Andijon / Андижон
|Andijan / Andizhan|
|First mention||9th century|
|• City||76 km2 (29 sq mi)|
|Elevation||491 m (1,611 ft)|
|• Density||7,600/km2 (20,000/sq mi)|
|Area code(s)||(+988) 74|
|Vehicle registration||17, 60-69|
Andijan or Andizhan (Uzbek: Andijon / Андижон; Russian: Андижан) is the fourth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and the capital of the Andijan Province. It is located in the east of the country, at , in the Fergana Valley, near the border with Kyrgyzstan on the Andijan-Say River. It has a population of 323,900 (1999 census estimate).
Arab geographers from the 10th century and later give the name as Andiyon, Andukan, Andugan, and Andigan. The etymology is unknown; the traditional explanation links it to the Turkic tribal name Andi.
The city of Andijan is located at the eastern point of the chain of the first settlements of the early civilizations of Fergana Valley. Study of the history of Andijan began nearly 100 years ago. Historical-ethnographic and archaeological excavations have been conducted by A.K. Pisarčik, V.I. Kozenkova, B. Abdulgazieva, S. Jalilov and others. Detailed archaeological research of the city was carried out in the 1980s by the Archaeological Institute of the Academy of Sciences. Information about the structural and spatial location of Andijan, meet on a topographic map, 1893. At stake were the quarters, mosques, mausoleums, the streets of the city. Archaeologists researching historical locations such as Andijan, Čordona, Sarvontepa, Âkkatepa, Koštepa, Ark ichi, Shakhristan.
In subsequent years, in the process of archaeological research and excavations revealed findings related to 6th-4th centuries BC found that cultural monuments associated with the ancient history of Andijan, are located in the South-Western or central part of the city - at Sarvontepe and its environs. Approximately 4 metres deep was discovered archaeological complex 1 metre wide, built 2400–2600 years ago. Excavations in 2007 revealed that the complex covers several hectares. Naturally, in the context of Central Asia will reclaim the farming population, lived and built large and small settlements close to the water. Andijan is no exception. According to A.R. Muhammadžanova, the term "Andijan" is associated with water. In other words, the term Turkic-Mongol origin, had the meaning "settlement near the saya (water)".
Consequently, Andijan is located in one of the hotbeds of Central Asia, which appeared early farming, formed the first samples of urban culture. In this territory were the ruins of an early city Dalvarzina (9th-7th centuries BC) and the ancient city of Èjlatona (6th-3rd centuries BC). To its geopolitical location Andijan served as a bridge between Bactria, Sogdiana, Chach with China (Xinjiang).
Andijan was an important stop on the Silk Road, lying roughly mid-way between Kashgar and Khodjend. Destroyed by Genghis Khan, it was rebuilt by his grandson Kaidu Khan in the late 13th century, and became the capital of Ferghana for the next three centuries.
In the first quarter of the 13th century, Andijan was the capital of Fergana region. It is perhaps best known as the birthplace of Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur (Babur) of Ahsiket, who founded the Mughal dynasty that ruled much of today's India, Pakistan, and South Asia, born in 1483. At that time in Andijan also operated his mint. Babur came to the thrown when he was twelve years old. His wars with other Turkik wars is one of the reasons that forced him out of Andijan to Afghanistan and then to India.
The city was the center and flashpoint of the Andijan Uprising of 1898, in which the followers of Sufi leader Madali Ishan attacked the Russian barracks in the city, killing 22 and injuring 16-20 more. In retaliation, 18 of the participants were hanged and 360 exiled.
On December 12, 1902, much of the city was leveled by a severe earthquake, which destroyed up to 30,000 homes in the region, and killed as many as 4,500 residents.
Andijan during and after Soviet rule
During the Soviet Union, Andijan was separated from its historical hinterland when the present borders were created, dividing Ferghana Valley between three separate Soviet republics. Andijan itself became part of the Uzbek SSR. The borders did not make a great deal of difference during the Soviet period, as the entire region was developed to grow cash crops such as cotton and silk.
During World War II many Soviet citizens were evacuated to Andijan and the surrounding republics. Of the Jewish refugees fleeing Nazi-occupied Poland and banished by the Soviets to Siberia and Central Asia, some relocated to Andijan starting in 1941. 
In the 1990s, though, the Andijan and the surrounding region became much more unstable. Poverty and an upsurge in Islamic fundamentalism produced tensions in the region. The town, and the region as a whole, suffered a severe economic decline following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. Repeated border closures badly damaged the local economy, worsening the already widespread poverty of Andijan's inhabitants. Islamic fundamentalists established a presence in the city. In May 2003, a local man named Azizbek Karimov was arrested and accused of carrying out terrorist bombings on behalf of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan. He was convicted and executed in April 2004.
May 2005 Massacre
On May 13, 2005, Uzbekistan's military opened fire on a mass of people who were protesting against poor living conditions and corrupt government. Estimated casualties range from 187 to 5,000. The government of Uzbekistan first blamed the murders on terrorists, but after the requests for independent investigations by Western countries, the government acknowledged its fault. The number of killed people is disputed, as no independent investigations were allowed. Today, Andijan is one of the main developed cities in Uzbekistan. Its education centers are very popular among Uzbek youngsters. Centers for young generation like "Ray of Hope", Kamolot, Fond Forum are very good places for young people to learn foreign language and enhance their academic skills.
|Climate data for Andijan|
|Average high °C (°F)||3.2
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−1.9
|Average low °C (°F)||−5.8
|Precipitation mm (inches)||26
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||87.7||100.6||151.7||206.3||277.2||334.3||357.7||339.3||289.7||216.6||139.6||77.4||2,578.1|
|Source: NOAA (1961-1990)|
Images from Andijan
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Andijan.|
- E.M. Pospelov, Geograficheskie nazvaniya mira (Moscow, 1998), p. 36.
- Wheeler M. (ed. & trans.) The Babur-nama
- Beatrice Forbes Manz “Central Asian Uprisings in the Nineteenth Century: Ferghana under the Russians” Russian Review Vol. 46 (1987), pp. 267-281
- unknown (1590s). "1499, Babur's siege of Andijan". Baburnama.
- Khalid, Adeeb (1998). The Politics of Muslim Cultural Reform: Jadidism in Central Asia. Comparative studies on Muslim societies. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 59. ISBN 0-520-21355-6.
- s.v. Andijan, Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedia, cited in D. Kislov. (July 13, 2007). "Листая старые журналы: Свидетельства андижанского землетрясения 1902 года", fergana.ru.
- Holdings Registry file No. 2165, Ghetto Fighters' House Archives
- "Climate Normals for Andizan". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 10 February 2013.