Abdul-Qadir Gilani

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Sheikh

Abdul Qadir, Al Jilani, Muhyi'd-Diin, Sultaan al-Awliyaa

Ghaus-e-Aazam [1]
AbdulQadir.jpg
Tomb Of Sheikh Abdul Qadir, Baghdad, Iraq.
Full Name Al-Sayyid Muhiyudin Abu Muhammad Abdal Qadir Al-Jilani Al-Hasani Wal-Hussaini
Born 2nd Ramadan 470 AH[2] or Mar. 19, 1078[3]
Jurisprudence Hanbali[4][5]
Died 8th Rabi al-Awwal 561 AH
Jan. 12, 1166 CE[6][7]
Birthplace Gilan, Tabarestan, Persia[8]
Place of Burial Tomb Of Abdul Qadir, Baghdad, Iraq
Father Abu Salih Musa al-Hasani
Mother Ummul Khair Fatima
• • Madina
• Sadiqa
• Mu'minah
• Mahboobah
Son(s) • Saifuddin
• Sharfuddin
• Abu Bakr
• Sirajuddin
Yahya
• Musa
• Muhammad
• Ibrahim
• Abdullah
• Abdul Wahab
• Abu Naser Musa
Descendants Sheikh
Other Titles Shaykh
("Leader")
Abd al-Qadir
("Servant of the All-Powerful")
Al-Jilani
("One Who Is from Gilan")
Muhyi’d-Din
("Reviver of the Religion")
Abu Muhammad
("Father of Muhammad")
Al-Ghawth al-A'zam
• ("The Supreme Helper")
Sultan al-Awliya
("The King of the Saints")
Al-Hasani Al-Husaini
("The descendant of both Imam al-Hasan and Imam al-Husain)

Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (Arabic: عبد القادر الجيلاني‎), (Persian: عبد القادر گیلانی‎, Turkish: Abdülkâdir Geylânî, Kurdish: Evdilqadirê Geylanî, Urdu: عبد القادر گیلانیAbdolqāder Gilāni,(Tamil: அப்துல் காதிர் ஜிலானி ரலியல்லாஹூ அன்ஹூ), Bengali: আব্দুল কাদের জিলানী (রহ.))[9] Al-Sayyid Muhiyudin Abu Muhammad Abdal Qadir Al-Jilani Al-Hasani Wal-Hussaini (born 11 Rabi al-Thani, 470 Hijri, in the town of Na'if, district of Gilan, Ilam Province Or Amol of Tabarestan, Persia, died 8 Rabi al-Awwal 561 AH, in Baghdad,[10] (1077–1166 CE), was a Persian[11] Hanbali jurist and Sufi based in Baghdad. Qadiriyya was his patronym.

Family[edit]

Al-Gilani was born around 1077, in Persia.[nb 1][12] His family was part of the Hanbali school, one of the schools of religious law within Sunni Islam. Al-Gilani's father, Abu Salih Musa al-Hasani, was a descendant of Hasan ibn Ali, (Imam Hasan). Hassan was the eldest son of Ali and Fatimah. Ali was Muhammad's son-in-law and also cousin and Fatima was Muhammad's daughter. Al-Gilani's mother was the daughter of Abdullah Sawmai, a descendant of Husayn ibn Ali, the younger son of Ali and Fatima. Thus, Al-Gilani was both a Hasani and Hussaini Sayyid.

Name[edit]

Within Al-Gilani's full name, al-Sayyid Muhiyudin Abu Muhammad Abdal Qadir al-Jilani al-Hasani wal-Hussaini, the word Sayyid denotes his descent from Muhammad.[13] The name Muhiyudin describes him as a "reviver of religion".[14] The phrase, al-Jilani refers to Al Gilani's place of birth.[15][16] However, Al-Gilani also carried the epithet, al-Baghdadi.[17][18][19] referring to his residence and burial in Baghdad. The phrase al-Hasani wal-Hussaini affirms his lineal descent from both Hasan ibn Ali and Hussein ibn Ali, the grandsons of Muhammad.[20][21] Describing Al Gilani with the phrase 'Najib al-tarafayn Sayyid' indicates that both his mother and father were of apostolic lineage.[22]

Paternal heritage[edit]

Al Gilani's father was a Sayyed.[23][24] He was respected as a saint would be, by the people of his day, and was known as "Jangi Dost", (one who loves God), thus "Jangidost" was his sobriquet.[25][26][27]

Education[edit]

