Alparslan Türkeş

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Alparslan Türkeş
Alpaslan Türkeş-Hasan Sami Bolak.jpg
Türkeş's first visit to Yukarı Köşkerli, the village of his great-grandfather Arif Ağa (Pınarbaşı, Kayseri, 1967)
Leader of the MHP
In office
8 February 1969 – 5 April 1997
Personal details
Born (1917-11-25)25 November 1917
Nicosia, Cyprus
Died 5 April 1997(1997-04-05) (aged 79)
Ankara, Turkey
Political party Nationalist Movement Party
Alma mater Kuleli Military High School
Religion Sunni Islam
Military service
Allegiance Turkey
Service/branch Turkish Army
Years of service 1933–1963
Rank Colonel

Alparslan Türkeş§ (25 November 1917 – 4 April 1997) was a Turkish nationalist politician who was the founder and former president of the Nationalist Movement Party party.[1][2][3] He represented the far right of the Turkish political spectrum, and was court-martialed on the charges of "fascist and racist activities" in 1945,[4] with the charges being dismissed in 1947.[5] He was called Başbuğ ("Leader") by his devotees.[6]

Political career[edit]

He attained notoriety as the spokesman of the 27 May 1960 coup d'état against the government of then prime minister Adnan Menderes, who was later executed after a trial following this coup. However Colonel Türkeş was expelled by an internal coup within the junta. He later joined the Republican Villager Nation Party (Turkish: Cumhuriyetçi Köylü Millet Partisi, CKMP) and was elected its chairman. In 1969 the CKMP was renamed the Nationalist Movement Party (Turkish: Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi, MHP).[7]

Türkeş served as Deputy Prime Minister in right-wing National Front (Turkish: Milliyetçi Cephe) cabinets.[8]

Ideology[edit]

Through the far-right MHP, Türkeş took the rightist views of his predecessors like Nihal Atsız, who is known for his explicitly racist views [9][10] and transformed them into a powerful political force. In 1965, Türkeş released a political pamphlet titled "Dokuz Işık Doktrini" (Nine Lights Doctrine). This text listed nine basic principles which formed the basis of the nationalist ideology. These were nationalism, idealism, moralism, societalism, scientism, independentism, ruralism, progressivism, populism, industrialism, and technologism.[11]

Türkeş led the vanguard of anti-communism in Turkey; he was a founding member of the Counter-Guerrilla, the Turkish Gladio.[12]

He has been the spiritual leader of the Idealism Schools Foundation of Culture and Art (Turkish: Ülkü Ocakları Kültür ve Sanat Vakfı). His followers consider him to be one of the leading icons of the Turkish nationalist movement.

International contacts[edit]

In 1992, Alparslan Türkeş visited Baku in 1992 to support Abulfaz Elchibey during the Azerbaijan presidential election. He also realised a meeting with Levon Ter-Petrosian the President of Armenia in the 1990s. [13]

Legacy[edit]

When he died, it was revealed that he had embezzled 2 trillion lira from the European Turkish Federation. The pan-Turkist group had created a secret slush fund to support the Second Chechen War and Abulfaz Elchibey in Azerbaijan.[14] The money was formerly administered by Enver Altaylı, who had been implicated in the Azerbaijan coup plot. His daughters, Ayzıt and Umay Günay, quarreled over who was the rightful owner (legally, neither of them).[15] The two appeared before the Ankara 7th High Penal Court for fraud. The indictment said that Türkeş' account in a U.K. branch of the Deutsche Bank held 575,000 DM, 845,000 USD, and 367,000 GBP.[16] The court concluded that Ayzıt had withdrawn 200,000 GBP while Umay Günay had withdrawn 42,000 GBP.[17]

Ayzıt said that she had been living in the U.K. since 1975, and that her father opened the account in 1988, giving her complete access to it. She said that her father had instructed her to fulfill his financial obligations (in support of "the cause of Turkishness") upon his death by making certain payments.[18] Türkeş' second wife, Seval, refuted Ayzıt's claim that she had not kept the money to herself. Seval claims that she and her sons' Ayyüce and Ahmet Kutalmış share of the withdrawn 242,000 GBP is 112,355 GBP.[17]

The MHP's chairman, Devlet Bahçeli, instructed his deputies to keep mum, fearing that the scandal could lead to the dissolution of the party.[19]

The case was closed due to the statute of limitations.[20]

Bibliography[edit]

  1. Ülkücülük; Hamle Yayınevi; İstanbul, 1995.
  2. 12 Eylül Adaleti (!) : Savunma; Hamle Yayınevi; İstanbul, 1994.
  3. 1944 Milliyetçilik Olayı; Hamle Yayınevi;
  4. Türkeş'li Yıllar; Hasan Sami Bolak
  5. Modern Türkiye ; İstanbul.
  6. Milliyetçilik Olayları; Berikan Elektronik Basım Yayım.
  7. 27 Mayıs ve Gerçekler; Berikan Elektronik Basım Yayım.
  8. 27 Mayıs, 13 Kasım, 21 Mayıs ve Gerçekler; İstanbul, 1996.
  9. Ahlakçılık; Berikan Elektronik Basım Yayım.
  10. Etik (Ahlak Felsefesi), Etik.; Bunalımdan Çıkış Yolu; Kamer Yayınları.
  11. Türk Edebiyatında Anılar, İncelemeler, Tenkidler, Anı-Günce-Mektup; İstanbul, 1994.
  12. Bunalımdan Çıkış Yolu; Hamle Yayınevi; İstanbul, 1996.
  13. Dış Meselemiz; Berikan Elektronik Basım Yayım.
  14. İlimcilik; Berikan Elektronik Basım Yayım.
  15. Kahramanlık Ruhu; İstanbul, 1996.
  16. Temel Görüşler; Kamer Yayınları.
  17. Sistemler ve Öğretiler; İstanbul, 1994.
  18. Türkiye'nin Meseleleri; Hamle Yayınevi; İstanbul, 1996.
  19. Yeni Ufuklara Doğru; Kamer Yayınları.
  20. Sistemler ve Öğretiler; İstanbul, 1995

