Arachne

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Arachne in Gustave Doré's illustration for Dante's Purgatorio of the Divine Comedy series.

In Greco-Roman mythology, the mortal Arachne /əˈrækn/ was a weaver.

Mythology[edit]

Arachne was a great weaver who boasted that her skill was greater than that of Athena, goddess of wisdom, weaving, and strategy. Arachne was born a shepherd's daughter and began weaving at a early age. When Arachne refused to acknowledge that her skill came, in part at least, from the goddess, Athena took offense and set up a contest between the two. Presenting herself as an old lady, she approached the boasting girl and warned: "You can never compare to any of the gods. Plead for forgiveness and Athena might spare your soul". "Ha, I only speak the truth and if Athena thinks otherwise then let her come down and challenge me herself," Arachne replied. Athena removed her disguise and appeared in shimmering glory, clad in sparkling white chiton. The two began weaving straight away. Both were very skilled with a loom, but clearly Athena was better and swifter. Athena's weaving represented four separate contests between mortals and the gods in which the gods punished mortals for setting themselves as equals of the gods. Arachne's weaving depicted ways that the gods had misled and abused mortals, particularly Zeus' tricking and sexually abusing of many women. Athena saw that Arachne has insulted the gods and ripped Arachne's work into shreds. Arachne hung herself. Moved to mercy, Athena gave Arachne life, but sprinkled her with Hecate's potion, turning her into a spider and cursing her and her descendents to weave for all time.

Influence[edit]

The taxonomical class name Arachnida and the name for spiders in many romance languages are both derived from arachne.

The metamorphosis of Arachne in Ovid's telling furnished material for an episode in Edmund Spenser's mock-heroic Muiopotmos, 257-352.[1] Spenser's adaptation, which "rereads an Ovidian story in terms of the Elizabethan world"[2] is designed to provide a rationale for the hatred of Arachne's descendent Aragnoll for the butterfly-hero Clarion.

The Spinners, or, The Fable of Arachne (1644–48) by Velázquez

The tale of Arachne inspired one of Velázquez' most factual paintings: Las Hilanderas ("The Spinners, or The fable of Arachne", in the Prado), in which the painter represents the two important moments of the myth. In the front, the contest of Arachne and the goddess (the young and the old weaver), in the back,an Abduction of Europa that is a copy of Titian's version (or maybe of Rubens' copy of Titian). In front of it appears Minerva in the moment she is punishing Arachne. It transforms the myth into a reflection about creation and imitation, god and man, master and pupil (and therefore about the nature of art).

It has also been suggested that Jeremias Gotthelf’s nineteenth century novella, The Black Spider, was heavily influenced by the Arachne story from Ovid's Metamorphoses.[3] In the novella, a woman is turned into a venomous spider having reneged on a deal with the devil.

In popular culture[edit]

  • Arachne is the central character in the 2011 novel The Spider Goddess by Tara Moss.
  • Gustave Doré's rendition of Arachne is one of the many recurring images used by the rock band, The Mars Volta. It has been used in the cover of their Live EP, as a backdrop for their live shows, and a favorite accessory for guitarist and composer Omar Rodríguez-López in the form of a belt buckle.
  • In the modern classic fantasy The Last Unicorn by Peter S. Beagle, a plain brown spider is bewitched into believing that she is Arachne until the witch who enchanted her is killed.
  • Many fantasy-themed video games, such as Castlevania and Devil Summoner, features Arachne along with other mythological creatures as either common enemies or as mighty "boss" monsters.
  • In Class of the Titans, Arachne was changed into a giant spider and makes a deal with Cronus to become human again. Cronus does not hold up the end of his bargain though and betrays her after getting her to trap the heroes for him. After being berated by Atlanta, Athena turns Arachne back into a human, and she is allowed to live at the Olympus High School, weaving for the gods.
  • Arukenimon's name is a romanization of her name in the Japanese version of Digimon Adventure 02, Arachnemon. Fittingly, she is a spider-like Digimon.
  • Arachne Gorgon is a powerful witch and one of the main antagonists of Soul Eater. She was responsible for crafting the first demon weapons, an act that Death fiercely opposed, forcing her to bide her time and remain in hiding for 800 years. She returns to lead the risen Arachnaphobia, her personal army against Death.
  • Arachne is the nom de plume for Sarah Hayes, one the UK Guardian Cryptic Crossword setters.
  • In the 13th episode from season 6 of Supernatural, "Unforgiven," the monster of the week is an Arachne, depicted as a humanoid monster with spider-like attributes and abilities, including the ability to weave strong webs and a poisonous bite that can turn other humans into Arachnes. They can only be killed by decapitation and before one appeared in Bristol, Rhode Island hadn't been seen in 2,000 years. While soulless, Sam Winchester hunted one, but was unaware that it had turned its victims into Arachnes as well. One of the turned victims comes back for revenge and Sam is forced to kill him.
  • Arachne is an inspiration to the hero "Arachna" in the video game Heroes of Newerth.
  • Arachne is featured as a playable Greek god in the video game SMITE.
  • Arachne is also mentioned in the Percy Jackson and Heroes of Olympus series. All of Athena's children, including Annabeth Chase, are arachnophobic because of Arachne's dispute with Athena. Arachne appears towards the end of The Mark of Athena as a large spider while still maintaining human features. She is defeated by Annabeth because of her pride and eventually they are both sent falling into Tartarus, where Percy Jackson kills Arachne.
  • Arakune in the game series Blazblue is a reference to this story.
  • An unnamed prototype doll for the Monster High series simply called "Daughter of Arachne" was featured at the 2011 San Diego Comic-Con alongside one of the Headless Headmistress and Scarah Screams, the daughter of the Banshee,to be the subjects of a poll to see which doll would be officially released at Comic-Con 2012. Scarah Screams ultimately won the poll. The Daughter of Arachne doll has red curly hair, coal black skin, eight arms, and two extra sets of eyebrows.
  • Eminem's 2013 music video for the song Rap God features imagery from Dante's Inferno, including a picture of Arachne. (This is most likely a metaphor for the rappers who try to compete with the self proclaimed "Rap God").
  • In Rick Riordan's The Mark of Athena, Arachne is pictured as a villain guarding a statue of Athena.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Written c. 1590 and published in Complaints, 1591. Spenser's allusion to Arachne in The Faerie Queene, ii, xii.77, is also noted in Reed Smith, "The Metamorphoses in Muiopotmos" Modern Language Notes 28.3 (March 1913), pp. 82-85.
  2. ^ Robert A. Brinkley, "Spenser's Muiopotmos and the Politics of Metamorphosis" ELH 48.4 (Winter 1981, pp. 668-676) p 670. Brinkley makes a case for Spenser's episode as political allegory of Elizabeth's court.
  3. ^ David Gallagher, "The Transmission of Ovid’s Arachne Metamorphosis in Jeremias Gotthelf’s Die Schwarze Spinne", Neophilologus (2008) 92: 699-711
  4. ^ http://www.amazon.com/Arachne-Spider-Children-Metamorphoses-ebook/dp/B00AA7IGJU/ref=sr_1_4?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1356852185&sr=1-4&keywords=dubosarsky

References[edit]

Primary sources[edit]

Secondary sources[edit]

External links[edit]

 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Arachne". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.