AF), a subordinate numbered air force of the Military Airlift Command (MAC), with its headquarters at Hurlburt Field, Florida. On 22 May 1990, 23 AF was redesignated as AFSOC and became a separate United States Air Force (USAF) major command (MAJCOM) responsible for all USAF special operations forces (SOF), aircraft and personnel in the Regular Air Force, and the operational "gaining command" for all USAF SOF, aircraft and personnel in the Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) and the Air National Guard (ANG).
- 1 Predecessor special operations
- 2 Lineage
- 3 Units
- 4 History
- 5 Commanders
- 6 Contingency operations
- 7 Gallery
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Notes
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Predecessor special operations
World War II
- 1st Air Commando Group: Late 1943 - November 1945
- Operation Carpetbagger: Early 1944 - July 1945
- Air Resupply And Communications Service: 23 February 1951 - 12 October 1956
- Combined Command Reconnaissance Activities, Korea: December 1951 -
- B Flight, 6167th Operations Squadron: 1 April 1952 - 31 December 1953
- 6004th Air Intelligence Service Squadron: ca March 1951 -
- 22nd Crash Rescue Boat Squadron: July 1952 -
- 581st Air Supply and Communications Wing: July 1951 - September 1955
The Cold War era
- 129th Air Supply Group: April 1955 - ca 1975
- 130th Air Supply Group: October 1955 -
- 135th Air Supply Group: August 1955 - ca 1971
- 143rd Air Supply Group: November 1955 -
Vietnam War era
- Jungle Jim: October 1961 -
- Established as Twenty-Third Air Force on 10 February 1983
- Activated on 1 March 1983
- Redesignated Air Force Special Operations Command, with the status of a major command, on 22 May 1990
- Military Airlift Command, 10 February 1983 – 22 May 1990
- Air Forces Special Operations (later, 623 Air and Space Operations Center): 13 Dec 2005 – 1 Jan 2008
- Twenty-Third Air Force (Air Forces Special Operations Forces): 1 Jan 2008 – 4 April 2013
- AFSOC Operations Center: 4 April 2013 – present
- 2d Air Division, 1 March 1983 – 1 February 1987
- Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Service, 1 March 1983 – 1 August 1989
- 1st Special Operations Wing (later, 16th Special Operations Wing; 1st Special Operations Wing), 1 February 1987 – present
- 24th Special Operations Wing, 12 June 2012 – present
- 27th Special Operations Wing, 1 Oct 2007 – present
- 41st Rescue and Weather Reconnaissance Wing, 1 October 1983 – 1 August 1989
- 39th Aerospace Rescue & Recovery Wing (later, 39th Special Operations Wing ; 352nd Special Operations Group), 1 October 1983 – present
- 353rd Special Operations Wing (later, 353rd Special Operations Group): 6 April 1989 – present
- 375th Aeromedical Airlift Wing: 1 January 1984 – 1 February 1990
- 720th Special Tactics Group: 1 October 1987 – 12 June 2012
- 724th Special Tactics Group: 29 Apr 2011 – 12 June 2012
- 1550th Aircrew Training and Test Wing (later, 1550th Combat Crew Training): 1 October 1983 – 21 May 1990
- USAF Special Operations School, 1 February 1987 – 22 May 1990
- Air Force Special Operations Training Center (AFSOTC), 8 October 2008 - 11 February 2013
- Air Force Special Operations Air Warfare Center (AFSOAWC), 11 February 2013 - present 
- 56th Special Operations Intelligence Squadron (formerly Det. 2 11th Intelligence Squadron, and 56th Intelligence Squadron)
- 23d Weather Squadron
- 1st Special Operations Support Squadron
- 4th Special Operations Squadron, AC-130U Spooky II gunship
- 8th Special Operations Squadron, CV-22 Osprey
- 9th Special Operations Squadron, Eglin Air Force Base, MC-130P Combat Shadow
- 11th Intelligence Squadron
- Det. 1, 11th Intelligence Squadron, Ft. Bragg, North Carolina
- 15th Special Operations Squadron, MC-130H Combat Talon II
- 23rd Special Operations Weather Squadron
- 34th Special Operations Squadron, U-28A
- 319th Special Operations Squadron, U-28A
- 720th Special Tactics Group, Hurlburt Field, Florida
- 10th Combat Weather Squadron
- 17th Special Tactics Squadron, Fort Benning, Georgia
- 21st Special Tactics Squadron, Pope Field, North Carolina
- 22d Special Tactics Squadron, Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington
- 23d Special Tactics Squadron, Hurlburt Field, Florida
