Abdul Qadir al-jilani
c. 18 March 1077
|Died||15 January 1166
|Cause of death||natural causes|
|Resting place||Grave of Abdul Qadir, Baghdad, Iraq.|
|Other names||Sheikh, Abdul Qadir al-Jilani|
|Parents||Abu Salih (father), Umm Khair Fatima (mother).|
|Sufism and Tariqa|
Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (Arabic: عبد القادر الجيلاني), (Kurdish: Evdilqadirê Geylanî, Persian: عبد القادر گیلانی,Urdu: عبد القادر آملی گیلانی Abdolqāder Gilāni, Bengali: আব্দুল কাদের জিলানী (রহ.)) Al-Sayyid Muhiyudin Abu Muhammad Abdal Qadir Al-Jilani Al-Hasani Wal-Hussaini (born the first day of Ramadan, 470, in the town of Na'if, district of Gilan, Ilam Province, Persia, died 11 Rabīʿ ath-Thānī 561 AH, in Baghdad, 1077–1166 CE), was a Persian Hanbali jurist and Sufi based in Baghdad. Qadiriyya was his patronym.
Al-Gilani was born around 1077, in Na'if, Persia.[nb 1] His family was part of the Hanbali school, one of the schools of religious law within Sunni Islam. Al-Gilani's father, Abu Salih Musa al-Hasani, was a descendant of Hasan ibn Ali, (Imam Hasan). Hassan was the eldest son of Ali and Fatimah. Ali was Muhammad's cousin and Fatima was Muhammad's daughter. Al-Gilani's mother was the daughter of Abdullah Sawmai, a descendant of Husayn ibn Ali, the younger son of Ali and Fatima. Thus, Al-Gilani was both a Hasani and Hussaini Sayyid.
Within Al-Gilani's full name, al-Sayyid Muhiyudin Abu Muhammad Abdal Qadir al-Jilani al-Hasani wal-Hussaini, the word Sayyid denotes his descent from Muhammad. The name Muhiyudin describes him as a "reviver of religion". The phrase, al-Jilani refers to Al Gilani's place of birth. However, Al-Gilani also carried the epithet, al-Baghdadi. referring to his residence and burial in Baghdad. The phrase al-Hasani wal-Hussaini affirms his lineal descent from both Hasan ibn Ali and Hussein ibn Ali, the grandsons of Muhammad. Describing Al Gilani with the phrase 'Najib al-tarafayn Sayyid' indicates that both his mother and father were of apostolic lineage.
Al Gilani's father was a Sayyid. He was respected as a saint would be, by the people of his day, and was known as "Jangi Dost", (one who loves God), thus "Jangidost" was his sobriquet.
Al Gilani spent his early life in Na'if, the town of his birth. In 1095, at the age of eighteen years, he went to Baghdad. There, he pursued the study of Hanbali law. Abu Ali al-Mukharrimi gave Al Gilani lessons in Fiqh. He was given lessons about Hadith by Abu Bakr ibn Muzaffar. He was given lessons about Tafsir by Abu Muhammad Ja'far, a commentator. In Tasawwuf, his spiritual instructor was Abu'l-Khair Hammad ibn Muslim al-Dabbas. (A detailed description of his various teachers and subjects are included below). After completing his education, Gilani left Baghdad. He spent twenty-five years as a reclusive wanderer in the desert regions of Iraq.
|Fiqh (Islamid Jurisprudence)||Abu Al Wafae Ali ibn Aqeel Hanbali|
|Fiqh (Islamid Jurisprudence)||Abu Al Hasan Mohd. ibn Qazi Abu Yali|
|Fiqh (Islamid Jurisprudence)||Abu Al Khatab Mahfuz Hanbali|
|Fiqh (Islamid Jurisprudence)||Muhammad ibn Al Husnayn|
|Fiqh (Islamid Jurisprudence)||Qazi Abu Saeed Mubarak ibn Ali al-Mukharrami|
|Tasawwuf (Sufism)||Abu'l-Khair Hammad ibn Muslim al-Dabbas|
|Tasawwuf (Sufism)||Abu Zakariay ibn Yahya ibn Ali Al Tabrezi|
|Hadith||Abu Bakr ibn Muzaffar|
|Hadith||Mohd. Ibn Al Hasan Baqalai Abu Sayeed
Mohd. ibn Abdul Kareem
|Hadith||Abu Al Ghanaem Mohd. Ibn Mohd Ali Ibn Maymoon Al Farsi|
|Hadith||Abu Bakr Ahmad Ibn Al Muzaffar|
|Hadith||Abu Jafer Ibn Ahmad Ibn Al Hussain Al Qari|
|Hadith||Abu Al Qasim Ali Ibn Mohd. Ibn Banaan Al Karkhi|
|Hadith||Abu Talib Abdul Qadri Ibn Mohd. Yusuf|
|Hadith||Abdul Rahman Ibn Ahmad Abu Al Barkat Hibtaallah Ibn Al Mubarak|
|Hadith||Abu Al Nasr Ibn Il Mukhtar|
|Hadith||Abu Nasr Muhammad|
|Hadith||Abu Ghalib Ahmad|
|Hadith||Abu Abdullah Aulad Ali Al Bana|
|Hadith||Abu Al Hasan Al Mubarak Ibn Al Teyvari|
|Hadith||Abu Mansur Abdurahman Al Taqrar|
In his book, Ghuniyya-t at-Talibeen, Abdul-Qadir Gilani said,
- "There are 73 groups as foretold by Sayyadina Rasulullah (Salla Allahu ta'ala 'alayhi wa Sallam). The group which will be saved from the fire of Hell is the Ahl as-Sunnah Wal Jama'ah."
