Garda Síochána

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An Garda Síochána
Common name Gardaí
Badge of An Garda Síochána.gif
Shield of An Garda Síochána
Agency overview
Formed 1922[citation needed]
Preceding agencies
Annual budget €1.344 billion (2014) [1]
Legal personality Governmental: Government agency
Jurisdictional structure
National agency Ireland
GardaSíochána.png
An Garda Síochána area of jurisdiction in dark blue
Size 70,273 km²
Population 4,581,269
General nature
Operational structure
Headquarters Garda Headquarters, Phoenix Park, Dublin
Officers 12,900
Sections
Regions 6
Facilities
Stations 564
Marine/Sub-Aquas Garda Water Unit
Aircrafts Defender (fixed wing) and EC135 (helicopters x2)
Canines Garda Dog Unit
Website
www.Garda.ie

An Garda Síochána (Irish pronunciation: [ən ˈɡaːrd̪ə ˈʃiːxaːn̪ˠə]; meaning "the Guardian of the Peace"), more commonly referred to as the Gardaí ([ˈɡaːɾˠd̪ˠiː] gar-DEE, "Guardians"), is the police force of Ireland. The service is headed by the Garda Commissioner who is appointed by the Irish government. Its headquarters are in the Phoenix Park in Dublin.

Terminology[edit]

The force was originally named the Civic Guard in English,[2] but in 1923 it became An Garda Síochána in both English and Irish. This is usually translated as "the Guardian(s) of the Peace".[3] Garda Síochána na hÉireann ("of Ireland", Irish pronunciation: [ˈɡaːrd̪ə ˈʃiːxaːn̪ˠə n̪ˠə ˈheːɾʲən̪ˠ]) appears on its logo but is seldom used elsewhere.

The full official title of the force is rarely used in speech. How it is referred to depends on the register of the speaker. It is variously known as An Garda Síochána; the Garda Síochána; the Garda; the Gardaí (plural); and it is popularly called "the guards".[4] Although Garda is singular, in these terms it is used as a collective noun, like police.

An individual officer is called a garda (plural gardaí), or, informally, a "guard". A police station is called a Garda station. Garda is also the name of lowest rank within the force (e.g. "Garda John Murphy", analogous to the British term "constable" or the American "officer", "deputy", "trooper", etc.). "Guard" is the most common form of address used by members of the public speaking to a garda on duty. A female officer was once officially referred to as a bangharda ([ˈbˠanˌɣaːɾˠd̪ˠə]; "female guard"; plural banghardaí). This term was abolished in 1990,[5] but is still used colloquially in place of the now gender-neutral garda.

Organisation[edit]

Rank Irish name Number of operatives
(31 March 2013)[6]
Commissioner Coimisinéir 1
Deputy Commissioner Leas-Choimisinéir 2
Assistant Commissioner Cúntóir-Choimisinéir 9
Chief Superintendent Príomh-Cheannfort 41
Superintendent Ceannfort 153
Inspector Cigire 294
Sergeant Sáirsint 1,933
Gardaí Gardaí 10,933
Reserve Gardaí Gardaí Ionaid 1200+ Continuous Training
Student Gardaí Mac Léinn Ghardaí 100

The force is headed by the Commissioner, whose immediate subordinates are two Deputy Commissioners – in charge of "Operations" and "Strategy and Change Management", respectively – and a Chief Administrative Officer with responsibility for resource management (personnel, finance, Information and Communications Technology, and accommodation). There are twelve Assistant Commissioners: one for each of the six geographical Regions, and the remainder dealing with various national support functions. At an equivalent or near-equivalent level to the Assistant Commissioners are the positions of Chief Medical Officer, Executive Director of Information and Communications Technology, and Executive Director of Finance.

The six geographical Assistant Commissioners command the six Garda Force Regions, which are currently:

  1. Dublin Metropolitan Region
  2. Eastern
  3. Northern
  4. Southern
  5. South-Eastern
  6. Western
A group of Gardaí

Directly subordinate to the Assistant Commissioners are approximately 50 Chief Superintendents, about half of whom supervise what are called Divisions. Each Division contains a number of Districts, each commanded by a Superintendent assisted by a team of Inspectors. Each District contains a number of Subdistricts, which are usually commanded by Sergeants.

Typically each Subdistrict contains only one Garda station. A different number of Gardaí are based at each station depending on its importance. Most of these stations employ the basic rank of Garda, which was referred to as the rank of Guard until 1972. The most junior members of the force are students, whose duties can vary depending on their training progress. They are often bestowed with clerical duties, as part of their extra curriculum studies.

The Garda organisation also has over 2,500 non-officer support staff encompassing a diverse range of areas such as human resources, occupational health services, finance and procurement, internal audit, IT and telecommunications, accommodation and fleet management, scenes-of-crime support, research and analysis, training and general administration. The figure also includes industrial staff such as traffic wardens, drivers and cleaners. It is ongoing government policy to bring the level of non-officer support in the organisation up to international standards – thus enhancing its capacity and expertise in a range of specialist and administrative functions, and releasing more of its police officers for core operational duties.

