Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia

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Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA)
Հայաստանի Ազատագրութեան Հայ Գաղտնի Բանակ (ՀԱՀԳԲ)
ASALA logo.svg
Logo and flag of the ASALA
Major actions 1975–1991
Leader(s) Hagop Hagopian (1975-1988)[1]
Motives "To compel the Turkish Government to acknowledge publicly its responsibility for the Armenian Genocide in 1915, pay reparations, and cede territory for an Armenian homeland."[2]
Active region(s) Lebanon, Western Europe, Greece, United States, Turkey
Ideology United Armenia
Assassination of a number of Turkish diplomats and their relatives.
Bombing of Turkish, French and Swiss targets for varying motives.
Several minor bombing attacks against US airline offices in Western Europe.
Notable attacks Paris Turkish consulate attack (1981)
Esenboğa Airport attack (1982)
Orly Airport attack (1983)
Status Inactive / dissolved
The approximate territory claimed by the ASALA.

The Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) (Armenian: Հայաստանի Ազատագրութեան Հայ Գաղտնի Բանակ, ՀԱՀԳԲ, Hayasdani Azadakrut'ean Hay Kaghtni Panag, HAHKP) was an Armenian militant organization, that operated from 1975[2] to early 1990s.[3] It was considered a terrorist organization by some sources,[4][5][6] other sources describe it as guerrilla[7][8][9][10] and armed[11] organization. ASALA was listed as a terrorist organization by the United States in the 1980s.[12] 46 people were killed and 299 injured as a result of ASALA attacks and assassinations. The stated intention of ASALA was "to compel the Turkish Government to acknowledge publicly its responsibility for the Armenian Genocide in 1915, pay reparations, and cede territory for an Armenian homeland".[13] The principal goal of ASALA was to reestablish historical Armenia that would include eastern Turkey and the Soviet Armenia.[14] The territory to be ceded would be the area promised to the Armenians at the never-ratified Treaty of Sèvres in 1920 by US President Woodrow Wilson, "Wilsonian Armenia".[15]

The group received considerable clandestine support from Armenian diaspora in Europe and in the United States.[16]

Suffering from internal schisms, the group was relatively inactive in the 1990s, although in 1991 it claimed an unsuccessful attack on the Turkish ambassador to Hungary. The organization has not engaged in militant activity since then.[17]

The group's mottos were "The armed struggle and right political line are the way to Armenia" and "Viva the revolutionary solidarity of oppressed people!".[18]

Origins[edit]

Over 60 years had passed since the Ottoman Empire had embarked on the campaign to exterminate its Armenian population, which was largely concentrated in its eastern provinces and referred to at the time as Western Armenia. The survivors of the massacres and deprivations commonly seen in the death marches found refuge in countries in the Middle East and in Western Europe and the USA. While the key ringleaders of the genocide were assassinated in the 1920s by Armenians (see Operation Nemesis), the Ottoman Empire's successor, the Republic of Turkey, stated that a genocide had not taken place. It actively campaigned against any and all attempts to publicise the events and bring forward recognition in the West. It, in fact, blamed Armenians for instigating the violence and alleged that Armenians had massacred thousands of Turks, prompting the commencement of their deportations. In 1965, Armenians around the world publicly marked the 50th anniversary and began to campaign for world recognition. As peaceful marches and demonstrations failed to move an intransigent Turkey, the younger generation of Armenians, resentful at the denial by Turkey and the failure by their parents' generation to effect change, sought new approaches to bringing about recognition and reparations.