Footnotes[edit]

  • His name was a nom de guerre he took as an official name after 1934. His former name is a subject of debate. His official biography cites "Ali Arslan",[21] while other sources claim "Hüseyin Feyzullah".[22][23] His close friends and old acquaintances called him Albay (Colonel).[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ «Milliyet»: «А. Туркеш и Л. Тер-Петросян еще в 1993 году договаривались об освобождении оккупированных территорий Азербайджана» (Russian)
  2. ^ Ermənistanla əlaqələrin qurulması barədə mərhum Türkeşin öngörüsü (Azerbaijani)
  3. ^ AKP ALPARSLAN TÜRKEŞİ DƏ ÇİRKİN OYUNUNA ALƏT EDİR (Azerbaijani)
  4. ^ Özkırımlı, Umut and Spyros A. Sofos, Tormented by history, (Columbia University Press, 2008), 138.
  5. ^ Özkırımlı, Tormented by history, 139.
  6. ^ Başbuğ Alparslan Türkeş'i Anma Etkinlikleri (Turkish)
  7. ^ Ümit Hassan, Halil Berktay, Türkiye tarihi: Çağdaş Türkiye, 1908–1980, Cilt 4, Cem Yayınevi, 1987, p. 224.
  8. ^ Barış Yetkin, Kırılma Noktası / 1 Mayıs 1977 Olayı, Yeniden Anadolu ve Rumeli Müdafaa-i Hukuk Yayınları, 2000, ISBN 978-9944-5966-8-8, p. 19.
  9. ^ John M. VanderLippe, The politics of Turkish democracy, State University of New York Press (30 August 2005). pg 108: "A third group was led by Nihal Atsiz, who favored a Hider style haircut and mustache, and advocated Nazi racist doctrines."
  10. ^ Barry M. Rubin, Metin Heper , Political parties in Turkey, Routledge; 1 edition (1 April 2002). page 40: "This organization was the continuation of the Turkculer Dernegi (Turkists Club), which was founded in 1963 by grass-root racists such as Nihal Atsiz and Ismet Tumturk"
  11. ^ Alparslan Türkeş, Millî Doktrin Dokuz Işık, Genişletilmiş Birinci Baskı, Hamle Basın Yayın., İstanbul, s. 15.
  12. ^ Lucy Komisar, Turkey's terrorists: a CIA legacy lives on, The Progressive, April 1997
  13. ^ http://www.tabdc.org/index.php?subaction=showfull&id=1220541358&archive=&start_from=&ucat=11,12&
  14. ^ "MHP accuses Turkes daughters of embezzlement". Turkish Daily News (Hürriyet). 13 February 2001. Retrieved 24 December 2008. 
  15. ^ Sevinc, Şaban (12 February 2001). "Zimmete geçirdiler". Hürriyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 24 December 2008. 
  16. ^ "AYZIT TÜRKEŞ: Babam, ‘Kızım kimse parayı bilmesin’ dedi". Milliyet. 22 June 2001. Retrieved 24 December 2008. 
  17. ^ a b "Türkeş'in çocukları miras için davalık". Sabah (in Turkish). 22 April 2007. Retrieved 24 December 2008. 
  18. ^ Güncel. "Ayzıt Türkeş: Vicdanım rahat". Aksam (in Turkish). 22 June 2001. Retrieved 24 December 2008. [dead link]
  19. ^ Tahincioglu, Gokcer (13 February 2001). "Ayzıt’ın ‘Hayır’ işleri ‘Türklük davası’ymış". Milliyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 24 December 2008. 
  20. ^ "Zamanaşımına uğramıştı". Sabah (in Turkish). 22 April 2007. Retrieved 24 December 2008. 
  21. ^ "BAŞBUĞ Alparslan TÜRKEŞ". Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi. Retrieved 20 November 2008. 
  22. ^ Muradoğlu, Abdullah (16 August 2003). "Türkeş'in Gizli Dünyası". Yeni Şafak (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 14 August 2008. 
  23. ^ Cevik, Ilnur (11 April 1997). "Turkish Nationalists Lose Their Leader". Turkish Daily News (Hürriyet). Retrieved 20 November 2008. 

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Zeyyat Baykara
Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey
31 Mar 1975 – 21 Jun 1977
Succeeded by
Orhan Eyüboğlu
Turan Güneş
Preceded by
Orhan Eyüboğlu
Turan Güneş
Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey
11 Jul 1977 – 5 Jan 1978
Succeeded by
Orhan Eyüboğlu
Turhan Feyzioğlu
Faruk Sükan
Party political offices
Preceded by
Ahmet Oğuz
Leader of the Republican Peasant's Nation Party (CMKP)
Agu 1, 1965–8 Feb 1969
Succeeded by
renamed to MHP
Preceded by
renamed from CKMP
Leader of the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP)
8 Feb 1969 – 5 Apr 1997
Succeeded by
Devlet Bahçeli