Reserve Gardaí[edit]

The Garda Síochána Act 2005 provided for the establishment of a Garda Reserve to assist the force in performing its functions, and supplement the work of members of the Garda Síochána.

The intent of the Garda Reserve is "to be a source of local strength and knowledge". Reserve members are to carry out duties defined by the Garda Commissioner and sanctioned by the Minister for Justice and Equality. With reduced training of 128 hours, these duties and powers must be operated under the supervision of regular members of the Force, and are also limited from those of regular members.

As of November 2010 there are 850 graduated Reserve Gardaí, and another 148 in further training. The first batch of 36 Reserve Gardaí graduated on 15 December 2006 at the Garda College, in Templemore.[7]

The two helicopters of the Garda Air Support Unit

Sections[edit]

Rank structure[edit]

Ranks of the Garda Síochána
Rank Student Reserve Student Garda Reserve Garda Sergeant Inspector Superintendent Chief
Superintendent
Assistant
Commissioner
Deputy
Commissioner
Commissioner
Insignia Garda 08.png Garda 10.png Garda 07.png Garda 06.png

Equipment[edit]

Most uniformed members of An Garda Síochána do not routinely carry firearms. Individual Gardaí have been issued with ASP extendable batons and pepper spray as their standard issue weapons while handcuffs are equipped as restraints.[8]

A member of the motorcycle unit of the Garda Síochána

The force, when originally created, was armed, but the Provisional Government reversed the decision and reconstituted the force as an unarmed police force. This was in contrast to the attitude of the British Dublin Castle administration, which refused appeals from the Royal Irish Constabulary that the force be disarmed.[9] In the words of first Commissioner, Michael Staines, TD, "the Garda Síochána will succeed not by force of arms or numbers, but on their moral authority as servants of the people."

According to Tom Garvin such a decision gave the new force a cultural ace: "the taboo on killing unarmed men and women who could not reasonably be seen as spies and informers."[9]

Armed Gardaí[edit]

Garda Síochána Emergency Response Unit on duty in Dublin

The Gardai is primarily an unarmed force, however, certain units such as the Special Detective Unit (SDU), Regional Support Units (RSU), and the Emergency Response Unit (ERU) are commissioned to and so carry firearms.

The armed officers serve as a fall back to regular Gardaí, created in response to a rise in the number of armed incidents dealt with by regular members.[10] To be issued with a firearm, or to carry a firearm whilst on duty, a member must be in possession of a valid gun card, and cannot wear a regular uniform.

Armed Gardaí carry Sig Sauer P226 and Walther P99C semi-automatic pistols. Armed intervention units and specialist Detective units carry a variety of long arms, primarily the Heckler & Koch MP7 sub-machine guns as the standard issue weapon alongside with the Heckler & Koch MP5.

In addition to issued pistols, less-lethal weapons such as tasers and large pepper spray canisters are carried also by the ERU.[11]

Diplomatic protection[edit]

The Garda Special Detective Unit (SDU) are primarily responsibility for providing armed close protection to senior officials in Ireland.[12] They provide fulltime armed protection and transport for; the President, Taoiseach, Tánaiste, Minister for Justice and Equality, Attorney General, Chief Justice, Director of Public Prosecutions, Ambassadors and Diplomats deemed 'at risk' (such as the Ambassadors, Embassies and Diplomatic Residences of the United Kingdom, United States, Israel), as well as foreign dignitaries visiting Ireland and citizens deemed to require armed protection as designated so by the Garda Commissioner.[13] The Commissioner is also protected by the unit. All cabinet ministers are afforded armed protection at heightened levels of risk when deemed necessary by Garda Intelligence,[14] and their places of work and residences are monitored.[15] Former Presidents and Taoisigh are protected if their security is under threat, otherwise they only receive protection on formal state occasions.[16] The Emergency Response Unit (ERU), a section of the SDU, are deployed on more than 100 VIP protection duties per year.[17]

Vehicles[edit]

Garda Toyota Avensis

Garda patrol cars are white or silver in colour, with a fluorescent yellow and blue bordered horizontal strip, accompanied by the Garda crest as livery. Traffic Corps vehicles adopt a half battenburg pattern. Unmarked patrol cars are also used in the course of regular, traffic and investigatory duties.

History[edit]

New Garda recruits salute the President of Ireland, An Tóstal, 1954

The Civic Guard was formed by the Provisional Government in February 1922 to take over the responsibility of policing the fledgling Irish Free State. It replaced the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) and the Irish Republican Police of 1919–22. In August 1922 the force accompanied Michael Collins when he met the Lord Lieutenant in Dublin Castle.[citation needed]

The Garda Síochána (Temporary Provisions) Act 1923 enacted after the creation of the Irish Free State on 8 August 1923,[18] provided for the creation of "a force of police to be called and known as 'The Garda Síochána'". Under section 22, The Civic Guard were deemed to have been established under and to be governed by the Act. The law therefore effectively renamed the existing force.

During the Civil War of 1922–23, the new Free State set up the Criminal Investigation Department as an armed, plain-clothed counter-insurgency unit. It was disbanded after the end of the war in October 1923 and elements of it were absorbed into the Dublin Metropolitan Police.