In 1973 two Turkish diplomats were assassinated in Los Angeles by Gourgen Yanikian, an elderly man who survived the Armenian Genocide. This event might have been progressively forgotten, had it not initiated a chain of events which turned it, and its perpetrator, into a symbol representing the end of the conspiracy of silence which since 1915 had surrounded the Armenian Genocide.[19] ASALA was founded in 1975 in Beirut, Lebanon during the Lebanese Civil War by Hagop Hagopian (Harutiun Tagushian), pastor Rev. James Karnusian[20] and Kevork Ajemian,[21] a prominent contemporary writer, with the help of sympathetic Palestinians.[22] At the beginning, ASALA bore the name of "The Prisoner Kurken Yanikian Group".[23] Consisting primarily of Lebanese-born Armenians of the Diaspora (whose parents and/or grandparents were survivors of the Armenian Genocide), the organization followed a theoretical model based on leftist ideology.[24] ASALA was critical of its political predecessors and Diasporan parties, accusing them of failing to deal with the problems of the Armenian people.[25] The apex of group's structure was the General Command of the People of Armenia (VAN).[26] The group's activities were primarily assassinations of Turkish diplomats and politicians in Western Europe, in the United States and the Middle East.[22] Their first acknowledged killing was the assassination of the Turkish diplomat, Daniş Tunalıgil, in Vienna on October 22, 1975. A failed attack in Geneva on October 3, 1980, in which two Armenian militants were injured resulted in a new nickname for the group, the 3 October Organization. The ASALA's eight point manifesto was published in 1981.

ASALA, trained in the Beirut camps of Palestine Liberation Organization, is the best known of the guerrilla groups responsible for assassinations of at least 36 Turkish diplomats.[27] Since 1975, a couple of dozen Turkish diplomats or members of their families had been targeted in a couple of dozens of attacks, with the outcome that the Armenian revenge, as well as the background to the Armenian struggle, have made it through the world press. These notable acts, while practically carried out by a small group, were successful in conveying the Armenian Genocide and its silence to the forefront of international awareness.[19]

Political objectives[edit]

  1. Force an end to Turkish colonialism, NATO imperialism and Zionism by using revolutionary violence
  2. Attack institutions and representatives of Turkey and of countries supporting Turkey
  3. Affirm Scientific socialism as the main ideology of Armenia[14]

Attacks[edit]

According to the MIPT website, there had been 84 incidents involving ASALA leaving 46 dead and 299 injured, including the following:[1]

On October 22, 1975, Turkish Ambassador in Austria, Danis Tunaligil was assassinated by three members of ASALA. Two days later, Turkish Ambassador in France, Ismail Erez and his chauffeur were killed. Both ASALA and JCAG claimed responsibility.

The first two ASALA militants, arrested on October 3, 1980, were Alex Yenikomshian and Suzy Mahserejian, who were wounded after the accidental explosion of a bomb in a hotel in Geneva.[28]

During the 1981 Turkish consulate attack in Paris (Van operation) ASALA militants held 56 hostages for fifteen hours, it became the first operation of its kind. Militants demanded to release political prisoners in Turkey including two Armenian clergymen, 5 Turks and 5 Kurds.[29] Coverage of the takeover received one of the highest television ratings in France in 1981.[30] Among those who supported the militants during the trial were Henri Verneuil,[31] Mélinée Manouchian, the widow of the French resistance hero, Missak Manouchian, and singer Liz Sarian.

One of the most known attacks of ASALA was Esenboga airport attack on August 7, 1982 in Ankara, when its members targeted non-diplomat civilians for the first time. Two militants opened fire in a crowded passenger waiting room. One of the shooters took more than 20 hostages while the second was apprehended by police. Altogether, nine people died and 82 were injured. The arrested militant Levon Ekmekjian condemned the attack in its aftermath and appealed to other members of ASALA to stop the violence.

On August 10, 1982, Artin Penik a Turk of Armenian descent, set himself on fire in protest of this attack.[32][33][34][35]

On July 15, 1983, the ASALA carried out another attack at the Orly Airport near Paris, in which 8 people were killed, most of them not being Turks.[36][37] The attack resulted in a split in ASALA, between those individuals who carried it out, and those who believed the attack to be counterproductive.[38] The split resulted in emergence of two groups, the ASALA-Militant led by Hagopian and the 'Revolutionary Movement' (ASALA-Mouvement Révolutionnaire) led by Monte Melkonian.[39] While Melkonian's faction insisted on attacks strictly against Turkish officials and the Turkish government, Hagopian's group disregarded the losses of unintended victims and regularly executed dissenting members.