Al Gilani spent his early life in Na'if, the town of his birth. In 1095, at the age of eighteen years, he went to Baghdad. There, he pursued the study of Hanbali law.[28] Abu Ali al-Mukharrimi gave Al Gilani lessons in Fiqh. He was given lessons about Hadith by Abu Bakr ibn Muzaffar. He was given lessons about Tafsir by Abu Muhammad Ja'far, a commentator. In Tasawwuf, his spiritual instructor was Abu'l-Khair Hammad ibn Muslim al-Dabbas.[29] (A detailed description of his various teachers and subjects are included below). After completing his education, Gilani left Baghdad. He spent twenty-five years as a reclusive wanderer in the desert regions of Iraq.[30]

Subject Shaykh (Teacher)
Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) Abu Al Wafae Ali ibn Aqeel Hanbali
Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) Abu Al Hasan Mohd. ibn Qazi Abu Yali
Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) Abu Al Khatab Mahfuz Hanbali
Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) Muhammad ibn Al Husnayn
Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) Qazi Abu Saeed Mubarak ibn Ali al-Mukharrami
Tasawwuf (Sufism) Abu'l-Khair Hammad ibn Muslim al-Dabbas
Tasawwuf (Sufism) Abu Zakariay ibn Yahya ibn Ali Al Tabrezi
Hadith Abu Bakr ibn Muzaffar
Hadith Mohd. Ibn Al Hasan Baqalai Abu Sayeed

Mohd. ibn Abdul Kareem

Hadith Abu Al Ghanaem Mohd. Ibn Mohd Ali Ibn Maymoon Al Farsi
Hadith Abu Bakr Ahmad Ibn Al Muzaffar
Hadith Abu Jafer Ibn Ahmad Ibn Al Hussain Al Qari
Hadith Abu Al Qasim Ali Ibn Mohd. Ibn Banaan Al Karkhi
Hadith Abu Talib Abdul Qadri Ibn Mohd. Yusuf
Hadith Abdul Rahman Ibn Ahmad Abu Al Barkat Hibtaallah Ibn Al Mubarak
Hadith Abu Al Nasr Ibn Il Mukhtar
Hadith Abu Nasr Muhammad
Hadith Abu Ghalib Ahmad
Hadith Abu Abdullah Aulad Ali Al Bana
Hadith Abu Al Hasan Al Mubarak Ibn Al Teyvari
Hadith Abu Mansur Abdurahman Al Taqrar

[31]

Later life and Miracles[edit]

In 1127, Al Gilani returned to Baghdad and began to preach to the public.[12] He joined the teaching staff of the school belonging to his own teacher, al-Mukharrimii, and was popular with students. In the morning he taught hadith and tafsir, and in the afternoon he held discourse on the science of the heart and the virtues of the Qur'an. He was said to have been a convincing preacher and converted numerous Jews and Christians. His strength came in the reconciling of the mystical nature of the Sufi and strict nature of the Qur'an.[12] He felt it important to control egotism and worldliness in submission to God.

The chain of Spiritual masters of Qadiriyya order[edit]

  • Prophet Muhammad ibn Abdullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam
  • Ameerul Mo'mineen Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib radiAllahu ta'ala anhu
  • Shaikh Khwaja Hasan Basri
  • Shaikh Habib Ajami
  • Shaikh Dawood Taee
  • Shaikh Ma'ruf al-Karkhi
  • Shaikh Siri Saqati
  • Shaikh Junayd al-Baghdadi
  • Shaikh Abu Bakr Shibli
  • Shaikh Sheikh Abdul Aziz al-Tamīmī
  • Shaikh Abu al-Fadl Abu al-Wahid al-Tamīmī
  • Shaikh Abu al-Farah Tartusi
  • Shaikh Abu al-Hasan Qureishi
  • Shaikh Abu Sa'id al-Mubarak Mukharrami
  • Shaikh Sayyed Abdul Qadir Jilani

Blessed Successors (Khalifa)[edit]

Besides his sons his other famous successors (khalifas) are :

(1) Khwaja Shahaab-ud-deen Umar Suharwardi

(2) Hazrat Abu Madyan Shuaib ibn Husain al-Ansari (Tlemcen, Algeria)

(3) Shah Abu Umar Qureshi Marzook

(4) Shaikh Qareeb Alban Mosali

(5) Shaikh Ahmad bin Mubarak

(6) Shaikh Abu Saeed Shibli

(7) Shaikh Ali Haddad.