In Dublin, policing remained the responsibility of the Dublin Metropolitan Police (DMP, founded 1836) until it merged with the Garda Síochána in 1925. Since then the Garda has been the only civil police force in the state now known as Ireland. Other police forces with limited powers are the Military Police within the Irish Defence Forces, the Airport Police Service, and Dublin Port and Dún Laoghaire Harbour police forces.

Garda directing traffic in Dublin during the 1960s

Scott Medal[edit]

First established in 1925, the Scott Medal for Bravery is the highest honour for bravery and valour awarded to a member of the Garda Síochána. The first medals were funded by Colonel Walter Scott, an honorary Commissioner of the New York Police Department.[19] The first recipient of the Scott Medal was Pat Malone of St. Luke's Cork City who – as an unarmed Garda – disarmed Tomás Óg Mac Curtain (the son of Tomás Mac Curtain).

To mark the United States link, the American English spelling of valor is used on the medal. The Garda Commissioner chooses the recipients of the medal, which is presented by the Minister for Justice and Equality.

In 2000, Anne McCabe – the widow of Jerry McCabe, a garda who was killed by armed Provisional IRA bank robbers – accepted the Scott Medal for Bravery that had been awarded posthumously to her husband.[20]

The Irish Republican Police had at least one member killed by the RIC 21 July 1920.
The Civic Guard had one killed by accident 22 September 1922 & another was killed March 1923 by Frank Teeling. Likewise 4 members of the Oriel House Criminal Investigation Department were killed/Died of wounds during the Irish Civil War.[21] The Garda Roll of Honor lists 86 members of the Garda killed between 1922 to the present (See Below)

Garda Commissioners[edit]

Garda Commissioners
Name From Until Reason
Michael Staines February 1922 September 1922 resigned
Eoin O'Duffy September 1922 February 1933 dismissed for
encouraging military coup
Eamon Broy February 1933 June 1938 retired
Michael Kinnane June 1938 July 1952 died
Daniel Costigan July 1952 February 1965 resigned
William P Quinn February 1965 March 1967 retired
Patrick Carroll March 1967 September 1968 retired
Michael Wymes September 1968 January 1973 retired
Patrick Malone January 1973 September 1975 retired
Edmund Garvey September 1975 January 1978 replaced (lost
government confidence)
Patrick McLaughlin January 1978 January 1983 retired (wiretap
scandal)
Lawrence Wren February 1983 November 1987 retired
Eamonn Doherty November 1987 December 1988 retired
Eugene Crowley December 1988 January 1991 retired
Patrick Culligan January 1991 July 1996 retired
Patrick Byrne July 1996 July 2003 retired
Noel Conroy July 2003 November 2007 retired
Fachtna Murphy November 2007 December 2010 retired
Martin Callinan December 2010 March 2014 resigned (Penalty points
controversy
)
Nóirín O'Sullivan March 2014 (incumbent)

The first Commissioner, Michael Staines, who was a Pro-Treaty member of Dáil Éireann, held office for only eight months. It was his successors, Eoin O'Duffy and Éamon Broy, who played a central role in the development of the force. O'Duffy was Commissioner in the early years of the force when to many people's surprise the viability of an unarmed police force was established. O'Duffy later became a short-lived political leader of the quasi-fascist Blueshirts before heading to Spain to fight alongside Francisco Franco's Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War. Broy had greatly assisted the Irish Republican Army (IRA) during the Anglo-Irish War, while serving with the Dublin Metropolitan Police (DMP). Broy's fame grew in the 1990s when he featured in the film Michael Collins, in which it was misleadingly suggested that he had been murdered by the British during the War of Independence, when in reality he lived for decades and headed the Garda Síochána from 1933 to 1938. Broy was followed by Commissioners Michael Kinnane (1938–52) and Daniel Costigan (1952–65). The first Commissioner to rise from the rank of ordinary Garda was William P. Quinn, who was appointed in February 1965.

One later Commissioner, Edmund Garvey, was sacked by the Fianna Fáil government of Jack Lynch in 1978 after it had lost confidence in him. Garvey won "unfair dismissal" legal proceedings against the government, which was upheld in the Irish Supreme Court[22] This outcome required the passing of the Garda Síochána Act 1979 to retrospectively validate the actions of Garvey's successor since he had become Commissioner.[23] Garvey's successor, Patrick McLaughlin, was forced to resign along with his deputy in 1983 over his peripheral involvement in a political scandal.

On 25 November 2014 Nóirín O'Sullivan was appointed as Garda Commissioner, after acting as interim Commissioner since March 2014, following the resignation of Martin Callinan. The first female to hold the top rank, Commissioner O'Sullivan joined the force in 1981, and was among the first members of a plain-clothes unit set up to tackle drug dealing in Dublin.

Past reserve forces[edit]

During the Second World War (often referred to in Ireland as "the Emergency") there were two reserve forces to the Garda Síochána, An Taca Síochána and the Local Security Force.[24]

An Taca Síochána had the power of arrest and wore uniform, and were allowed to leave the reserve or sign-up as full members of the Garda Síochána at the end of the war before the reserve was disbanded. The reserve was established by the Emergency Powers (Temporary Special Police Force) Order, 1939.