Afterwards, French forces promptly arrested those involved.[40] Moreover, this attack eliminated the suspected secret agreement that the French socialist government made with ASALA, in which the government would allow ASALA to use France as a base of operations in exchange for refraining from launching attacks on French soil. Belief in this suspected agreement was further bolstered after "Interior Minister Gaston Defferre called [ASALA's] cause "just", and four Armenians arrested for taking hostages at the Turkish Embassy in September 1981 were given light sentences."[41]

Reactions[edit]

Continuous attacks by ASALA prompted Turkey to accuse Cyprus, Greece, Syria, Lebanon, and the Soviet Union of provoking or possibly funding the ASALA.[22] Although they publicly distanced themselves from the ASALA,[22] Turkey's Armenian community came under attack by Turkish nationalists in reaction to the group's actions. This became apparent after the assassination of Ahmet Benler on October 12, 1979 by Armenian militants in the Hague. The reaction to the attack led to the bombing of the church of the Armenian Apostolic Patriarchate in Istanbul on October 19 in retaliation.[42] In 1980, the Turkish government arrested Armenian priest Fr. Manuel Yergatian at the Istanbul airport for the alleged possession of maps that indicated Armenian territory within modern-day Turkey and was sentenced to 14 years in prison for possible ties with ASALA. Amnesty International adopted him as a prisoner of conscience, concluding that the evidence against him was baseless.[42] According to Tessa Hofmann, Turkish officials frequently used the accusation of collaboration with the ASALA and foreign Armenian circles to incriminate extreme left-wing Turkish opposition groups.[42]

The ASALA memorial in the military cemetery of Yerablur, Yerevan

In April, 2000 the opening ceremony of "In Memory of killed ASALA commandos" monument took place at Armenian military pantheon Yerablur with participation of Greek anti-fascist resistance leader Manolis Glezos and other special guests.[43] [clarification needed]

Counteroffensive[edit]

After the ASALA attack against the Esenboğa International Airport in August 1982 the then President of Turkey Kenan Evren issued a decree for the elimination of ASALA. The task was given to the National Intelligence Organization's Foreign Operations Department. Evren's own daughter, a member of the MİT, ran the operation together with Foreign Intelligence Department chief Metin (Mete) Günyol, and Istanbul region director Nuri Gündeş.[44][45]

Levon Ekmekjian was captured and placed in Ankara's Mamak Prison. He was told that he had to choose between confessing and being executed. After being promised that his comrades would not be harmed, he revealed how the ASALA worked to a team led by MİT's Presidential Liaison and Evren's son-in-law, Erkan Gürvit. He was tried by Ankara martial law command military court, and sentenced to death. His appeal of the sentence was declined, and he was hanged on 29 January 1983.[46][47][48]

In the early Spring of 1983 two teams were sent to France and Lebanon. Günyol tapped contract killer Abdullah Çatlı, who had just finished serving a prison sentence in Switzerland for drug trafficking, to lead the French contingent. Günyol says he did not reveal his identity to Çatlı, who referred to him as "Colonel", thinking Günyol used to be a soldier.[49]

A second French unit was assembled under MİT operative Sabah Ketene. The Lebanese contingent, consisting only of MİT operatives and members of the "Special Warfare Department" (special forces), was led by MİT officer Hiram Abas.[48]

The bomb that Çatlı's team had planted in Ara Toranyan's car on 22 March 1983 did not explode. A follow-up attempt also failed. Toranyan said they had planted the bomb in the wrong car. Likewise, Henri Papazyan's car bomb on 1 May 1984 did not explode. Çatlı claimed credit for killing Hagop Hagopian, however he was in a French prison (again, on narcotics charges) at the time of the attack. Papazyan is now believed to have been killed as a result of infighting. The second French team (led by Ketene) did carry out some attacks (which Çatlı also claimed credit for), such as the 1984 Alfortville monument and Salle Pleyel concert room attacks. It is unknown whether the Lebanese contingent did anything at all.[50]

