Amphetamine dependence

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Amphetamine dependence
Classification and external resources
Methamphetamine.svg
ICD-10 F15.2
ICD-9 304.4

Amphetamine dependence refers to a state of dependence on a drug in the amphetamine class. In individuals with substance use disorder (problematic use or abuse with dependence), psychotherapy is currently the best treatment option as no pharmacological treatment has been approved.[1] Tolerance is expected to develop with regular substituted amphetamine use.[2] When substituted amphetamines are abused, drug tolerance develops rapidly.[1]

Severe withdrawal associated with dependence from recreational substituted amphetamine use can be a difficult for a user to cope with.[3][4][5] Long-term use of certain substituted amphetamines, particularly methamphetamine, can reduce dopamine activity in the brain.[6][7] Psychostimulants that increase dopamine and mimic the effects of substituted amphetamines, but with lower abuse liability, could theoretically be used as replacement therapy in amphetamine dependence,[1] but studies of D-amphetamine, bupropion, methylphenidate and modafinil did not show reduced methamphetamine use or craving, nor any increase in sustained abstinence; more extensive trials are needed.[1]

Some animal studies have shown that substituted amphetamine use can produce reverse tolerance; however,in humans, there is no systematic evidence of the development of behavioral sensitization to amphetamine-type drugs after acute or chronic drug treatment when used in a low or therapeutic dose range (i.e., is not abused recreationally).[8] The absence of observed sensitization development in humans (compared to that observed in rodents) may be explained by variations in drug metabolism or different mechanisms of action of amphetamine-type drugs in humans versus rats.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Pérez-Mañá, C; Castells X; Torrens M; Capellà D; Farre M. (September 2013). "Efficacy of psychostimulant drugs for amphetamine abuse or dependence". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 9 (9): CD009695. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009695.pub2. PMID 23996457. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  2. ^ O'Connor, Patrick. "Amphetamines: Drug Use and Abuse". Merck Manual Home Health Handbook. Merck. Retrieved 26 September 2013. 
  3. ^ Chronic Amphetamine Use and Abuse
  4. ^ Sax KW, Strakowski SM (2001). "Behavioral sensitization in humans". J Addict Dis. 20 (3): 55–65. doi:10.1016/0006-3223(95)00497-1. PMID 11681593. 
  5. ^ I. Boileau, A. Dagher, M. Leyton, R. N. Gunn, G. B. Baker, M. Diksic and C. Benkelfat (2006). "Modeling Sensitization to Stimulants in Humans: An [11C]Raclopride/Positron Emission Tomography Study in Healthy Men". Arch Gen Psychiatry 63 (12): 1386–1395. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.63.12.1386. PMID 17146013. 
  6. ^ Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "15". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 370. ISBN 9780071481274. "Unlike cocaine and amphetamine, methamphetamine is directly toxic to midbrain dopamine neurons." 
  7. ^ Krasnova IN, Cadet JL (May 2009). "Methamphetamine toxicity and messengers of death". Brain Res Rev 60 (2): 379–407. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2009.03.002. PMC 2731235. PMID 19328213. "Neuroimaging studies have revealed that METH can indeed cause neurodegenerative changes in the brains of human addicts (Aron and Paulus, 2007; Chang et al., 2007). These abnormalities include persistent decreases in the levels of dopamine transporters (DAT) in the orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the caudate-putamen (McCann et al., 1998, 2008; Sekine et al., 2003; Volkow et al., 2001a, 2001c). The density of serotonin transporters (5-HTT) is also decreased in the midbrain, caudate, putamen, hypothalamus, thalamus, the orbitofrontal, temporal, and cingulate cortices of METH-dependent individuals (Sekine et al., 2006)." 
  8. ^ Solanto, Mary (January 2000). "Clinical psychopharmacology of AD/HD: implications for animal models". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 24 (1): 27–30. doi:10.1016/S0149-7634(99)00061-5. ISSN 0149-7634. PMID 10654657. 
  9. ^ Advokat, Claire (July 2007). "Update on amphetamine neurotoxicity and its relevance to the treatment of ADHD" (PDF). Journal of Attention Disorders 11 (1): 8–16. doi:10.1177/1087054706295605. ISSN 1087-0547. PMID 17606768.