Bank of Ireland

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Not to be confused with Central Bank of Ireland.
Governor and Company of the Bank of Ireland
Type Public company
Traded as
Industry Finance
Founded 1783
Headquarters Dublin, Republic of Ireland
Key people Archie Kane, Governor, Richie Boucher, CEO
Products Banking & Insurance products
Revenue €3,471 million (2012)[1]
Operating income €(2,138) million (2012)[1]
Net income €(1,829) million (2012)[1]
Website www.bankofireland.com

The Bank of Ireland (Irish: Banc na hÉireann) is a commercial bank operation in Ireland, which is one of the traditional 'Big Four' Irish banks.

Historically the premier banking organisation in Ireland, the Bank occupies a unique position in Irish banking history. At the core of the modern-day group is the old Bank of Ireland, the ancient institution established by Royal Charter in 1783.[2]

History[edit]

Bank of Ireland is the oldest bank in continuous operation (apart from 4 closures due to bank strikes, 1950, 1966, 1970, 1976) in Ireland.

Chronology of history[edit]

The history is as follows:

  • 1781 — the Bank of Ireland Act is passed by the Parliament of Ireland.[3]
  • 1783 – 25 June 1783, the Bank of Ireland opened for business at Mary's Abbey (Off Capel St., Dublin) in a private house previously owned by one Charles Blakeney.[4]
  • 1808 – 6 June 1808, Bank of Ireland moved to 2 College Green.[4]
  • 1864 – Bank of Ireland first pays interest on deposits.[4]
  • 1926 – The Bank of Ireland took control of the National Land Bank – a friendly society.[4]
  • 1948 – The Bank of Ireland 1783–1946 by F.G. Hall was published jointly by Hodges Figgis (Dublin) and Blackwell's (Oxford).[5]
  • 1958 – The Bank took over the Hibernian Bank Limited.[4]
  • 1965 – The National Bank Ltd, a bank founded by Daniel O'Connell in 1835 had branches in Ireland and Britain. The Irish branches were acquired by Bank of Ireland and rebranded temporarily as National Bank of Ireland, before being fully incorporated into Bank of Ireland. The British branches were acquired by Williams & Glyn's Bank.[4]
  • 1983 – Bank of Ireland Bi-Centenary. A commemorative stamp was issued. The Bank commissioned the publication of "An Irish Florilegium".[6]
  • 1995 – Bank of Ireland merge First New Hampshire Bank with Royal Bank of Scotland's Citizens Financial Group[7]
  • 1996 – Bank of Ireland buys the Bristol and West building society for €882m, which keeps its own brand.[8]
  • 1999 – Merger talks with Alliance & Leicester were held and then called off.[9]
  • 2000 – It is announced that Bank of Ireland is to acquire Chase de Vere.[10]
  • 2002 – Bank of Ireland acquires Iridian, the US investment manager, which doubles the size of its asset management business.[11]
  • 2005 – Bank of Ireland completes the sale of the Bristol and West branch and Direct Savings (Contact Centre) to Britannia Building Society.[12]
  • 2008 – Moody's Investors Service changed its outlook on Bank of Ireland from stable to negative. Moody's pinpointed concerns over weakening asset quality and the impact of a more challenging economic environment on profitability at Bank of Ireland. A share price collapse followed.[13]
  • 2009 – The Irish government announces a €7 billion rescue package for the bank and Allied Irish Banks plc in February.[14] Biggest bank robbery in the history of the state took place at Bank of Ireland at College Green. Consultants Oliver Wyman validated Bank of Ireland's bad debt levels at €6 billion over three years to March 2011, a bad debt level which was exceeded by almost €1 billion within a matter of months.[15][16]
  • 2010 – The European Commission orders the disposal of Bank of Ireland Asset Management, New Ireland Assurance, ICS Building Society, its US Foreign Exchange business and the stakes held in the Irish Credit Bureau and in an American Asset Manager followed the receipt of Irish Government State aid.[17]
  • 2011 – The Securities Services Division is sold to Northern Trust Corporation.[18][19]
  • 2013 Bank of Ireland more than doubles interest rates on mortgages tracking the Bank of England rates, (which have remained stable for four years), citing the need to hold more reserves and the 'increased cost of funding mortgages'. Described by Ray Boulger of broker John Charcol as 'having shot the reputation of its mortgages to smithereens', nevertheless the bank continues to offer highly competitive mortgages through the Post Office.[20]

Role as government banker[edit]

The Bank of Ireland is not, and was never, the Irish central bank. However, as well as being a commercial bank – a deposit-taker and a credit institution – it performed many central bank functions, much like the earlier-established Bank of Scotland and Bank of England. The Bank of Ireland operated the Exchequer Account and during the nineteenth century acted as something of a banker of last resort. Even the titles of the chairman of the board of directors (the Governor) and the title of the board itself (the Court of Directors) suggest a central bank status. From the foundation of the Irish Free State in 1922 until 31 December 1971, the Bank of Ireland was the banker of the Irish Government.[4]