The Local Security Force (LSF) did not have the power of arrest, and part of the reserve was soon incorporated into the Irish Army Reserve under the command of the Irish Army.[25]

Inter-jurisdiction co-operation[edit]

Northern Ireland[edit]

The Patten Report recommended that a programme of long-term personnel exchanges should be established between the Garda Síochána and the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI). This recommendation was enacted in 2002 by an Inter-Governmental Agreement on Policing Cooperation, which set the basis for the exchange of officer between the two services. There are three levels of exchanges:

  • Personnel exchanges, for all ranks, without policing powers and for a term up to one year
  • Secondments: for ranks Sergeant to Chief Superintendent, with policing powers, for up to three years
  • Lateral entry by the permanent transfer of officers for ranks above Inspector and under Assistant Commissioner

The protocols for this movements of personnel were signed by both the Chief Constable of the PSNI and the Commissioner of An Garda Síochána on 21 February 2005.[26]

Garda officers also co-operate with members of the PSNI to combat cross-border crime, and can conduct joint raids on both jurisdictions. They have also accompanied politicians from the Republic, such as the President on visits to Northern Ireland.

Other jurisdictions[edit]

Since 1989, the Garda Síochána has undertaken United Nations peace-keeping duties. Its first such mission was a 50 strong contingent sent to Namibia. Since then the force has acted in Angola, Cambodia, Cyprus, Mozambique, South Africa and the former Yugoslavia. The force's first fatality whilst working abroad was Sergeant Paul M. Reid, who was fatally injured while on duty with the United Nations UNPROFOR at "Sniper's Alley" in Sarajevo on 18 May 1995.

Members of the Garda Síochána also serve in the Embassies of Ireland in London, The Hague, Madrid and Paris. Members are also seconded to Europol in The Hague, in the Netherlands and Interpol in Lyon, France. There are also many members working directly for UN and European agencies such as the War Crimes Tribunal.

Under an agreement with the British Government and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the Garda Síochána and the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland are allowed to inspect the Sellafield nuclear facility in Cumbria, England.

Controversy and allegations involving the force[edit]

Much like every police force in the world, the Gardaí have faced many complaints against them including allegations of discourtesy, harassment and perjury.[27] A total of 1,173 complaints were made by the public against the Gardaí in 2005,[28] while over 2000 complaints were made in 2009.[29]

Some incidents involving the Garda Síochána have attracted wide scale attention—such as those that led to the Morris and Barr Tribunals—and have resulted in broad reform initiatives.[citation needed] Other reports suggest that people who frequent gay and lesbian establishments feel that the Gardaí are not doing enough to tackle alleged anti-homosexual crime in Ireland.[30] In 2007 there was also some debate when a potential Sikh applicant of the Garda Reserve requested that he be allowed wear a turban in place of a standard uniform cap. Ultimately the provision was not made as it was stated that the force had the same uniform requirements for all members.[31]

Mishandling of cases and complaints[edit]

The Kerry Babies case was one of the first public inquiries into mishandling of a Garda investigation. Later, in the 1980s, the Ferns Report (an inquiry into allegations of clerical sexual abuse) described as "wholly inadequate" the handling of one of eight formal complaints made to Wexford gardaí, but noted that the remaining formal complaints were handled in an "effective, professional and sensitive" manner.[32]

The Gardaí were also criticised in the Murphy Report[33] in relation to the handing over of the case of Fr. Edmondus (pseudonym of Fr. Paul McGennis, later publicly identified) to Archbishop McQuaid by Commissioner Costigan.[34] Some very senior Gardaí were criticised for regarding priests as being outside their remit in 1960.[35] On 26 November 2009, then Commissioner Fachtna Murphy apologised for the failure of An Garda Siochána to protect victims of child abuse in the Dublin Archdiocese.[36] He said that inappropriate relationships and contacts between gardaí and the Dublin Archdiocese had taken place at a time of undue or misguided deference to religious authorities and that these were incompatible with any investigation.[36] On 27 November 2009 he announced that a senior investigator would examine the findings in the report.[37]

The Gardaí were criticised by the commission of investigation into the Dean Lyons case for their handling of the investigation into the Grangegorman killings. In his report, George Birmingham said that the Gardaí had used leading questions in their interviews with Lyons, and had failed to act on a suspicion that Lyons' confession was unreliable. For a period, the gardaí involved in the case failed to act on the knowledge that another man, Mark Nash, had confessed to the crime. They were also criticised for failing to keep adequate records of their interviews with Lyons.[38]

Allegations resulting in Tribunals of Inquiry[edit]

