Ibn Qudamah

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Ibn Qudamah al-Maqdasi
Born 1147
Palestine [1]
Died 7 July 1223
Damascus
Region Syrian scholar
School Hanbali
Influences
Influenced

Imam Mawaffaq ad-Din Abdullah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Qudama al-Maqdisi (Arabic ابن قدامة Ibn Qudamah) was a noted Islamic scholar of the Hanbali madhhab, author of many treatises of Hanbali jurisprudence and doctrine, including al-Mughni (the most widely known textbook of Hanbali fiqh) as well as Tahrim an-Nazar (Censure of Speculative Theology, criticism of Ibn Aqil's views.) He was a member of the school founded by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, and is considered, along with Ibn Taymiyyah, as one of the two most significant proponents of Hanbalism; in the modern era, adherents of the school often refer to the two as "the two sheikhs and Sheikh ul-Islam.[2]

Full name[edit]

He was Muwaffaq ad-Deen Abu Muhammad 'Abd Allaah Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Qudaamah Ibn Miqdaam Ibn Nasr Ibn 'Abdillaah al-Maqdisee (موفق الدين أبو محمد عبد الله بن أحمد بن قدامة بن مقدام من ذرية سالم بن عمر بن الخطاب العدوي القرشي المقدسي), who later became ad-Dimashqi, as-Saalihee (الدمشقي الصالحي).

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

He was born in Palestine in Jammain [3] 1147AD/541AH. He memorized the Qur'an at an early age, studying its sciences and was known to have nice handwriting. At the age of ten his family moved to Damascus, where he memorized the Qur'an in addition to an abridged form of Al-Kharqi (a Hanbali book of Fiqh).

He left with his cousin, 'Abd al-Ghani, for Baghdad in 561AH

He studied with the following scholars of his time:

  • Abdul-Qadir Gilani(Baghdad)[4]
  • Abi al-Makarim ibn Hilal (Syria)
  • Abi al-Fadl at-Tusi (Iraq)
  • Al-Mubarak ibn at-Tabbakh (Mecca)

Death[edit]

In later life, Ibn Qudamah left Damascus to join Saladin in his expedition against the Franks in 1187AD / 573AH, participating particularly in Saladin's conquest of Jerusalem.[5] He died on Saturday, the Day of Eed-ul Fitr on 7 July 1223 AD / 620 AH.[6]

Legacy[edit]

Some of the Scholars that were influenced by him are:[7]

  • al-Bahaa'
  • Ibn Taymiyya (hanbali school, a century later)
  • 'AbdurRahman
  • al-Jamal Abu Musa ibn al-Hafidh
  • Ibn Khaleel
  • Ibn an-Najjaar
  • Ash-Shams ibn Kamal
  • Zaynab bint al-Wasitee

Comments from other Muslim scholars[edit]

Ibn an-Najjaar describes him as: "The Imaam of Al-Hanabilah (Hanbalis) in Damascus Mosque, he was a trust worthy, noble figure, extremely generous, of a clean character, a cautious worshipper, follower of the Salaf in methodology, emitting light (of knowledge and piety) and respectful. One may benefit from his sighting before even hearing his speech![8]

Shaikh al-Islam, Ibn Taymiyyah said about him, "No one possessing more understanding of the religion entered Shaam, after Al-Awzaa'ee, other than Shaykh al Muwaffaq (Ibn Qudamah)"[6]

Ibn Kathir said about him , "He was the Shaikh ul Islam, an Imaam, a Scholar, outstandingly proficient. there was not found in his time nor before it by a long span of time, anyone possessing more Fiqh than him."[9]

Ibn Rajab said about his books "He generated benefit to all the Muslims on a general level, and to the scholars of the (Hanbali) Madhab on a specific level. These books spread widely and grew very popular, according to the nobility of his intention and sincerity when writing them."[10]

Views[edit]

Ibn Qudamah was considered one of the primary proponents of the Athari school of Aqidah during his time, and was famous not only for his opposition to Kalam but also his opposition to the Ash'ari school of thought. He was reported to have been greeted by Ibn Asakir with As-Salamu Alaykum and did not reply; when asked the reason why, his explanation was:

"He believes in "kalam nafsi" (an Ash'ari belief that actions such as speech oppose Allah’s special quality of being eternal, therefore Allah is eternally speaking within Himself) so I too also reply with the salams bi nafsi (saying the salams within myself)."[11]

Works[edit]

His works are thought to number more than a few dozen. Amongst his printed works are:[12]

On Fiqh:

  • Al-'Umdah
  • Al-Muqni'
  • Al-Kaafi
  • Al-Mughni

On 'Aqeedah:

  • Lum'at-ul-'Itiqaad: translated by Saladin Publishing ISBN 978-0-9564214-0-1
  • Al-Qadar
  • Dhamm-ut-Ta'weel
  • al-Uloow

On Usool-ul-Fiqh:

  • Raudat-un-Naadhir

On Raqaa'iq, Zuhd:

  • Al-Ruqqah wal-Bukaa
  • At-Tawwaabeen

On Hadith:

  • Mukhtasar 'Ilal-ul-Hadith Lil-Khilaal

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ibn Qudaama (sunnahonline.com)
  2. ^ Abu Zayd Bakr bin Abdullah, Madkhal al-mufassal ila fiqh al-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal wa-takhrijat al-ashab. Riyadh: Dar al 'Aminah, 2007
  3. ^ (www.islamweb.net)
  4. ^ http://sightofislam.wordpress.com/2010/06/22/abdul-qadir-gilani-ra/
  5. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed., Entry 'Ibn Kudama'
  6. ^ a b Siyar A'laam An-Nubalaa'
  7. ^ al-Bidaayah wan-Nihayah’ by Ibn Katheer Volume # 13 Pages 99-101
  8. ^ Sharh Lum`atul-I`tiqaad
  9. ^ al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah
  10. ^ Dhayl Tabaqaatil-Hanabilah’ Volume # 2 Page # 133
  11. ^ Ashraf Ibn 'Abdil-Maqsood, Sharh Lum'at-ul-'Itiqaad, pg. 8-10, Dar Al-Istiqaamah Printing
  12. ^ Ikhtiyarat Ibn Qudamah al-Fiqhiyyah’ By Dr. `Ali ibn Sa`eed al-Ghamidi

External links[edit]