Headquarters[edit]

Facade of the bank on Westmoreland Street, Dublin

The headquarters of the bank until the 1970s was the impressive Bank of Ireland building on College Green, Dublin. This building was originally designed by Edward Lovett Pearce in 1729 to host the Irish Parliament, and it was the world's first purpose-built two-chamber parliament building.[21]

The bank had planned to commission a building designed by Sir John Soane to be constructed on the site bounded by Westmoreland Street, Fleet Street, College Street and D'Olier Street (now occupied by the Westin Hotel). However the project was cancelled following the Act of Union 1800, when the newly defunct Parliament building was bought by Bank of Ireland in 1803.[22] The old Bank of Ireland building continues today as a working branch. Today, visitors can still view the impressive Irish House of Lords chamber within the old headquarters building. The modern Irish Parliament is now housed in Leinster House in Dublin. In 2011, the Irish Government set out proposals to acquire the building as a venue for the state to use as a cultural venue.[23]

In the 1970s the bank moved its headquarters to a modern building on Lower Baggot Street, Dublin 2. As Frank McDonald notes in his book "Destruction of Dublin", when these headquarters were built, it caused the world price of copper to rise – such was the usage in the building.[24]

New headquarters at 40 Mespil Road, Dublin 4

In 2010 the bank moved to a new, smaller headquarters on Mespil Road.[25]

Banking services[edit]

Republic of Ireland[edit]

Former Headquarters on Lower Baggot Street until 2010

The Group provides a broad range of financial services in Ireland to the personal, commercial, industrial and agricultural sectors. These include checking and deposit services, overdrafts, term loans, mortgages, international asset financing, leasing, instalment credit, debt financing, foreign exchange facilities, interest and exchange rate hedging instruments, executor and trustee services.[26]

International Operations[edit]

The bank is headquartered in Dublin, and has operations throughout the Republic of Ireland. It also operates in Northern Ireland, where it prints its own banknotes in Pounds Sterling (see section on banknotes below). In Great Britain, the bank expanded largely through the takeover of the Bristol and West Building Society in 1996. Bank of Ireland also provides financial services for the British Post Office throughout the UK. Operations in the rest of the world are primarily undertaken by Bank of Ireland Corporate Banking who provide services in France, Germany, Australia and the United States.

Banknotes[edit]

A£5 Sterling note issued by Bank of Ireland in Northern Ireland

Although the Bank of Ireland is not a central bank, it does have Sterling note-issuing rights in the United Kingdom. While the Bank is headquartered in Dublin, it has operations in Northern Ireland, where it retains the legal right (dating from before the partition of Ireland) to print its own banknotes. These are pound sterling notes and equal in value to Bank of England notes, and should not be confused with banknotes of the former Irish pound. Until April 2008, all Bank of Ireland notes featured the Queen's University of Belfast on the reverse side. A new series of £5, £10 and £20 notes issued in April 2008 (New-look notes will begin to be circulated in April), all featuring an illustration of the Old Bushmills Distillery on the reverse side, and these notes will gradually replace the previous series.[27][28]

The principal difference between the denominations is their colour and size:

  • 5 pound note, blue
  • 10 pound note, pink
  • 20 pound note, green
  • 50 pound note, blue-green

The Bank of Ireland does not issue banknotes in the Republic of Ireland. Section 60 of the Currency Act 1927 removed the right of Irish banks to issue banknotes, however "consolidated banknotes", of a common design issued by all "Shareholder Banks" under the Act, were issued between 1929 and 1953. These notes were not legal tender.[29]

Controversies[edit]

Michael Soden[edit]

Michael Soden abruptly quit as group chief executive on 29 May 2004 when it was discovered that adult material that contravened company policy was found on his Bank PC.[30] Soden issued a personal statement explaining that the high standards of integrity and behaviour in an environment of accountability, transparency and openness, which he espoused, would cause embarrassment to the Bank.[31]

DIRT controversy[edit]

An IR£30.5 million tax arrears liability was settled by Bank of Ireland in July 2000. The Bank told the Oireachtas Public Accounts Committee Inquiry that its liability was in the region of £1.5 million. The settlement figure was 'dictated' by the Revenue Commissioners following an audit by the Commissioners.[32] It was in Bank of Ireland that some of the most celebrated of the "celebrated cases" of non-compliance and bogus non-resident accounts have to date been discovered and disclosed. Thurles, Boyle, Roscrea (1990), Milltown Malbay (1991), Dundalk (1989/90), Killester (1992), Tullamore (1993), Mullingar (1996), Castlecomer, Clonmel, Ballybricken, Ballinasloe, Skibbereen (1988), Dungarvan and, disclosed to the Oireachtas Public Accounts Sub-Committee, Ballaghaderreen (1998) and Ballygar (1999). The Public Accounts Sub-Committee Inquiry concluded that "the most senior executives in the Bank of Ireland did seek to set an ethical tone for the bank and unsuccessfully sought Revenue Commissioners assistance to promote an industry-wide Code of Practice.[33]