Main articles: Morris Tribunal and Barr Tribunal

In the 1990s and early 2000s the Garda Síochána faced a series of allegations, including suggestions of corrupt and dishonest policing in County Donegal. This became the subject of a judicial inquiry: the Morris Tribunal. The tribunal found that some gardaí based in County Donegal had invented a Provisional IRA informer, made bombs and claimed credit for locating them, and attempted to frame Raphoe publican Frank McBrearty Junior for murder – the latter case involving a €1.5m settlement with the State. In a report to the Minister for Justice the Morris Tribunal expressed grave concern about "organised insubordination" within the force that "proper discipline has been lost from An Garda Síochána", suggesting that a few mischief-makers abused their positions within the Garda and used the disciplinary process to damage the force. The tribunal also expressed concern that recruits were brought into an undisciplined culture that had the potential to do great damage in the longer term, and warned that a "terrible and costly" waste of talent would occur if the situation continued. These scandals damaged the reputation and standing of the force in County Donegal.[citation needed]

On 20 April 2000, members of the Emergency Response Unit shot dead, from behind, 27-year-old John Carthy at the end of a 25-hour siege as he left his home in Abbeylara, County Longford with a loaded shotgun in his hands. There were allegations made of inappropriate handling of the situation and of the overuse of armed force by the Gardaí. This led to a Garda inquiry, and subsequently, a Tribunal of Inquiry under the Chairmanship of Justice Robert Barr. This inquiry was established on 1 July 2002, and the hearing of evidence was completed on 7 December 2004. The final report was expected within six months, but publication of the report was delayed until 20 July 2006. The official findings of the tribunal were that Sgt Michael Jackson made 14 mistakes in his role as negotiator during the siege, and that he failed to make real efforts to achieve resolution during the armed stand-off. It further stated however that Sgt Jackson was limited by lack of experience and resources (psychologists, solicitors, dogs). The tribunal recommended that there be an urgent review of Garda command structures, and that the ERU be equipped with stun guns and other non-lethal options, including "non-compliant firearms support police dogs".[39]

The Barr tribunal further recommended a formal working arrangement between Gardaí and State psychologists, and improvements in Garda training (especially in the context of ERU in siege situations, including those with mental illness as a factor). This included a recommendation that local Garda superintendents undergo refresher training for one week every year as scene commanders and a similar refresher course for ERU officers of the rank of inspector or superintendent. Garda Commissioner Conroy, in a letter to the family of John Carthy, stated that the force was "truly apologetic" for his death.[40] Former Superintendent Joe Shelley, whose failure to interview John Carthy was cited in the Barr Tribunal Report as "extraordinary", and who was also severely criticised in the Report of the Morris Tribunal into the controversial death of Richie Barron, was awarded a top-up bonus of €110,000 when he took early retirement in July 2005. Justice Morris described Shelley's probe as "prejudiced, tendentious, utterly negligent in the highest degree".[41]

Allegations involving abuse of powers[edit]

One of the first charges of serious impropriety against the force rose out of the handling of the Sallins Train Robbery in 1976. This case eventually led to accusations that a "Heavy Gang" within the force intimidated and tortured accused. This eventually led to a Presidential pardon for one of the accused.

In 2004, an RTÉ Prime Time documentary accused elements within the Garda of abusing their powers by physically assaulting people arrested. A retired Circuit Court judge (W. A. Murphy) suggested that some members of the force had committed perjury in criminal trials before him but later stated that he was misquoted, while a Minister of State (Dick Roche, a junior government minister) accused Gardaí in one instance of "torture". The Garda Commissioner accused the television programme of lacking balance.

The Prime Time documentary followed footage published by the Independent Media Centre Ireland showing scuffles between Gardaí and Reclaim the Streets demonstrators.[42] One Garda in this footage was later convicted of common assault, which is a summary matter, while several other Gardaí were acquitted.

Allegations involving cross-border policing and collusion with the IRA[edit]

Former head of intelligence of the Provisional IRA, Kieran Conway claimed that in 1974 the IRA were tipped-off by "high-placed figures" within the Gardaí about a planned RUC Special Branch raid, which was intended to capture members of the IRA command. Conway said "We had contacts in the law offices of the state and contacts in the upper echelons of the guards". Asked if this was just a one-off example of individual Gardaí colluding with the IRA, Conway claimed: "It wasn't just in 1974 and it wasn't just concentrated in border areas like Dundalk, it was some individuals but it was more widespread."[43]

The family of Eddie Fullerton, a Buncrana Sinn Féin councillor killed in his home by members of the Ulster Defence Association in 1991, have criticised the Gardaí's handling of the investigation and in 2005 they started a campaign for an inquiry.

The Smithwick Tribunal investigated allegations of collusion following the killing of two Royal Ulster Constabulary officers by the Provisional IRA as they returned from a meeting with the Gardaí in the Republic of Ireland following a recommendation from the Cory Collusion Inquiry. The tribunal's report was published on 3 December 2013.[44][45] In the report Judge Smithwick said that although there was no "smoking gun", he was "satisfied there was collusion in the murders" and that he was "satisfied that the evidence points to the fact that there was someone within the Garda station assisting the IRA". The report was also critical of two earlier garda investigations into the murders, which it described as "inadequate". Irish Justice Minister Alan Shatter apologised "without reservation" for the failings identified in the report.[46][47] Martin Callinan, Garda Chief, stated that the notion of Garda/IRA collusion was "horrifying", and the Taoiseach, Mr Kenny, declared the report confirming such collusion to be "shocking".[48]