In 1127, Al Gilani returned to Baghdad and began to preach to the public. He joined the teaching staff of the school belonging to his own teacher, al-Mukharrimii, and was popular with students. In the morning he taught hadith and tafsir, and in the afternoon he held discourse on the science of the heart and the virtues of the Qur'an. He was said to have been a convincing preacher and converted numerous Jews and Christians. His strength came in the reconciling of the mystical nature of the Sufi and strict nature of the Qur'an. He felt it important to control egotism and worldliness in submission to God.
Death and burial
Al Gilani died in the evening of Saturday 1166 (11 Rabi'us sani 561AH) at the age of ninety-one years (by the Islamic calendar). His body was entombed in a shrine within his madrassa in Babul-Sheikh, Resafa (East bank of the Tigris) in Baghdad, Iraq. During the reign of the Safavid Shah Ismail I, Gilani's shrine was destroyed, however in 1535 the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman had a turba built over the shrine, which exists to this day. The Sufi orders celebrate "Ghouse-al-azham day" on the date of Al Gilani's death.
- Futuh al-Ghaib (Revelations of the Unseen) - 78 discourses, fairly short and to the point but very powerful.
- Al-Fath ar-Rabbani (The Sublime Revelation) - 62 discourses, definitely longer, given in the Ribaat and Madrasa in Baghdad AH 545-546.
- Jala' al-Khawatir (The Removal of Cares) - 45 discourses, also in the same locations, given in the year AH 546.
- Malfuzat (Utterances of Shaikh 'Abd al-Qadir) - This is a collection of quotes from the Shaikh. Generally, it is found at the end of the hand-copied, Arabic manuscripts of Fath ar-Rabbani.
- Al-Ghunya li-Talibi Tariq al-Haqq (Sufficient Provision for Seekers of the Path of Truth, also known in the Indian sub-continent as Al-Ghunya li-Talibin). These five volumes, written by the Shaikh at the request of one of his murids, is a comprehensive guide to all aspects of Islam, both the inward and the outward.
- Khamsata 'Ashara Maktuban (Fifteen Letters) - These are 15 letters originally written in Persian by Shaikh 'Abd al-Qadir to one of his murids.
- Al-Fuyudat al-Rabbaniyya (Emanations of Lordly Grace)
- Bashair al-Khairat (Glad Tidings of Good Things) - A Salawat by Shaykh Abd al-Qadir by way of inspiration from Allah.
- Kitab Sirr al-Asrar wa Mazhar al-Anwar (The Book of the Secret of Secrets and the Manifestation of Lights)
- Sir Al-Asrar (Secret of secrets) (English translation)
- Moinuddin Chishti
- Ashraf Jahangir Semnani
- Ahmed Ullah Maizbhanderi
- Syed Ibrahim
- Ahmed Raza Khan Qadiri
- Sayings of Shaikh Abd al-Qadir al-Jīlānī Malfūzāt, Holland, Mutah (translator). S. Abdul Majeed & Co, Kuala Lumpur (1994) ISBN 1-882216-03-2.
- Fifteen letters, khamsata ashara maktūban / Shaikh Abd Al-Qādir Al-Jīlānī. Translated from Persian to Arabic by Alī usāmu ́D-Dīn Al-Muttaqī. Translated from Arabic into English by Muhtar Holland.
- Kamsata ašara maktūban. First edition. ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn, ʿAlī B., ʿAbd al-Malik al- Muttaqī al-Hindī (about 1480–1567) and Muhtar Holland (1935-). Al-Baz publications, Hollywood, Florida. (1997) ISBN 1-882216-16-4.
- Jalā Al-Khawātir: a collection of forty-five discourses of Shaikh Abd Al-Qādir Al-Jīlānī, the removal of cares. Chapter 23, pg 308. Jalā al-Khawātir, Holland, Mutah (1935-) (translator). Al-Baz publications, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. (1997) ISBN 1-882216-13-X.
- The sultan of the saints: mystical life and teachings of Shaikh Syed Abdul Qadir Jilani / Muhammad Riaz Qadiri Qadiri, Muhammad Riyaz. Gujranwala, Abbasi publications. (2000) ISBN 969-8510-16-8.