Stolen laptops[edit]

In April 2008 it was announced that four laptops with data pertaining to 10,000 customers[34] were stolen between June and October 2007. This customer information included names, addresses, bank details, medical and pension details.[35]

The thefts were initially reported to the Garda Síochána, however the Banks senior management did not know about the problem until February 2008 after an internal audit uncovered the theft and the Bank did not advise the Data Protection Commissioner and the Central Bank of Ireland until mid-April 2008. It also came to light that none of the laptops used encryption to protect the sensitive data. The Bank has since released a press release detailing the seven branches affected and its initial response,[36] later in the month the Bank confirmed that 31,500 customer records were affected as well as an increased number of branches.[37]

Record bank robbery[edit]

On 27 February 2009 it was reported that a criminal gang from Dublin had robbed €7 million from the Bank of Ireland's main branch in College Green. The robbery was the biggest in the history of the Republic of Ireland, during which a girlfriend of an employee, her mother and her mother's five-year-old granddaughter were held hostage at gunpoint. Gardaí arrested six men the next day, and recovered €1.8 million. A spokesperson for the bank said: "Bank of Ireland's priority is for the safety and well-being of the staff member and the family involved in this incident and all of the bank's support services have been made available to them." [38]

Wrong information on recapitalisation and bonuses[edit]

The information provided to the Department of Finance in 2009 in advance of a recapitalisation of the bank which cost the taxpayer €3.5 billion, "was incomplete and misleading". It also gave wrong information to the Minister for Finance who in turn misled the Dáil on €66 million in bonuses it paid since receiving a State guarantee. External examiners found it used "a restrictive and uncommon interpretation of what constituted a performance bonus" .[39] Their report also found that there had been "a catalogue of errors" and that the information supplied by Bank of Ireland to the Department of Finance was "presented in a manner which minimised the level of additional payments made.[40] The Bank paid €2 million by way of compensation to the Exchequer for providing "misleading" information.[41][42][43]

Relationship with outsourcing companies[edit]

The Bank has forged strong links with IT outsourcing companies since 2004 or earlier. On 1 November 2010 IBM won the $450M full scope outsource contract to manage BoI Group's Information Technology (IT) infrastructure services (e.g. mainframe, servers, desktops and print services) in a competitive bid against HP (the incumbent outsource provider) and HCL. This follows on from the Bank's natural expiration of its current agreement with HP, which was signed in 2004.

Following a competitive bid process with a number of parties, IBM was selected for exclusive contract negotiations in July 2011. During the intervening period, an extensive due diligence phase has been undertaken and relevant regulatory approval has been granted. IBM will manage the Group's entire IT infrastructure, including desktop systems, servers, mainframes, local area networks and service desk.[44] Since then, BOI has given HCL a €30m Business Process Outsourcing contract and has selected them as strategic local resourcing partner in Ireland. In addition to that, HCL have opened a software factory for Bank of Ireland in India and has started to outsource production support for the retail banking and payments applications in BOI.[45] This exclusive relationship with HCL has been seen as controversial in the context of the substantial Irish taxpayer investment in Bank of Ireland – and the lack of any significant investment by HCL in Ireland. A banking analyst said in July 2011 that BOI's IT system is "very antiquated."[46]

2008 share price collapse[edit]

On 5 March 2009, the shares reached €0.12 during the day, thereby reducing the value of the company by over 99% from its 2007 high. At the 2009 AGM, shareholders criticised the performance of Auditors, PriceWaterhouseCoopers.[47]