Operations around the Corrib Gas Project[edit]

Gardaí at the site of the proposed Corrib gas refinery in Erris, County Mayo

Protests at the proposed Royal Dutch Shell Corrib gas refinery in Kilcommon parish, Erris, County Mayo have seen a large Garda operation at its construction sites with up to 200 Gardaí involved,[49] making it the single biggest policing operation in the country at times. By September 2008, the cost of the operation was €10 million and is estimated to have cost €13.5 million by the end of January 2009.[50] This is comparable to the €20 million budgeted for Operation Anvil, the operation targeting organised crime, criminal gangs and their associates.[51] A section of road used by the protesters has been dubbed "the Golden Mile" by Gardaí because of the overtime opportunities.[52] Complaints have been made about the Garda handling of the protests[53] and several TDs, including former Green Party leader Trevor Sargent, have criticised the Garda's handling of the situation.[54]

Reform initiatives[edit]

Arising from some of the above incidents, the Garda Síochána has undergone a number of reform initiatives in recent years. The Morris Tribunal in particular recommended major changes to the organisation's management, discipline, promotion and accountability arrangements. Many of these recommendations were subsequently implemented under the Garda Síochána Act 2005.

The Tribunal has been staggered by the amount of indiscipline and insubordination it has found in the Garda force. There is a small, but disproportionately influential, core of mischief-making members who will not obey orders, who will not follow procedures, who will not tell the truth and who have no respect for their officers

—Justice Frederick Morris, Chairman and Sole Member of The Morris Tribunal, [55]

It was also stated by the tribunal chairman, Justice Morris, that the code of discipline was extremely complex and, at times, "cynically manipulated" to promote indiscipline across the force. Judicial reviews, for example, were cited as a means for delaying disciplinary action.

The fall-out from the Morris Tribunal was considerable. While fifteen members of the force were sacked between 2001 and 2006, and a further 42 resigned in lieu of dismissal in the same period, Commissioner Conroy stated that he was constrained in the responses available to deal with members whose misbehaviour is cited in public inquiries.[56]

New procedures and code of discipline[edit]

With strong support from opposition parties, and reflecting widespread political consensus, the Minister for Justice responded to many of these issues by announcing a new draft code of discipline on 17 August 2006. The new streamlined code[57] introduced new procedures to enable the Commissioner to summarily dismiss a Garda alleged to have brought the force into disrepute, abandoned duties, compromised the security of the State or unjustifiably infringed the rights of other persons.

Garda Headquarters, Phoenix Park, Dublin

In addition, a four member "non-officer management advisory team" was appointed in August 2006 to advise on implementing change options and addressing management and leadership challenges facing the Gardaí. The advisers were also mandated to promote a culture of performance management, succession planning, recruitment of non-officers with specialist expertise, and improved training. The advisory team included Senator Maurice Hayes, Emer Daly (former director of strategic planning and risk management at Axa Insurance), Maurice Keane (former group chief executive at Bank of Ireland), Michael Flahive (Assistant Secretary at the Department of Justice and Dr Michael Mulreany (assistant director general at the Institute of Public Administration).

Enhanced non-officer support[edit]

Clerical and administrative support has been significantly enhanced in recent times. In the two-year period from December 2006 to December 2008 whole-time equivalent non-officer staffing levels were increased by over 60%, from under 1,300 to approximately 2,100, in furtherance of official policies to release more desk-bound Gardaí for operational duties and to bring the level of general support in line with international norms. A new tier of middle and senior non-officer management has also been introduced in a range of administrative and technical/professional support areas. A Chief Administrative Officer at Deputy Commissioner level was appointed in October 2007 to oversee many of these key support functions.

Garda Inspectorate[edit]

In accordance with Section 115 of the Garda Síochána Act, the Garda Síochána Inspectorate consists of three members who are appointed by the Irish Government. The functions of the Inspectorate, inter alia, are as follows:

  • Carry out, at the request or with the consent of the Minister, inspections or inquiries in relation to any particular aspects of the operation and administration of the Garda Síochána,
  • Submit to the Minister (1) a report on those inspections or inquiries, and (2) if required by the Minister, a report on the operation and administration of the Garda Síochána during a specified period and on any significant developments in that regard during that period, and any such reports must contain recommendations for any action the Inspectorate considers necessary.
  • provide advice to the Minister with regard to best policing practice.

The first Chief Inspector (since July 2006), is former Commissioner of Boston Police, Kathleen M. O'Toole. She reports directly to the Minister for Justice and Equality.

From 2006 to 2009, O'Toole was supported by two other inspectors, Robert Olsen and Gwen M. Boniface. Olsen was Chief of Police for 8 years of the Minneapolis Police Department. Boniface is a former Commissioner of the Ontario Provincial Police, and was one of 3 female police commissioners in Canada when appointed in May 1998. She suggested that rank and file Gardaí were not equipped to perform their duties or protect themselves properly. She also suggested that routine arming may become a reality but dismissed the suggestion that this was currently being considered.