Death and burial[edit]

Al Gilani died in the evening of Saturday 1166 (8 Rabi' al-Awwal 561AH) at the age of eighty nine years (by the Islamic calendar).[10] His body was entombed in a shrine within his madrassa in Babul-Sheikh, Resafa (East bank of the Tigris) in Baghdad, Iraq.[32][33][34] During the reign of the Safavid Shah Ismail I, Gilani's shrine was destroyed,[35] however in 1535 the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman had a turba built over the shrine, which exists to this day.[36] The Sufi orders celebrate "Ghouse-al-azham day" on the date of Al Gilani's death.[citation needed]

Books[edit]

  • Futuh al-Ghaib (Revelations of the Unseen) – 78 discourses, fairly short and to the point but very powerful.
  • Al-Fath ar-Rabbani (The Sublime Revelation) – 62 discourses, definitely longer, given in the Ribaat and Madrasa in Baghdad AH 545–546.
  • Jala' al-Khawatir (The Removal of Cares) – 45 discourses, also in the same locations, given in the year AH 546.
  • Malfuzat (Utterances of Shaikh 'Abd al-Qadir) – This is a collection of quotes from the Shaikh. Generally, it is found at the end of the hand-copied, Arabic manuscripts of Fath ar-Rabbani.
  • Al-Ghunya li-Talibi Tariq al-Haqq (Sufficient Provision for Seekers of the Path of Truth, also known in the Indian sub-continent as Al-Ghunya li-Talibin). These five volumes, written by the Shaikh at the request of one of his murids, is a comprehensive guide to all aspects of Islam, both the inward and the outward.
  • Khamsata 'Ashara Maktuban (Fifteen Letters) – These are 15 letters originally written in Persian by Shaikh 'Abd al-Qadir to one of his murids.
  • Al-Fuyudat al-Rabbaniyya (Emanations of Lordly Grace)
  • Bashair al-Khairat (Glad Tidings of Good Things) – A Salawat by Shaykh Abd al-Qadir by way of inspiration from Allah.
  • Kitab Sirr al-Asrar wa Mazhar al-Anwar (The Book of the Secret of Secrets and the Manifestation of Light

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Sayings of Shaikh Abd al-Qadir al-Jīlānī Malfūzāt, Holland, Mutah (translator). S. Abdul Majeed & Co, Kuala Lumpur (1994) ISBN 1-882216-03-2.
  • Fifteen letters, khamsata ashara maktūban / Shaikh Abd Al-Qādir Al-Jīlānī. Translated from Persian to Arabic by Alī usāmu ́D-Dīn Al-Muttaqī. Translated from Arabic into English by Muhtar Holland.
  • Kamsata ašara maktūban. First edition. ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn, ʿAlī B., ʿAbd al-Malik al- Muttaqī al-Hindī (about 1480–1567) and Muhtar Holland (1935–). Al-Baz publications, Hollywood, Florida. (1997) ISBN 1-882216-16-4.
  • Jalā Al-Khawātir: a collection of forty-five discourses of Shaikh Abd Al-Qādir Al-Jīlānī, the removal of cares. Chapter 23, pg 308. Jalā al-Khawātir, Holland, Mutah (1935–) (translator). Al-Baz publications, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. (1997) ISBN 1-882216-13-X.
  • The sultan of the saints: mystical life and teachings of Shaikh Syed Abdul Qadir Jilani / Muhammad Riaz Qadiri Qadiri, Muhammad Riyaz. Gujranwala, Abbasi publications. (2000) ISBN 969-8510-16-8.
  • The sublime revelation: al-Fath ar-Rabbānī, a collection of sixty-two discourses / Abd al-Qādir al- Jīlānī, Second edition. al-Rabbānī, al-Fath. Al-Baz publications, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. (1998). ISBN 1-882216-02-4.
  • Al-Ghunya li-talibi tariq al-haqq wa al-din, (Sufficient provision for seekers of the path of truth and religion), Parts one and two in Arabic. Al-Qadir, Abd, Al-Gaylani. Dar Al-Hurya, Baghdad, Iraq, (1988).
  • Al-Ghunya li-talibi tariq al-haqq wa al-din, (Sufficient provision for seekers of the path of truth and religion.) in Arabic. Introduced by Al-Kilani, Majid Irsan. Dar Al-Khair, Damascus, Bairut, (2005).
  • Encyclopædia Iranica.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ There is uncertainty as to the year of his birth; some sources say 1077, others 1078.