Dissolution[edit]

With the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982 the group lost much of its organization and support. Sympathetic Palestinian organizations including the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) withdrew their support and passed materials to the French intelligence services in 1983, detailing ASALA operatives. The last attack, on 19 December 1991, targeted the bullet-proof limousine carrying the Turkish Ambassador to Budapest. The ambassador was not injured in the attack, which was claimed by ASALA in Paris.[51]

ASALA's founder Hagop Hagopian was assassinated on a sidewalk in an affluent neighborhood in Athens, Greece on April 28, 1988. He was shot several times while he was walking with two women at 4:30 in the morning.[52][53] Veteran member Hagop Tarakchian died of cancer in 1980. Assassinations of former members of ASALA-RM continued in Armenia into the late 1990s.[54]

According to Turkish National Intelligence Organization official Nuri Gündeş, ASALA was dissolved after the assassination of Hagopian. According to Turkish sources, another reason is that financial backing was withdrawn by the Armenian diaspora after the 1983 Orly airport attack.[55]

Publications/Organs[edit]

Hayasdan
An ASALA publication (1995)

Since 1970's the ASALA Information Branch published books, booklets, posters and other promotional materials. Hayasdan ('Armenia'), was the official multi-lingual organ of ASALA published in 1980-1987, 1991-1997. The first issue was published in October 1980 and contained 40 pages.[56] The place of publication and names of contributors are not known. It was published monthly, sometimes with united volumes. The main language was Armenian. From 1983 to 1987 it has separate issues in Arabic, English, French and Turkish.[57] The journal published editorials, official announcements of ASALA, articles on political and military issues. Hayasdan was distributed free of charge in Armenian communities.

The journal's mottos were "The armed struggle and right political line are the way to Armenia" and "Viva the revolutionary solidarity of oppressed people!" It had sister publications including left-wing "Hayasdan Gaydzer" (London) and "Hayasdan - Hay Baykar" (Paris) which used "Hayasdan" in their titles since 1980.[58] Both were published by the Popular Movements which worked towards mobilising support among Armenians for a political movement focused on the ASALA.[59]

In Culture[edit]