Garda Síochána Ombudsman Commission[edit]

Over 2000 complaints were made against the organisation in 2009.[29] The Garda Commissioner referred over 100 incidents where the conduct of a garda resulted in death or serious injury to the Ombudsman for investigation. Also newly instrumented, the Garda Síochána Ombudsman Commission (referred to colloquially as the Garda Ombudsman or simply abbreviated to GSOC) replaces the earlier system of complaints (the Garda Síochána Complaints Board). Becoming fully operational on 9 May 2007, the Commission is empowered to:

  • Directly and independently investigate complaints against members of the Garda Síochána
  • Investigate any matter, even where no complaint has been made, where it appears that a Garda may have committed an offence or behaved in a way that justified disciplinary proceedings
  • Investigate any practise, policy or procedure of the Garda Síochána with a view to reducing the incidence of related complaints

The members of the Garda Ombudsman Commission are: Dermot Gallagher (Chairman; former Secretary General at the Department of Foreign Affairs), Carmel Foley (former Director of Consumer Affairs), and Conor Brady (former editor of The Irish Times and author of a book on the history of the Gardaí). The Commission's first chairman was Kevin Haugh (a High Court Judge) who died in early 2009, shortly before his term of office was to conclude.[58]

Public attitudes to An Garda Síochána[edit]

The Garda Public Attitudes Survey 2008 found that 81% of respondents were satisfied with the Gardaí, although 72% believed the service needed improvement. 91% agreed that their local Gardaí were approachable.

The survey also found that 8% of people believed a Garda has acted unacceptably towards them; this rate was highest in Dublin South Central at 14%, lowest in Mayo at 2%. The most common complaint was of Gardaí being disrespectful or impolite.[59]

Garda Band[edit]

The Garda Band is a public relations branch of the Garda Síochána, and was formed shortly after the foundation of the force. It gave its first public performance on Dún Laoghaire Pier on Easter Monday, 1923. The first Bandmaster was Superintendent D.J. Delaney and he formed a céilí and pipe band within the Garda Band. In 1938, the Dublin Metropolitan Garda Band (based at Kevin Street) and the Garda Band amalgamated and were based at the Garda Headquarters in Phoenix Park.

The band was disbanded in 1965. However to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the foundation of the Garda Síochána it was reformed in 1972.

Besides providing music for official Garda functions (such as Graduation Ceremonies at the Garda College) the band undertakes a community orientated programme each year performing at schools, festivals and sporting events. It has a long association with Lansdowne Road for Rugby union and Soccer Internationals, as well as Croke Park and the G.A.A., the St. Patrick's Day Parade in Dublin and the Rose of Tralee Festival.