References[edit]

  1. ^ www.al-baz.com, www.al-baz.com. "Titles". www.al-baz.com. 
  2. ^ "Birth Date". 
  3. ^ "Birth Hijri and Gregorian Year". 
  4. ^ John Renard, The A to Z of Sufism. p 142. ISBN 081086343X
  5. ^ Juan Eduardo Campo, Encyclopedia of Islam, p. 288. ISBN 1438126964
  6. ^ Shad, Abdur Rahman. Ali Al-Murtaza. Kazi Publications; 1978 1st Edition. Mohiyuddin, Dr. Ata. Ali The Superman. Sh. Muhammad Ashraf Publishers; 1980 1st Edition. Lalljee, Yousuf N. Ali The Magnificent. Ansariyan Publications; Jan 1981 1st Edition.
  7. ^ "Hijri Date". 
  8. ^ "Birth Place". 
  9. ^ "Names". 
  10. ^ a b The works of Shaykh Umar Eli of Somalia of al-Tariqat al-Qadiriyyah.
  11. ^ W. Braune, Abd al-Kadir al-Djilani, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, ed. H.A.R Gibb, J.H.Kramers, E. Levi-Provencal, J. Schacht, (Brill, 1986), 69.
  12. ^ a b c "'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani". Encyclopedia Britannica. I: A-Ak – Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. 2010. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8. 
  13. ^ Muslim communities of grace: the Sufi brotherhoods in Islamic religious life pg 94, Abun-Nasr, Jamil M. Columbia University Press. (2007). ISBN 978-0-231-14330-1.
  14. ^ Mihr-e-munīr: biography of Hadrat Syed Pīr Meher Alī Shāh pg 21, Muhammad Fādil Khān, Faid Ahmad. Sajjadah Nashinan of Golra Sharif, Islamabad (1998).
  15. ^ Encyclopaedia of religion and ethics: volume 1. (A – Art). Part 1. (A – Algonquins) pg 10. Hastings, James and Selbie, John A. Adamant Media corporation. (2001), "and he was probably of Persian origin."
  16. ^ The Sufi orders in Islam, 2nd edition, pg 32. Triingham, J. Spencer and Voll, John O. Oxford University Press US, (1998), "The Hanbali Qadirriya is also included since 'Abd al-Qadir, of Persian origin was contemporary of the other two."
  17. ^ Devotional Islam and politics in British India: Ahmad Riza Khan Barelwi and his movement, 1870–1920, pg 144, Sanyal, Usha Oxford University Press US, 19 August 1999. ISBN 0-19-564862-5 ISBN 978-0-19-564862-1.
  18. ^ Cultural and religious heritage of India: Islam pg 321. Sharma, Suresh K. (2004)
  19. ^ Indo-iranica pg 7. The Iran Society, Calcutta, India. (1985).
  20. ^ Biographical encyclopaedia of sufis: central asia and middle east, pg 123, Vol 2. Hanif N. Sarup and Sons. (2002) ISBN 81-7625-266-2, 9788176252669.
  21. ^ The Election of Caliph/Khalifah and World Peace pg 176. Mowla, Khondakar G. (1998).
  22. ^ Burton R.F. "Arabian Nights" Volume 5 Chapter 61 Footnote 466.
  23. ^ Historical and political who's who of Afghanistan. p 177. Adamec, Ludwig W. (1975)
  24. ^ The Sultan of the saints: mystical life and teaching of Shaikh Syed Abdul Qadir Jilani, pg 19, Riyāz Qādrī, Muhammad. Abassi publications, University of Michigan (2000).
  25. ^ Sulook organisation website.
  26. ^ Mihr-e-munīr: biography of Hadrat Syed Pīr Meher Alī Shāh pg 27, Khān, Muhammad Fādil and Ahmad, Faid. Sajjadah Nashinan of Golra Sharif, Islamabad. (1997)
  27. ^ Encyclopaedia of Sufism, volume 1, Kahn, Masood Ali and Ram, S.
  28. ^ Juan Eduardo Campo, Encyclopedia of Islam, p 4. ISBN 1438126964
  29. ^ Malise Ruthven, Islam in the World, p 243. ISBN 0195305035
  30. ^ Esposito J. L. The Oxford dictionary of Islam. p160. ISBN 0199757267
  31. ^ Akbar, pg.11 Al Haqq, Abd. and Ghunyat al-talibeen (Wealth for Seekers) pg. 12 Urdu version
  32. ^ Al-Ghunya li-talibi tariq al-haqq wa al-din (Sufficient provision for seekers of the path of truth and religion), parts one and two in arabic, Al-Qadir, Abd and Al-Gilani. Dar Al-Hurya, Baghdad, Iraq, (1988).
  33. ^ Al-Ghunya li-talibi tariq al-haqq wa al-din (Sufficient provision for seekers of the path of truth and religion) with introduction by Al-Kilani, Majid Irsan. Al-Kilani, Majid , al-Tariqat, 'Ursan, and al-Qadiriyah, Nash'at
  34. ^ The Qadirya shrine, Baghdad.
  35. ^ A.A. Duri, Baghdad, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, 903.
  36. ^ W. Braune, Abd al-Kadir al-Djilani,The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, 70.

External links[edit]