The Central Bank told the Oireachtas Enterprise Committee that shareholders who lost their money in the banking collapse are to blame for their fate and got what was coming to them for not keeping bank chiefs in check, but did admit that the Central Bank had failed to give sufficient warning about reckless lending to property developers.[48]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Preliminary Results 2012
  2. ^ "Banks need fresh €24 billion – Central Bank". RTÉ News. 31 March 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 
  3. ^ Bank of Ireland Act 1781 (Public Act No. 16 of 1781). Act of the Irish Parliament.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Bank of Ireland: History
  5. ^ The Economic Journal, Vol. 60, No. 237, March 1950
  6. ^ An Irish Florilegium II
  7. ^ Citizens, First NH Announce Merger Plans AP, 18 December 1995
  8. ^ After 158 years, the end is nigh for Bristol & West The Guardian, 10 January 2009
  9. ^ Alliance & Leicester scraps Bank of Ireland merger plans Money Marketing, 18 June 1999
  10. ^ Ireland bank buys Chase de Vere The Telegraph, 29 July 2000
  11. ^ Bank of Ireland AM moves into US by buying Iridian IPE, 16 May 2002
  12. ^ Britannia to acquire Bristol & West The Guardian, 24 May 2005
  13. ^ Bank of Ireland shares plummet to 83 cent RTÉ News, 30 January 2009
  14. ^ Irish Times on rescue package Feb 2009
  15. ^ "The Sunday Business Post". Thepost.ie. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  16. ^ Capital Raising Announcement and Interim Management Statement 12 February 2009
  17. ^ "EU Restructuring Plan – Bank of Ireland ROI". Bankofireland.com. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  18. ^ "The Governor and Company of the Bank of Ireland Sale of Bank of Ireland Securities Services – Press Releases – Press Room – About Bank of Ireland Group – Bank of Ireland ROI". Bankofireland.com. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  19. ^ Brennan, Joe; Doyle, Dara (24 February 2011). "Bank of Ireland to Sell Fund Services Arm to Northern Trust". Bloomberg. 
  20. ^ The Guardian 02.03.13
  21. ^ "Architecture Group – Irish Parliament Building". Retrieved 24 May 2011. "Bank of Ireland, College Green ... is the world's first purpose-built two-chamber parliament house." 
  22. ^ "The House of Lord's Dublin". Retrieved 24 May 2011. "The Parliament House was purchased by "The Bank of Ireland" in 1803." 
  23. ^ Paul Cullen (14 May 2011). "Government wants to repossess landmark College Green bank". Irish Times. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  24. ^ McDonald, p. 111
  25. ^ TV3 News. 11 August 2010
  26. ^ Bank of Ireland: Personal Banking
  27. ^ "Bank of Ireland to feature Old Bushmills Distillery on new Northern Ireland note issue". Bank of Ireland. 11 February 2008. Retrieved 30 October 2008. 
  28. ^ "Bank raises glass to famous drink". BBC News. 23 April 2008. Retrieved 30 October 2008. 
  29. ^ Currency Act 1927
  30. ^ "Bank of Ireland chief quits over PC porn". The Register. 1 June 2004. Archived from the original on 14 July 2006. Retrieved 15 August 2006. 
  31. ^ "Personal statement by Michael D. Soden Group Chief Executive Bank of Ireland" (PDF). Michael D. Soden. 29 May 2004. 
  32. ^ "Revenue set to claw back bonanza in unpaid taxes". The Irish Times. 6 July 2000. [dead link]
  33. ^ "Public Accounts Committee Parliamentary Inquiry into DIRT". 27 September 1999. 
  34. ^ Data theft involving 10,000 bank records RTÉ News, 21 April 2008
  35. ^ BoI kept quiet about stolen client details since February Irish Independent, 23 April 2008
  36. ^ Bank of Ireland Life – Customer Update on Stolen Laptops Bank of Ireland Press Room, 22 April 2008
  37. ^ Bank of Ireland Life – Update on Stolen Laptops Bank of Ireland Press Room, 28 April 2008
  38. ^ BKidnap gang steals €7 million from Bank of Ireland Times Online, 27 February 2009
  39. ^ Collins, John (7 March 2011). "Bonus row shows Bank of Ireland is no better than rest". The Irish Times. 
  40. ^ "The Great Escape". Irish Independent. 16 April 2011. 
  41. ^ 3 March 2011 – 18:42:23. "Investigation exposes Bank of Ireland bonus payments". BreakingNews.ie. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  42. ^ "BoI paid €66m in bonuses from 2008–2010". RTÉ News. 4 March 2011. 
  43. ^ "Bank of Ireland Statement on Bonuses – Press Releases – Press Room – About Bank of Ireland Group – Bank of Ireland ROI". Bankofireland.com. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  44. ^ "Bank of Ireland shortlists IBM, HCL for $600-mn outsourcing deal". The Times of India. 2 June 2010. 
  45. ^ "The Sunday Business Post". Sbpost.ie. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  46. ^ "The Sunday Business Post". Sbpost.ie. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  47. ^ O'Farrell, Stephen (4 July 2009). "Anger smoulders but the fury has gone". Irish Independent. 
  48. ^ Leinster Rugby Calendar 2013. "Top official says shareholders to blame for the banking crisis – News, Frontpage". Herald.ie. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 

Sources[edit]

  • McDonald, Frank (1985). The destruction of Dublin. Gill and Macmillan. ISBN 978-0717113866. 

External links[edit]