- The sublime revelation: al-Fath ar-Rabbānī, a collection of sixty-two discourses / Abd al-Qādir al- Jīlānī, Second edition. al-Rabbānī, al-Fath. Al-Baz publications, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. (1998). ISBN 1-882216-02-4.
- Al-Ghunya li-talibi tariq al-haqq wa al-din, (Sufficient provision for seekers of the path of truth and religion), Parts one and two in Arabic. Al-Qadir, Abd, Al-Gaylani. Dar Al-Hurya, Baghdad, Iraq, (1988).
- Al-Ghunya li-talibi tariq al-haqq wa al-din, (Sufficient provision for seekers of the path of truth and religion.) in Arabic. Introduced by Al-Kilani, Majid Irsan. Dar Al-Khair, Damascus, Bairut, (2005).
- Encyclopædia Iranica.
- There is uncertainty as to the year of his birth; some sources say 1077, others 1078.
- Abd al-Kadir al-Djilani, W. Braune, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, ed. H.A.R Gibb, J.H.Kramers, E. Levi-Provencal, J. Schacht, (Brill, 1986), 69.
- "'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani". Encyclopedia Britannica. I: A-Ak - Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. 2010. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
- Muslim communities of grace: the Sufi brotherhoods in Islamic religious life pg 94, Abun-Nasr, Jamil M. Columbia University Press. (2007). ISBN 978-0-231-14330-1.
- Mihr-e-munīr: biography of Hadrat Syed Pīr Meher Alī Shāh pg 21, Muhammad Fādil Khān, Faid Ahmad. Sajjadah Nashinan of Golra Sharif, Islamabad (1998).
- Encyclopaedia of religion and ethics: volume 1. (A - Art). Part 1. (A - Algonquins) pg 10. Hastings, James and Selbie, John A. Adamant Media corporation. (2001), "and he was probably of Persian origin."
- The Sufi orders in Islam, 2nd edition, pg 32. Triingham, J. Spencer and Voll, John O. Oxford University Press US, (1998), "The Hanbali Qadirriya is also included since 'Abd al-Qadir, of Persian origin was contemporary of the other two."
- Devotional Islam and politics in British India: Ahmad Riza Khan Barelwi and his movement, 1870–1920, pg 144, Sanyal, Usha Oxford University Press US, 19 August 1999. ISBN 0-19-564862-5 ISBN 978-0-19-564862-1.
- Cultural and religious heritage of India: Islam pg 321. Sharma, Suresh K. (2004)
- Indo-iranica pg 7. The Iran Society, Calcutta, India. (1985).
- Biographical encyclopaedia of sufis: central asia and middle east, pg 123, Vol 2. Hanif N. Sarup and Sons. (2002) ISBN 81-7625-266-2, 9788176252669.
- The Election of Caliph/Khalifah and World Peace pg 176. Mowla, Khondakar G. (1998).
- Burton R.F. "Arabian Nights" Volume 5 Chapter 61 Footnote 466.
- Historical and political who's who of Afghanistan. p 177. Adamec, Ludwig W. (1975)
- The Sultan of the saints: mystical life and teaching of Shaikh Syed Abdul Qadir Jilani, pg 19, Riyāz Qādrī, Muhammad. Abassi publications, University of Michigan (2000).
- Sulook organisation website.
- Mihr-e-munīr: biography of Hadrat Syed Pīr Meher Alī Shāh pg 27, Khān, Muhammad Fādil and Ahmad, Faid. Sajjadah Nashinan of Golra Sharif, Islamabad. (1997)
- Encyclopaedia of Sufism, volume 1, Kahn, Masood Ali and Ram, S.
- Akbar, pg.11 Al Haqq, Abd. and Ghunyat al-talibeen (Wealth for Seekers) pg. 12 Urdu version
- The works of Shaykh Umar Eli of Somalia of al-Tariqat al-Qadiriyyah.
- Al-Ghunya li-talibi tariq al-haqq wa al-din (Sufficient provision for seekers of the path of truth and religion), parts one and two in arabic, Al-Qadir, Abd and Al-Gilani. Dar Al-Hurya, Baghdad, Iraq, (1988).
- Al-Ghunya li-talibi tariq al-haqq wa al-din (Sufficient provision for seekers of the path of truth and religion) with introduction by Al-Kilani, Majid Irsan. Al-Kilani, Majid , al-Tariqat, 'Ursan, and al-Qadiriyah, Nash'at
- The Qadirya shrine, Baghdad.
- Baghdad, A.A. Duri, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, 903.
- Abd al-Kadir al-Djilani, W. Braune, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, 70.
- "160 names and titles of 'Abdu-l Qadir al-Jilani".
- "Shaikh Muhyi'din 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani" website.
- "Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani." Links.
- "Al-Baz publications." website.
- "Abdul Qadir Jilani" Lists of works and excerpts.
- "Purification of the Mind (Jila' Al-Khatir)" complete work.