- 26th Special Tactics Squadron, Cannon AFB, New Mexico
- 720th Operations Support Squadron
- 724th Special Tactics Group, Pope Field, North Carolina
- 3d Special Operations Squadron, MQ-1 Predator
- 16th Special Operations Squadron, AC-130H Spectre gunship
- 20th Special Operations Squadron
- 27th Special Operations Support Squadron
- 33d Special Operations Squadron, MQ-9 Reaper
- 43d Special Operations Squadron
- 73d Special Operations Squadron, MC-130W Dragon Spear
- 318th Special Operations Squadron, PC-12, M-28 Skytruck
- 522d Special Operations Squadron, MC-130J Commando II
- 524th Special Operations Squadron
- 6th Special Operations Squadron, UH-1N Iroquois, Mi-8, C-130E, An-26, C-47T
- 18th Flight Test Squadron
- 19th Special Operations Squadron
- 371st Special Operations Combat Training Squadron
- 551st Special Operations Squadron, Cannon Air Force Base, New Mexico
- 745th Special Operations Squadron
- United States Air Force Special Operations School, Hurlburt Field, Florida
- Language Center
Air National Guard units
- 193d Special Operations Squadron EC-130J
- 150th Special Operations Squadron, (McGuire AFB, New Jersey) C-32
- 123d Special Tactics Squadron, Kentucky Air National Guard
- 125th Special Tactics Squadron, Oregon Air National Guard
- 137th Special Security Operations Squadron, Michigan Air National Guard
- 280th Special Operations Communications Squadron, Alabama Air National Guard
- 209th Civil Engineer Squadron, Mississippi Air National Guard
Air Force Reserve Command units
Personnel and Resources
AFSOC has approximately 15,000 active-duty, Air Force Reserve, Air National Guard and civilian personnel.
The commander of AFSOC is Lieutenant General Bradley Heithold. Major General O.G. Mannon is Vice Commander, and Chief Master Sergeant Bill Turner is the Command Chief Master Sergeant, Air Force Special Operations Command.
The command's SOF are composed of highly trained, rapidly deployable Airmen who are equipped with specialized aircraft. These forces conduct global special operations missions ranging from precision application of firepower, to infiltration, aviation foreign internal defense, exfiltration, resupply and refueling of SOF operational elements. The command's Special Tactics Squadrons are led by Special Tactics Officers (STOs). Special Tactics Squadrons combine Combat Controllers, TACP, Special Operations Weather Technicians, Pararescuemen and combat rescue officers to form versatile SOF teams. AFSOC's unique capabilities include airborne radio and television broadcast for psychological operations, as well as combat aviation advisors to provide other governments military expertise for their internal development.
Special Tactics is the US Air Force special operations ground force. Similar in ability and employment to MARSOC, Army Special Forces and Navy SEALs, Air Force Special Tactics personnel are typically the first to enter combat and often find themselves deep behind enemy lines in demanding, austere conditions, usually with little or no support. Due to the rigors of the job, Special Tactics yearlong training is one of the most demanding in the military, with attrition rates near 80 to 90 percent. In an attempt to reduce the high attrition, Special Tactics is very selective when choosing their officers. Special Tactics Officers (STO) undergo a highly competitive process to gain entry into the Special Tactics career field, ensuring only the most promising and capable leaders are selected. STO leadership and role modeling during the difficult training reduces the attrition rate for enlisted trainees.
STO selection is a two-phase process. Beginning with Phase One, a board of veteran STOs reviews application packages consisting of letters of recommendation, fitness test scores, and narratives written by the applicants describing their career aspirations and reasons for applying. Based on Phase One performance, approximately 8 to 10 applicants are invited to the next phase. Phase Two is a weeklong battery of evaluations, ranging from physical fitness and leadership to emotional intelligence and personality indicators. At the end of Phase Two, typically 2–4 applicants are selected to begin the year-plus Special Tactics training pipeline.