  • Armenian poetess Silva Kaputikyan wrote a poem It's raining my sonny dedicated to the memory of Levon Ekmekjian, an ASALA member, one of two organizers of the Esenboğa International Airport attack in 1983.[60]
  • Spanish journalist, assistant director of the "Pueblo" newspaper, José Antonio Gurriarán was accidentally injured during an ASALA October 3 group attack in 1980. Then Gurriarán was interested what the group's purposes were; he found and interviewed ASALA members.[61] In 1982 his book, "La Bomba" was published, dedicated to the Armenian cause and Armenian militants' struggle.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA), MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base
  2. ^ a b Hunsicker (2006). Understanding International Counter Terrorism. Universal-Publishers. p. 431. ISBN 1-58112-905-X. 
  3. ^ Roy, Olivier. Turkey Today: A European Nation? p. 170. Roy suggests that the Orly incident led to "dissension end[ing] in the settling of scores in which ASALA militants killed each other in their camp at Bekaa (Al-Biqa, Lebanon)... (It) practically disappeared. It resurfaced once again, however, to assassinate important members of the Lebanese section of the Dashnak Party (March 1985 - May 1986)."
  4. ^ John E. Jessup. An encyclopedic dictionary of conflict and conflict resolution, 1945—1996. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998. ISBN 0-313-28112-2, ISBN 978-0-313-28112-9, p. 39
  5. ^ Michel Wieviorka, David Gordon White. The making of terrorism. University of Chicago Press, 1993. ISBN 0-226-89650-1, ISBN 978-0-226-89650-2, p. 256
  6. ^ Bruce Hoffman. Inside terrorism. Columbia University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-231-12699-9, ISBN 978-0-231-12699-1, p. 71
  7. ^ Political dissent: an international guide to dissident, extra-parliamentary, guerrilla, and illegal political movements, by Henry W. Degenhardt, Alan John Day, Gale Research Company, 1983, p. 489
  8. ^ Remembring with Vengeance, by Pico Iyer // Time magazine, № 32, 8 Aug, 1983
  9. ^ The Caucasus: an introduction, by Frederik Coene, 2009 - 238 pages, p. 221
  10. ^ The history of Turkey, by Douglas Arthur Howard - 2001 - 241 pages, p. 161
  11. ^ Untold Histories of the Middle East, by Amy Singer, Christoph Neumann, Selcuk Somel - 2010 - 240 pages, p. 27
  12. ^ United States Department of State. Patterns of Global Terrorism Report: 1989, p 57
  13. ^ U.S. Department of State. "Appendix B". Patterns of Global Terrorism Report - 1996. 
  14. ^ a b Terrorist Group Profiles. DIANE Publishing, 1989. p. 32
  15. ^ Pitman, Paul M. Turkey: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: The Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, 283, 354-355 OCLC 17841957
  16. ^ Encyclopedia of terrorism. Harvey W. Kushner. SAGE, 2003. p. 47
  17. ^ Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA). GlobalSecurity.org
  18. ^ (Armenian) G. Yazchian, Thirty years ago this day was born ASALA, Azg daily, Yerevan, January 20, 2005
  19. ^ a b Kurz & Merari, Anat & Ariel (1985). JCSS Study No. 2 ASALA - Irrational Terror or Political Tool. Jerusalem: The Jerusalem Post. p. 3. ISBN 0-8133-0324-9. 
  20. ^ Rev. James Karnusian, retired pastor and one of three persons to establish ASALA, dies in Switzerland // The Armenian Reporter International, 18 April 1998.
  21. ^ "Kevork Ajemian, Prominent Contemporary Writer and Surviving Member of Triumvirate Which Founded ASALA, Dies in Beirut, Lebanon", Armenian Reporter, 1999-02-01
  22. ^ a b c d "Political Interest Groups", Turkey: A Country Study ed. Helen Chapin Metz. Washington, D.C.: The Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, 283, 354-355 OCLC 17841957
  23. ^ Near East/South Asia Report‎, by United States Foreign Broadcast Information Service, United States Joint Publications Research Service, 1987, p. 3
  24. ^ Roy, Olivier. Turkey Today: A European Nation? p. 169.
  25. ^ Armenians in London: The Management of Social Boundaries, by Vered Amit Talai, Vered Amit, Manchester University Press, 1989, p. 27
  26. ^ The Middle East Annual: Issues & Events, 1984, edited by David H. Partington, p. 155
  27. ^ Iyer, Pico (1983-08-08). "Long Memories". TIME 32. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  28. ^ Le Combat armenien: entre terrorisme et utopie : Lausanne, 1923-1983, by Armand Gaspard, L'AGE D'HOMME, 1984, p. 72
  29. ^ Guerilla threat to kill 40 in Paris siege, The Sydney Morning Herald, Sep. 25, 1981, p. 3
