APS-C

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The Canon EOS 60D, a typical APS-C format camera

Advanced Photo System type-C (APS-C) is an image sensor format approximately equivalent in size to the Advanced Photo System "classic" negatives of 25.1 × 16.7 mm, an aspect ratio of 3:2.

CCD SONY ICX493AQA 10.14(Gross 10.75) Mpixels APS-C 1.8" (23.98 x 16.41mm) sensor side

Sensors approximating to these dimensions are used in many digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLRs), Mirrorless interchangeable-lens cameras (DSLMs), and a few large-sensor live-preview digital cameras. These include the Sony DSC-R1, Sigma DP1 and Leica X1). APS-C size sensors are also used in a few digital rangefinders (e.g., the Epson R-D1).

Such sensors exist in many different variants depending on the manufacturer and camera model.[1] All APS-C variants are considerably smaller than 35 mm standard film which measures 36×24 mm. Because of this devices with APS-C sensors are known as "cropped frame". Sensor sizes range from 20.7×13.8 mm to 28.7×19.1 mm. Each variant results in a slightly different angle of view from lenses at the same focal length and overall a much narrower angle of view compared to 35 mm film. This is why each manufacturer offers a range of lenses designed for its format.

Advantages and disadvantages[edit]

Using the same resolution, quality of image from APS-C sensor is higher(Especially in low-light scenarios) when compared to smaller sensor, due to its pixels having a larger size which allows it to collect more light. APS-C sensor can also have higher resolution without any significant decrease in image quality.

The APS-C sensor size is similar to the classic super 35mm film size. In this regard it provides a classic film look.

As APS-C sensor is smaller than Full-Frame sensor, they increase the apparent focal length of the lens meant for Full-Frame sensor, which results in images appearing to be more "zoomed in". In wildlife or sports photography the increased focal length would be considered advantageous. If the lens is not perfect, geometric distortions (near the picture edges in particular) may decrease with a smaller sensor.

And of course, camera size, weight and price decrease as sensor size decreases.

Brand designations[edit]

Drawing showing the relative sizes of sensors used in most current digital cameras.

Most DSLR and third party lens manufacturers now make lenses specifically designed for APS-C cameras. The designations by brand include:

Multiplier factors[edit]

A crop factor (sometimes referred to as a "focal length multiplier", even though the actual focal length is the same) can be used to calculate the 35 mm equivalent focal length from the actual focal length. The most common multiplier ratios:

Notes:
Discontinued
A 1.3× Focal Length Multiplier is also known as APS-H. Actual multiplier factor is 1.255x for the 1D Digital, 1.28× for the Canon EOS-1D Mark III and 1.29× for the Canon EOS-1D Mark IV[1][2]. Leica M8 is 1.33x[3]

APS-C lens formats[edit]

Canon, Nikon, Pentax and Sony have developed and designed lenses specifically for their cameras with a lens factor (more fully, lens focal length conversion factor) or "crop factor" with most of the brands use 1.5× crop factor, except Canon use 1.6× crop factor. APS-C cameras use a smaller area to form the image than traditional 35 mm cameras, and so lenses used on APS-C format cameras have a correspondingly narrower field of view. For example, a 28 mm lens is a wide angle lens on a traditional 35mm camera. But the same lens on an APS-C camera, with a lens factor of 1.6× (relative to a standard full-frame 35mm format camera), has the same angle of view as a 45 mm (28 mm × 1.6 lens factor) lens on a 35 mm camera—i.e. a normal lens.[2] Several third-party lens manufacturers, such as Tamron, Tokina, and Sigma, also manufacture a range of lenses optimised for APS-C sensors.

Canon introduced the Canon EF-S line of lenses in 2003 alongside the 300D. These lenses place the rear of the lens closer to the camera's sensor (referred to as short back focus). This has several benefits, including lighter lenses and a narrower field of view (which implies “longer” zoom). EF-S lenses are compatible with Canon's APS-C digital SLRs, with the exception of the early Canon EOS D30, Canon EOS D60, and Canon EOS 10D, which predated the introduction of the mounting system. EF-S lenses will not physically mount on Canon's full-frame digital or 35mm film SLRs.

Nikon has their DX format for their line of APS-C digital cameras. These can be mounted to all full-frame Nikon digital bodies at the cost of fewer megapixels. These lenses generally exhibit vignetting when mounted on Nikon film bodies, but may be usable at longer focal lengths.

Pentax produces the DA line for their APS-C cameras (the company has yet to introduce a full-frame DSLR). These lenses are available in focal lengths that offer similar field-of-view as lenses previously available for 135 film. The trademark compact design of the DA limited series takes advantage of the smaller APS-C format with the lenses under 40mm and is fully usable on 135 Film with the DA Limited Lenses over 35mm focal length. All DA lenses can be mounted on Pentax film bodies, albeit with increased vignetting. All fixed focal lengths in the rugged DA* series cover 35 film format fully.[3]

Sony has a DT line specifically designed for their APS-C cameras. These lenses can be mounted on any Sony A-mount camera, but are specifically designed for the DSLR-A100 up to DSLR-A700 series of APS-C-format DSLRs, the earlier Konica Minolta 5D and 7D, and the current Alpha SLTs. DT lenses can be mounted on full-frame models like the DSLR-A850, DSLR-A900, SLT-A99, or A7/A7R in "crop" mode, where the frame is cropped and the resolution is roughly halved.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Sensor Sizes". Vincent Bockaert. Retrieved 2012-04-05. 
  2. ^ "Crop Sensor (APS-C) Cameras and Lens Confusion". Bobatkins.com. Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-30. 
  3. ^ "Compatibility of DA Lenses on Full Frame". RiceHigh's Pentax Blog. 2012-03-22. Retrieved 2012-04-05. 

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