Ayşe Hafsa Sultan
|Ayşe Hafsa Sultan|
|Spouse||Sultan Selim I|
|Issue||Sultan Suleiman I
|Devletlû İsmetlû Ayşe Hafsa Vâlide Sultân Aliyyetü'ş-Şân Hazretleri|
|House||House of Osman|
|Born||5 December 1479|
|Died||19 March 1534
Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
|Burial||Yavuz Selim Mosque, Fatih, Constantinople (present day Istanbul)|
Ayşe Hafsa Sultan (fully Devletlu İsmetlu Ayşe Hafsa Valide Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-Şân Hazretleri; Ottoman Turkish: عائشہ حفصہ سلطان; 5 December 1479 – 19 March 1534), or in short, Hafsa Sultan, was the first "Valide Sultan" (Queen Mother) of the Ottoman Empire, first wife of Selim I and mother of Suleiman the Magnificent. During the period between her son's enthronement in 1520 and her death in 1534, she was one of the most influential persons in the Empire, as her son's de facto co-regent during these fourteen years, coming second only to the sovereign, which is a point remarked also by the ambassadors of European powers at the Ottoman court.
Although Ayşe Hafsa Sultan’s year of birth is known, historians debate that she was the daughter of Meñli I Giray. According to an alternative theory, the daughter of Meñli I Giray of the Crimean Khanate was another consort of Selim I known as Ayşe Hatun, consequently the stepmother of Suleiman the Magnificent.
The Ottoman inscription (vakfiye) describes her as Hātun binti Abd-ul-Muin (Hatun, daughter of Abd-ul-Muin), which means that her father was possibly a Greek convert to Islam. The reason behind calling her Hafsa was that she was from Havsa, a district of Edirne Province of Turkey. Other sources describe her as Circassian or a Crimean Tatar princess.
Having resided in the city of Manisa in western Turkey with her son, who administered the surrounding region between 1513 to 1520, the town being one of the traditional residences for Ottoman crown princes (şehzade) in apprenticeship for future power, Ayşe Hafsa Sultan is the initiator of the Manisa's "Mesir Festival", a local tradition still continued today. She also had a large complex consisting of a mosque, a primary school, a college and a hospice built in the city.
She was also the first imperial spouse to be called by the title usually rendered in English language as "Sultana" (full title in Turkish; "Valide Sultan", literally "the Queen Mother" but in only approximate terms in the Ottoman context). Her period signalled the shifting status of the sultan's mother and her increased share in power. After the birth of her son Suleiman, born 6 November 1494 in Trabzon, she had also three other sons who died in childhood: Orhan, Musa and Korkut and four daughters: Hatice, Beyhan, Şah and Fatma.
Ayşe Hafsa Sultan died in March 1534 and was buried near her husband in a mausoleum behind the qiblah wall of Yavuz Selim Mosque, in Fatih, Istanbul. The mausoleum was largely destroyed in an earthquake in 1884, a reconstruction effort started in the 1900s (decade) having been left discontinued, and her tomb today is much simpler than it was built originally.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ayşe Hafsa Sultan.|
- The Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol.7, Edited by Hugh Chisholm, (1911), 3; Constantinople, the capital of the Turkish Empire...
- Britannica, Istanbul:When the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923, the capital was moved to Ankara, and Constantinople was officially renamed Istanbul in 1930.
- There were half a dozen notable female figures in Ottoman history who were named "Hafsa". Among these, it is Ayşe Hafsa Sultan who is referred to as "Hafsa Sultan" in short, "Sultan" in this case standing for "Sultana".
A namesake also of primary historical prominence and who had preceded Ayşe Hafsa Sultan by about two centuries was the wife of the sultan Bayezid I and the daughter of İsa Bey, the last bey of Aydin, and she is generally referred to as Hafsa (Hâfize) Khātun. It is this earlier Hafsa who is at the origin of the final form the name of a town depending Edirne, Havsa, has taken.
The word Hâfiz designates a male person who memorized the Qur'an, and Hâfize indicates that the person is female. Hafsa is the more common and easier to pronounce, especially when fastly discoursed, of this name.
- Pietro Bragadin, Venetian Republic's ambassador in the early years of Suleiman the Magnificent's reign notes "a very beautiful woman of 48, for whom the sultan bears great reverence and love..." Leslie Peirce (1993). The Imperial Harem : Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire p. 62 ISBN 0-19-508677-5. Oxford University Press.
- Ottoman, Russian and Circassian Political Relations
- Mahidevran Haseki ve Ailesi
- Amy Singer (2002). Constructing Ottoman beneficence: An imperial soup kitchen in Jerusalem p. 90 ISBN 0-7914-5351-0. State University of New York Press.
- Peirce, Leslie P., The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-19-508677-5 (paperback).
- Yavuz Bahadıroğlu, Resimli Osmanlı Tarihi, Nesil Yayınları (Ottoman History with Illustrations, Nesil Publications), 15th Ed., 2009, ISBN 978-975-269-299-2 (Hardcover).
Emine Gülbahar Hatun
30 September 1520 – 19 March 1534