  30. ^ Children of Armenia, by M. Bobelian, Simon and Schuster, 2009, p. 159
  31. ^ Le procés des Arméniens, Paris, traduit du français par Grigor Djanikian, editions VMV-Print, Erevan, 2010, p. 200
  32. ^ Oran, Baskın (2006-12-17). "The Reconstruction of Armenian Identity in Turkey and the Weekly Agos (Interview with Hrant Dink)". Nouvelles d'Armenie. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  33. ^ "Armenian Issue: Chronology". Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2007-02-21. [dead link]
  34. ^ "He was an Armenian: Artin Penik". Turkish Journal. Archived from the original on 5 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-21. 
  35. ^ "Armenian Dies from Self-Inflicted Burns". Associated Press. 1982-08-15. 
  36. ^ Brian Forst, Jack R. Greene, James P. Lynch. Criminologists on Terrorism and Homeland Security. Cambridge University Press, 2011. ISBN 0521899451, 9780521899451, p. 431
  37. ^ Council of Europe, Documents, Vol. 1, May 1984, Report by Amadei, p. 9
  38. ^ Baghdasaryan, Edik (2007-11-26). "He Was a Man Deeply Connected to the Natural World". Hetq Online. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  39. ^ Harvey W. Kushner. Encyclopedia of terrorism. SAGE, 2002. ISBN 0-7619-2408-6, ISBN 978-0-7619-2408-1, стр 47
  40. ^ "French Hold Armenians In Orly Airport Bombing", Associated Press, New York Times, October 9, 1983.
  41. ^ Echikson, William. "Armenian bombing at Orly ends pact between Socialists and terrorists", Christian Science Monitor, July 19, 1983.
  42. ^ a b c Tessa, Hofmann. Armenians in Turkey today
  43. ^ Arax Monthly, #4, 2000, Tehran, p. 4
  44. ^ Mercan, Faruk (2004-09-06). "Asala operasyonlarını Kenan Evren'in kızı yönetti". Aksiyon (in Turkish) (Feza Gazetecilik A.Ş.) 509. Retrieved 2008-12-13. [dead link]
  45. ^ "Evren: Kızım MİT'te çalışıyordu". Sabah (in Turkish). 2004-09-08. Retrieved 2008-12-13. [dead link]
  46. ^ BBC, February 2, 1983. Armenian terrorist executed in Turkey.
  47. ^ Reuters (30 January 1983). "Turkey Executes 5, Including an Armenian". The New York Times (Reuters). p. 5. Retrieved 15 September 2012. 
  48. ^ a b Kilic, Ecevit (2008-09-28). "ASALA operasyonları efsane mi?". Sabah (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-25. 
  49. ^ Erdem, Ali Kemal (2007-10-17). "Çatlı'yı kullandık ve başarılı oldu". Sabah (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 4 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-02. "Benim gerçek kimliğim mi? Bunu hiçbir zaman bilmedi. Bana 'Albayım' derdi, çünkü beni askerlikten ayrılmış sanıyordu" 
  50. ^ Kilic, Ecevit (2008-09-28). "Boş konser salonu bombalandı". Sabah (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-25. 
  51. ^ "ASALA attacked Diplomatic target". MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base. Hungary. 1981-12-19. Archived from the original on 2007-08-27. 
  52. ^ Melkonian, Markar. My Brother's Road: An American's Fateful Journey to Armenia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005 pg. 187.
  53. ^ "Gunmen Kill Man in Athens Identified as Armenian Terrorist Chief". Associated Press News Archive. The Associated Press. 28 April 1988. Retrieved 15 September 2012. 
  54. ^ Melkonian, Markar. My Brother's Road: An American's Fateful Journey to Armenia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, pp. 277-278.
  55. ^ Birand, Mehmet Ali (2008-12-21). "Thanks to Nuri Gündeş". Turkish Daily News (Hürriyet). Retrieved 2008-12-21. "It was the raid of Paris's Orly Airport in 1983 that finished the ASALA off. Feeling ill at ease by the raid, the French and U.S. Armenians who used to support ASALA monetarily stopped the aid and the issue was closed. I know this through French authorities that were involved. The ones that were instrumental in the stopping of the aid were MİT and the Foreign Ministry. Otherwise, ASALA did not yield because it was afraid of the Turkish bullies. They were stopped because they had gone too far with their murders." 
  56. ^ Mamule 1967-1980, by Zhirair Danielyan, Haigazian handes, hador T, 1981
  57. ^ The Armenian Question, encyclopedia, Ed. by acad. K. Khudaverdyan, Yerevan, 1996, p. 209, Hayaqsdan by A. Sanjian
  58. ^ Spurk journal, #12, 1991, p. 32 Hayasdan Gaydzer
  59. ^ Armenians in London: The Management of Social Boundaries. by Vered Amit Talai, Vered Amit, Manchester University Press, 1989, p. 36
  60. ^ Spurk Journal, #1-12, 2005, Beirut, p. 35.
  61. ^ José Antonio Gurriarán, by El Pais, 4 April 1982