In 1964 the band toured the United States and Canada under Superintendent J. Moloney, and has also travelled to international events and represented the country at police festivals and concerts in Switzerland, Germany and Northern Ireland.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://budget.gov.ie/Budgets/2014/Documents/Part%20II%20-%20Expenditure%20Allocations%202014%20-%202016.pdf
  2. ^ Dolan, Terence Patrick (2004). A Dictionary of Hiberno English: the Irish use of English. Gill & Macmillan Ltd. p. 103. ISBN 0-7171-3535-7. 
  3. ^ "Short History of An Garda Siochana". Garda Síochána. Archived from the original on 1 September 2006. Retrieved 17 December 2006. the Garda Síochána (meaning in English: 'The Guardians of the Peace') 
  4. ^ Frank A. Biletz (2013). Historical Dictionary of Ireland. Historical Dictionaries of Europe. Scarecrow Press. p. 162. ISBN 9780810870918. Retrieved 13 May 2014. Garda Siochana (Guardians of the Peace). The national Police force of the Irish Republic. .... In 1925, the force was renamed the Garda Siochana na hEireann ("Guard of the Peace of Ireland") ... Popularly called "the guards", the force is divided into six geographical regions: ... 
  5. ^ "Garda Titles". Dáil Éireann. Volume 404. 5 February 1991
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ "First Garda Reserve members graduate". RTÉ News (RTÉ). 15 December 2006. Retrieved 26 May 2007. 
  8. ^ Mike Dwane. "Gardai 'had to pepper spray' disgruntled bidder at auction". Limerick Leader. Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  9. ^ a b Garvin, Tom (2005). 1922: The Birth of Irish Democracy (3rd ed.). Gill and Macmillan. p. 111. ISBN 0-312-16477-7. 
  10. ^ Anne Sheridan (3 September 2008). "New armed garda unit deployed in Limerick". Limerick Leader. Retrieved 4 May 2009. 
  11. ^ "Garda College Yearbook listing weapons training on page 66". 
  12. ^ O'Keeffe, Cormac (20 November 2014). "The problems of trying to get policing and national security to walk the line". The Irish Examiner. Retrieved 23 November 2014. 
  13. ^ Griffin, Dan (21 November 2014). "Ministerial transport costs more than €14m since 2011". The Irish Times. Retrieved 23 November 2014. 
  14. ^ Williams, Paul; Sheehan, Fionnan; O'Connor, Niall (21 November 2014). "Armed gardai to 'shadow' ministers amid safety fears". Irish Independent. Retrieved 23 November 2014. 
  15. ^ Williams, Paul; Sheehan, Fionnan; O'Connor, Niall (18 November 2014). "Beefed up security for ministers as family water bills now down to €160". Irish Independent. Retrieved 23 November 2014. 
  16. ^ "Ministerial Transport cuts and staffing reductions". merrionstreet.ie. Irish Government. 
  17. ^ Brady, Tom (17 April 2013). "ERU on alert for G8 terrorist threat". Irish Independent. Retrieved 5 December 2014. 
  18. ^ "Garda Síochána (Temporary Provisions) Act 1923". Archived from the original on 8 February 2007. Retrieved 29 March 2006. 
  19. ^ Garda.ie – History of the Scott Medal
  20. ^ "Murdered garda hero honoured". Encyclopedia of Things. Irish Examiner. Retrieved 29 March 2006. 
  21. ^ [2]
  22. ^ Ireland in the Twentieth Century, Tim Pat Coogan
  23. ^ "Garda Síochána Act 1979". Retrieved 29 March 2008. [dead link]
  24. ^ Analysis: McDowell not for turning on Garda reserve, February 26, 2006, The Sunday Business Post
  25. ^ "History of the Army Reserve". The Defense Forces. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
  26. ^ Freedom of Information Request Number F-2008-05327. Lateral Entry into PSNI
  27. ^ "Annual Report 2005". Garda Síochána Complaints Board.
  28. ^ "More than 1,000 complaints against gardaí in year". www.breakingnews.ie. 15 May 2006. Retrieved 15 May 2006. 
  29. ^ a b "2,000 complaints made to Garda Ombudsman". RTÉ. 28 May 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2010. 
  30. ^ "2006 GLBT Hate Crime Report". (from gay rights organisation Johnny).[dead link]
  31. ^ "Green Party calls on Gardaí to rethink its ban on Sikh turban". Irish Independent. 22 August 2007. 
  32. ^ The Ferns Report, October 25, 2005
  33. ^ Report by Commission of Investigation into Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin, part 1, sections 1.92 through 1.96
  34. ^ Report by Commission of Investigation into Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin, part 1, sections 1.92
  35. ^ Report by Commission of Investigation into Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin, part 1, sections 1.93
  36. ^ a b Garda apologises for failures, Ciara O'Brien, The Irish Times, 26 November 2009
  37. ^ Gardaí to examine abuse report findings, RTE News, 27 November 2009.
  38. ^ George Birmingham, SC (2004), Report of The Commission of Investigation(Dean Lyons Case) 
  39. ^ Non-compliant dogs are "attack" dogs that bite or bring a person to the ground on command.
  40. ^ "Top garda apologies to Carthy family for fatal siege". Irish Independent. 11 August 2006.
  41. ^ "Garda got €110,000 bonus despite chequered job history". Irish Independent. 24 July 2006.
  42. ^ "Garda Goes Berserk". www.indymedia.ie. Retrieved 29 March 2006. 
  43. ^ "Irish police colluded with IRA during Troubles, says former IRA member". The Guardian. December 2014. 
  44. ^ Report of the Tribunal of Inquiry into suggestions that members of An Garda Siochana or other employees of the State colluded in the fatal shooting of RUC Chief Superintendent Harry Breen and RUC Superintendent Robert Buchanan on the 20th March 1989 (Report). Smithwick Tribunal. December 2013. http://opac.oireachtas.ie/AWData/Library3/smithwickFinal03122013_171046.pdf.
  45. ^ "Acting Clerk of Dáil confirms publication of report from Judge Peter Smithwick". Houses of Oireachtas (Press Release). December 2013. 
  46. ^ "Smithwick: Collusion in Bob Buchanan and Harry Breen murders". BBC News. 3 December 2013. 
  47. ^ "Irish police colluded in murders of RUC officers Harry Breen and Bob Buchanan, report finds". Telegraph Newspaper date=3 December 2013. 
  48. ^ "BBC report on Smithwick Tribunal report". BBC News. 4 December 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013. 
  49. ^ "Garda operation at site of Corrib gas terminal". RTÉ News. 3 October 2006. 
  50. ^ [3]
  51. ^ "Garda gets Interpol aid on Corrib protesters". The Irish Times. 9 September 2008. 
  52. ^ "New gas pipeline route likely to be as controversial as original". The Irish Times. 29 April 2008.
  53. ^ Western People: Complaints against 20 Gardaí in Corrib row
  54. ^ [4]
  55. ^ "Report 5, Arrest and Detention of 7 persons at Burnfoot, County Donegal on May 23, 1998 and the Investigation relating to same – Conclusions and Recommendations: The Danger of Indiscipline". Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform. 17 August 2006. p. 254. [dead link]
  56. ^ "Insubordination not widespread, says Garda chief". The Irish Times. 2 September 2006. 
  57. ^ "Statement by the Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform on the publication of the 3rd, 4th and 5th Reports of the Morris Tribunal". Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform. 17 August 2006. 
  58. ^ http://gardaombudsman.ie/gsoc-garda-ombudsman-about-us.htm#GSOCGardaOmbudsmanWhoWeAre
  59. ^ "Most happy with gardaí but want improvement – survey". The Irish Times. 12 October 2008. 

External links[edit]