AFSOC operates the following aircraft as part of its regular inventory:
- AC-130H/U/W Spectre/Spooky/Stinger II
- CV-22 Osprey
- C-32 (Boeing 757)
- EC-130J Commando Solo
- MC-130E/H/J/P Combat Talon I/II/Commando II/Combat Shadow
- MQ-1 Predator
- MQ-9 Reaper
- RQ-11 Raven
- Scan Eagle
- Wasp III
Additionally, AFSOC units possess and operate a small number of the following aircraft for special training mission:
Twenty-Third Air Force
In December 1982, the Air Force transferred responsibility for Air Force special operations from Tactical Air Command (TAC) to Military Airlift Command (MAC). Consequently, in March 1983, MAC activated Twenty-Third Air Force (23 AF) at Scott Air Force Base, Illinois. This new numbered air force's responsibilities included worldwide missions of special operations, combat rescue, weather reconnaissance and aerial sampling, security support for intercontinental ballistic missile sites, training of USAF helicopter and HC-130 crewmen, pararescue training, and medical evacuation.
Operation Urgent Fury
In October 1983, 23 AF participated in the successful rescue of Americans from the island nation of Grenada. During the seven day operation, centered at Point Salines Airport, 23 AF furnished MC-130s, AC-130s, aircrews, maintenance, and support personnel. An EC-130 from the 193rd Special Operations Wing of the Air National Guard (ANG), played a significant psy-war role. An MC-130 pilot from the 8th Special Operations Squadron won the MacKay Trophy for his actions in leading the air drop on the Point Salines Airport.
US Special Operations Command
In May 1986, the Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act led to the formation of the United States Special Operations Command. Senators William Cohen and Sam Nunn introduced the Senate bill, and the following month Congressman Dan Daniel introduced a like measure in the House of Representatives. The key provisions of the legislation formed the basis to amend the 1986 Defense Authorizations Bill. This bill, signed into law in October 1986, in part directed the formation of a unified command responsible for special operations. In April 1987 the DoD established the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida, and Army GEN James J. Lindsay assumed command. Four months later, 23 AF moved to Hurlburt Field, Florida.
In August 1989, Gen Duane H. Cassidy, MAC Commander in Chief, divested 23rd AF of its non-special operations units. Thus, 23 AF served a dual role—still reporting to MAC, but also functioning as the air component to USSOCOM.
Operation Just Cause
From late December 1989 to early January 1990, 23 AF participated in the re-establishment of democracy in the Republic of Panama during Operation Just Cause. Special operations aircraft included both active duty and reserve AC-130 Spectre gunships, EC-130 Volant Solo psychological operations aircraft from the Air National Guard, HC-130P/N Combat Shadow tankers, MC-130E Combat Talons, and MH-53J Pave Low and MH-60G Pave Hawk helicopters. Special tactics Combat Controllers and Pararescuemen provided important support to combat units during this operation.
Spectre gunship crews of the 1st SOW earned the Mackay Trophy and Tunner Award for their efforts, a 919th SOG Spectre crew earned the President's Award, and a 1st SOW Combat Talon crew ferried the captured Panamanian President, Manuel Noriega, to prison in the United States. Likewise, the efforts of the 1st SOW maintenance people earned them the Daedalian Award.
On 22 May 1990, General Larry D. Welch, Air Force Chief of Staff, redesignated Twenty-Third Air Force as Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC). This new major command consisted of three wings: the 1st, 39th and 353rd Special Operations Wings as well as the 1720th Special Tactics Group (STG), the U.S. Air Force Special Operations School, and the Special Missions Operational Test and Evaluation Center.
Currently, after major redesignations and reorganizations, AFSOC direct reporting units include the 16th SOW, the 352nd Special Operations Group, the 353rd Special Operations Group, the 720th Special Tactics Group (STG), the USAF Special Operations School and the 18th Flight Test Squadron (FLTS). During the early 1990s a major reorganization occurred within AFSOC. The 1720th STG became the 720th STG in March 1992; the transfer of ownership of Hurlburt Field from Air Mobility Command (AMC, and formerly MAC) to AFSOC in October 1992, followed by the merger of the 834th Air Base Wing (ABW) into the 1st SOW which assumed host unit responsibilities. A year later the 1st SOW became the 16th SOW in a move to preserve Air Force heritage.
Meanwhile, the Special Missions Operational Test and Evaluation Center (SMOTEC), which explored heavy lift frontiers in special operations capabilities, while pursuing better equipment and tactics development, was also reorganized. In April 1994, the Air Force, in an effort to standardize these types of organizations, redesignated SMOTEC as the 18th Flight Test Squadron.
From early August 1990 to late February 1991, AFSOC participated in Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm, the protection of Saudi Arabia and liberation of Kuwait. Special tactics personnel operated throughout the theater on multiple combat control and combat rescue missions. Special operations forces performed direct action missions, combat search and rescue, infiltration, exfiltration, air base ground defense, air interdiction, special reconnaissance, close air support, psychological operations, and helicopter air refuelings. Pave Low crews led the helicopter assault on radars to blind Iraq at the onset of hostilities, and they also accomplished the deepest rescue for which they received the Mackay Trophy.
Combat Talons dropped the largest conventional bombs of the war and, along with Combat Shadows, dropped the most psy-war leaflets. The AC-130s provided valuable fire support and armed reconnaissance, but they also suffered the single greatest combat loss of coalition air forces with the shooting down of Spirit 03. All fourteen crew members aboard were lost.
In December 1992, AFSOC special tactics and intelligence personnel supported Operation Restore Hope in Somalia. In late 1994, AFSOC units spearheaded Operation Uphold Democracy in Haiti, and in 1995 Operation Deliberate Force in the Balkans.
Operation Enduring Freedom
The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City, and the Pentagon, Washington D.C., on 11 September 2001 pushed the United States special operations forces to the forefront of the war against terrorism. By the end of September 2001, AFSOC deployed forces to southwest Asia for Operation Enduring Freedom to help destroy the al Qaeda terrorist organization and remove the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. AFSOC airpower delivered special tactics forces to the battle ground and they in turn focused U.S. airpower and allowed Afghanistan's Northern Alliance ground forces to dispatch the Taliban and al Qaeda from Afghanistan. AFSOC personnel also deployed to the Philippines to help aid that country's efforts against terrorism.
Operation Iraqi Freedom
In March 2003, AFSOC again deployed forces to southwest Asia this time in support of what would become Operation Iraqi Freedom – the removal of Saddam Hussein and his Baathist government. The command's personnel and aircraft teamed with SOF and conventional forces to quickly bring down Saddam Hussein's government by May 2003. AFSOC forces have continued to conduct operations since then, in support of the new Iraqi government against insurgents and terrorists.
AFSOC has had nine commanders since its inception in 1990.
|List of AFSOC Commanders|
|Name||Tenure start||Tenure End|
|Maj. Gen. Thomas E. Eggers||22 May 1990||20 Jun 1991|
|Maj. Gen. Bruce L. Fister||21 Jun 1991||21 Jul 1994|
|Maj. Gen. James L. Hobson, Jr.||22 Jul 1994||8 Jul 1997|
|Maj. Gen. Charles R. Holland||9 Jul 1997||4 Aug 1999|
|Lt. Gen. Maxwell C. Bailey||5 Aug 1999||15 Jan 2002|
|Lt. Gen. Paul V. Hester||16 Jan 2002||30 Jun 2004|
|Lt. Gen. Michael W. Wooley||1 Jul 2004||26 Nov 2007|
|Lt. Gen. Donald C. Wurster||27 Nov 2007||24 Jun 2011|
|Lt. Gen. Eric E. Fiel||24 Jun 2011||Incumbent|
- Haas, Michael E. Apollo's Warriors: U.S. Air Force Special Operations During the Cold War. 2002, University Press of the Pacific, Honolulu. ISBN 9781410200099.
- SOCOM Public Affairs (2013). SOCOM Fact Book 2013. SOCOM Public Affairs.
- Haas, Apollo's Warriors: U.S. Special Operations During the Cold War
- 23rd AF deactivates. Afsoc.af.mil. Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
- AFSOC stands up Air Warfare Center. Afsoc.af.mil. Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
- AirForce-magazine.com: The SOF Makeover (Air Force Special Operations Command's aircraft and review), by Marc V. Schanz, June 2010, Vol. 93, No. 6.
- U.S. Seeks Faster Deployment; Smaller, More Flexible Special-Operations Teams Would Tackle Emerging Threats Under New Plan 7 May 2012
- USAF Special Operations Command Official Site.
- AFSOC to get first 10 Skytrucks, airforcetimes.com
- FlightGlobal.com: Lockheed Martin C-130J selected for new special operations role, by Stephen Trimble, Washington DC, 18 Jun 2008; accessed: 20 Feb 2012
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to United States Air force Special Operations Forces.|
- Air Force Special Operations Command Home Page—Official AFSOC public site
- AFSOC Factsheet, public site
- United States Air Force—Official website
- ShadowSpear Special Operations: AFSOC